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Artikel

Herstelgerichte praktijken, berouw en vergeving in het islamitische strafrecht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden Islamic criminal law, forgiveness, Remorse
Auteurs Jacques Claessen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since Islam stands for a total way of life, it also includes a vision on crime and punishment. According to several (Muslim)scholars the Sharia contains not so much a message of revenge and retribution but rather one of compassion, forgiveness and mercy. Much depends on which sections of the holy sources of Islam are read and subsequently how these sections are interpreted. However, fact is that – in the context of quite a number of criminal offences – Islamic criminal law gives room for restorative practices. These practices prove to be more beneficial with regard to the realization of remorse, forgiveness and reconciliation than the regular criminal process. Since restorative practices form an intrinsic part of (pre-modern) Islamic criminal law and since more and more initiatives are being developed nowadays to incorporate such practices in (modern) Western criminal law, it is of fundamental importance to take note of Islamic criminal law. Before focusing in this contribution on the role of restorative practices, remorse and forgiveness in Islamic criminal law, first the position of victims in criminal law under influence of Islam and Christianity will be discussed on the basis of the ideas of the Dutch victimologist Jan van Dijk. Furthermore, attention will be paid to the decline of mysticism in Islam and to the possible consequences and risks thereof – also for the role of restorative practices, remorse and forgiveness in Islamic criminal law.


Jacques Claessen
Jacques Claessen is redactielid van TvH.

    Since 2005, Dutch victims of serious crime have the right to make an oral statement in court (‘spreekrecht’). In the past decade, the Dutch criminal justice system has accommodated this right to make an oral statement with regard to the consequences of the crime; no major problems have occurred. Indeed, only a minority of the victims consumes this right (ca. 230 cases annually), the majority prefers to lodge a written statement. Nevertheless, the Dutch legislature is of the opinion that the right to make an oral statement should be extended and has lodged a draft-proposal recently. The aim is to provide crime victims a right to put forward an advice to the judge at the trial session, such an advice relating to the full scheme of judicial decision-making (truth, legal qualification, punishment). Such a provision resembles a Victim Statement of Opinion, used in the American scheme of justice, and even exceeds this. The draft has been met with criticism, only the Dutch Victim Support is in favor. One of the objections heard is the one dimensional focus underlying the draft: by focusing on a specific group of victims – those who have suffered from serious crimes – the legislature neglects the heterogeneous nature of victims’ needs.


Renée Kool
Renée Kool is als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan Ucall en het Montaigne-Instituut, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Universiteit Utrecht en redacteur van dit blad.
Artikel

Herstelbemiddeling als sociaal werk-praktijk

Bemiddelaars in Vlaanderen aan het woord

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden Social work practices
Auteurs Lieve Bradt en Maria Bouverne-De Bie
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Restorative justice as well as restorative justice practices have mainly been researched from judicial and criminologist perspectives, whereas social work has been remarkably silent in the restorative justice debate. As a consequence, the role of social work in the restorative justice field remains largely unexplored. In this article we report the findings of two focus groups conducted with mediators working in juvenile and adult mediation practices in Flanders to gain more insight into how mediators perceive their role and to analyse to what extent they refer to the individual and structural dimension of victim-offender mediation.


Lieve Bradt
Lieve Bradt is als doctor-assistent verbonden aan de vakgroep sociale agogiek van de Universiteit Gent.

Maria Bouverne-De Bie
Maria Bouverne-De Bie is als hoofddocent verbonden aan de vakgroep sociale agogiek van de Universiteit Gent.

Anneke van Hoek
Anneke van Hoek is een zelfstandig gevestigd criminoloog met ruim 25 jaar ervaring als onderzoeker en (project)manager. Zij is medeoprichter van Radio La Benevolencija en van Restorative Justice Nederland. Vanuit La Benevolencija coördineert zij momenteel het Rwanda Peace Education Programme en vanuit Restorative Justice Nederland is ze projectleider van het project Restorative Justice in Europe: Safeguarding Victims & Empowering Professionals.

Anneke van Hoek
Anneke van Hoek is een zelfstandig gevestigd criminoloog met ruim 25 jaar ervaring als onderzoeker en (project)manager. Zij is medeoprichter van Radio La Benevolencija en van Restorative Justice Nederland. Vanuit La Benevolencija coördineert zij momenteel het Rwanda Peace Education Programme en vanuit Restorative Justice Nederland is ze projectleider van het project Restorative Justice in Europe: Safeguarding Victims & Empowering Professionals.

Pieter Verbeeck
Pieter Verbeeck is stafmedewerker van vzw Suggnomè.
Artikel

Een remix van het strafproces? Een hiphop-theorie van het herstelrecht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden hip-hop, herstelrecht, culturele criminologie, populaire cultuur, commodificatie
Auteurs Antony Pemberton
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Hip-hop and restorative justice may seem odd bedfellows, but according to Antony Pemberton they have more in common than many would assume. In the first place hip-hop shares a common history, at least with restorative justice's modern incarnations, spanning four decades, to become a similarly global phenomenon. Much of the social ecology shaping RJ is similar to hiphop. In addition hiphop's criticism of criminal justice almost goes without saying. Almost no source offers similar scathing critique of criminal justice and penal institutions as rap lyrics. Pemberton concludes that rituals in hip-hop are connected with the need to deal with conflict. The way respect and disrespect can coincide in rap-battles might offer insights in the way similar dialectics can be navigated within restorative justice processes. The extent to which this is possible is necessarily limited. Pemberton finds that hip-hop – with the exception of graffiti- does not seem currently to criticize the key neo-liberal values of the American Zeitgeist. The much maligned chasm between the old-school and the new school can be situated in this observation. Where hip-hop, as a social movement, used to deploy the depiction of injustice as a means to underline the necessity of social change, the current motto appears to be rich or die tryin”. The life of the thug and the gangsta is depicted as the epitome of the American Dream. Here Pemberton sees grounds for a cautionary warning for restorative justice, which is nurtured by a similar neo-liberal undercurrent in a number of jurisdictions.


Antony Pemberton
Antony Pemberton is werkzaam aan het International Victimology Institute van Tilburg University.
Artikel

Het esoterische mensbeeld in Die Zauberflote van Mozart

Wat straf- en herstelrecht daarvan kunnen leren

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden esoterische wijsheid, levensloopbenadering, desistance, Die Zauberflöte, Mozart
Auteurs Jacques Claessen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The focus of this contribution is on the esoteric view on mankind as depicted in Mozart's opera The Magic Flute. Within this context, the stages of development of the conscience and soul that a man can go through will receive additional attention. This development can also be influenced by external factors. According to esotericists, the purpose or destination of man is that he comes into contact with his divine nature, but also that he identifies himself with this nature and that he will live in accordance with it. Such a life can be characterized by wisdom and love and therefore by virtue (charity), which is the opposite of sin or mis-doing. Before the identified development of man can be visualized based on The Magic Flute, this opera firstly needs to be embedded in the tradition of the freemasonry (‘Royal Art’) and other, older initiation schools. It is therefore important to recognize that the esoteric view on mankind has historical roots and that, only in recent centuries, this view has been marginalized, due to the rise of the scientific view on mankind. Finally, the question is posed what criminal law and restorative justice can learn from the esoteric view on mankind. In response to this question, a starting point will be presented of the development of a spiritual life-cycle approach, which complements the existing life-cycle approach and the related desistance theories within contemporary criminology. Furthermore, the concept of interconnectedness, which plays an important role in the context of the esoteric views on mankind, will be connected to a restorative crime approach, which provides restorative justice with spiritual legitimization.


Jacques Claessen
Jacques Claessen is als universitair docent straf(proces)recht verbonden aan de Universiteit Maastricht.
Redactioneel

Artistieke interventies, identiteitsverandering en herstel

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2014
Auteurs Jacques Claessen, Hilleke Crum, Antony Pemberton e.a.
Auteursinformatie

Jacques Claessen
Jacques Claessen is als universitair docent straf(proces)recht verbonden aan de Universiteit Maastricht. Daarnaast is hij rechter-plaatsvervanger bij de Rechtbank Limburg, kerngroeplid van Stichting MENS (www.mensenstrafrecht.nl) en redactielid van dit tijdschrift. In zijn metajuridische publicaties probeert hij vaak verbanden te leggen tussen religie/mystiek, moraal en straf-/herstelrecht.

Hilleke Crum
Hilleke Crum is regiomanager Noord-Holland voor de Eigen Kracht Centrale.

Antony Pemberton
Antony Pemberton is werkzaam aan het International Victimology Institute van Tilburg University.

Bas van Stokkom
Bas van Stokkom is medewerker bij de sectie Strafrecht & Criminologie, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.
Artikel

Vlieland als ons eigen Siberië

Over de (on)mogelijkheden van resocialisatie voor ex-delinquenten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden resocialisering, ontkerstening, ex-delinquenten, christelijke deugden, Dostojevski
Auteurs Jaap Goedegebuure
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In a recent novel that received much public revulsion, Flemish writer Kristien Hemmerechts identifies with Michelle Martin, ex-wife and accomplice of the notorious criminal Marc Dutroux. To a certain extent her book is a plea for rehabilitation and re-socialization of Martin. By the wider public this ‘humanization’ is experienced as unacceptable. Nowadays re-acceptation of ex-convicts has become increasingly problematic. It seems the public would prefer to banish many ex-offenders to a desert island or a distant country. This development shows that the ethic of forgiveness has lost social influence. In this essay Hemmerechts' position is compared to that of Dostoevsky, especially with his novel Crime and Punishment in which the Gospel message of humility, charity and compassion reverberates.


Jaap Goedegebuure
Jaap Goedegebuure was van 2005 tot 2012 hoogleraar moderne Nederlandse letterkunde aan de Universiteit Leiden. Eerder vervulde hij leeropdrachten aan de universiteiten van Berlijn, Tilburg en Nijmegen. Hij publiceert regelmatig over de literatuur van de negentiende en twintigste eeuw. Zijn laatste publicatie in boekvorm is Nederlandse schrijvers en religie 1960-2010.

    Column


Anne Martien van der Does
Anne Martien van der Does is senior rechter bij de Rechtbank Amsterdam en coördinator voor de rechtspraak van de pilots Mediation naast strafrecht.

    In this contribution the author reviews Probleemoplossend strafrecht en het ideaal van responsieve rechtspraak by Suzan Verberk.


John Blad
John Blad is hoofddocent strafrechtswetenschappen aan de Erasmus Law School Rotterdam, hoofdredacteur van dit tijdschrift.

Gerja Bethlehem
Gerja Bethlehem is als jurist werkzaam bij Reclassering Nederland.

Hilleke Crum
Hilleke Crum is regiomanager van Eigen Kracht Centrale Noord-Holland.
Artikel

Bemiddeling in strafzaken in België

Een blik op een gediversifieerde praktijk

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden Penal mediation, Justice assistants, Direct and indirect mediation, compensation
Auteurs Dieter Burssens, Alexia Jonckheere en Christophe Mincke
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since 1994, public prosecutors in Belgium can propose ‘penal mediation’ to criminal suspects. The supervision and follow-up of this procedure are provided by ‘justice assistants’ (comparable to probation officers), who systematically record crucial information and register it in the national database SIPAR. An exploration of this database reveals interesting insights regarding the actual practice of penal mediation. On the basis of the available data we also examined whether or not we could find relevant correlations between characteristics of (offenders in) cases and the extent to which cases have resulted in an agreement and proper compliance with that agreement. Finally, for a better comprehension of the actual practice of penal mediation in Belgium twelve interviews with justice assistants have been conducted.


Dieter Burssens
Dieter Burssens is onderzoeker aan het Nationaal Instituut voor Criminalistiek en Criminologie in Brussel.

Alexia Jonckheere
Alexia Jonckheere is onderzoeker aan het Nationaal Instituut voor Criminalistiek en Criminologie.

Christophe Mincke
Christophe Mincke is operationeel directeur van de Operationele Directie van het Nationaal Instituut voor Criminalistiek en Criminologie.
Artikel

Cirkels voor Ondersteuning, Samenwerking en Aanspreekbaarheid

Hoe vrijwilligers bijdragen aan preventie van zedenrecidive en herstel van binding

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden volunteering, rehabilitation, Restorative justice, Family bonds, Sex offenders
Auteurs Mechtild Höing en Audrey Alards
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    COSA (Circles of Support and Accountability) have been fully implemented and accepted in the Dutch probation organization. In COSA projects, volunteers support a former sex offender during his rehabilitation, supervised by professionals. Projects offer national coverage and until now, 42 sex offenders have been supported. International effect studies and Dutch research into effective processes offer a scientific framework, offering the theoretical and empirical underpinnings for a COSA intervention model. The normative basis of COSA is found in its specific place in restorative justice. Primarily, COSA strives for restoration of relationships within a moral and responsible community and restoration of the offender. Restoration of family bonds is an option, but needs to be well coordinated with professionals.


Mechtild Höing
Mechtild Höing is werkzaam aan de Avans Hogeschool en is docent-onderzoeker bij Expertisecentrum Veiligheid; zij onderzoekt COSA sinds 2009.

Audrey Alards
Audrey Alards is werkzaam bij Reclassering Nederland; als cirkelcoördinator is zij sinds 2009 werkzaam voor COSA.
Artikel

Het Duitse recht op nevengeschikt aanklagen

De volledige integratie van het slachtoffer in het strafproces

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden Accessory prosecution, victims, Victim lawyers, Secondary victimization, punishment
Auteurs Michael Kilchling en Helmut Kury
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the German concept of accessory prosecution (Nebenklage) is discussed. The Nebenklage was implemented in the Code of Criminal Procedure of 1877. It had merely an accessory function in conjunction with the private prosecution and the Klageerzwingungsverfahren, two legal institutions which had little practical relevance. Nowadays, in the course of the modern victim movement, the Nebenklage has radically changed into an instrument that is clearly provided as the main participatory option for victims interested in actively contributing to the trial of ‘their’ criminal. Previous research findings are outlined and the results of an explorative survey are presented. The findings suggest that the mere presence of the victim lawyer can significantly change the atmosphere in the courtroom, thus enhancing the willingness of the defence to treat the victim more respectfully.


Michael Kilchling
Michael Kilchling is criminoloog en is werkzaam aan het Max-Planck-Institut für ausländisches und internationales Strafrecht in Freiburg (Duitsland), en is daarnaast voorzitter van het European Forum for Restorative Justice.

Helmut Kury
Helmut Kury was hoogleraar psychologie en criminologie en was onder andere verbonden aan het Max-Planck-Institut für ausländisches und internationales Strafrecht in Freiburg (Duitsland).

    This editorial offers an introduction to the current issue.


Bas van Stokkom
Bas van Stokkom is werkzaam bij de vaksectie strafrecht & criminologie van de faculteit der rechtsgeleerdheid, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.
Artikel

Conferencing internationaal: vaker toegepast dan gedacht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2013
Trefwoorden Conferencing, Internationale toepassing
Auteurs Estelle Zinsstag en Inge Vanfraechem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Conferencing is a restorative justice practice which has started developing quite consistently since the 1990s, in majority in Anglophone countries such as New Zealand, Australia, the USA, Canada or the UK and in particular with consistently promising results for juvenile justice in Northern Ireland. Some continental European, Latin American and African countries are also starting to introduce this alternative to traditional criminal justice, especially in the case of juvenile justice, with some equally promising results. This article presents up-to-date information about the state of conferencing in the world and discusses some of the major conclusions that have come out of a European research project and book.


Estelle Zinsstag
Estelle Zinsstag is senior onderzoeker aan het KU Leuven Instituut voor Criminologie (België) en coördineert een EC Daphne project rond seksueel geweld en herstelrecht. Ze is managing editor van Restorative Justice: An International Journal.

Inge Vanfraechem
Inge Vanfraechem is senior onderzoeker aan het KU Leuven Instituut voor Criminologie (België) en manager van een Europees FP7 project rond herstelrecht en interculturele conflicten.

    At the end of 2000, a pilot project began in Flanders (Belgium) to offer family group conferencing for juvenile offenders. Since June 2006, this restorative practice – together with victim-offender mediation – has been inserted in the new Youth Justice Act, making conferencing available in all judicial districts in Flanders. Five years later, however, the mediation-services had to conclude that the number of referrals for conferencing remains rather limited. This observation inspired the mediation services to take actions to bring conferencing more to the attention. This article reports on the findings of a study that was part of this process. Based on (1) an analysis of all conferencing-files that were referred between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 31, (2) focus groups with youth court social workers and criminologists working at the level of the public prosecutor and (3) surveys conducted with youth judges, the study aimed to identify and discuss barriers and obstacles within the current referral practice of conferencing in Flanders.


Inge Vanfraechem
Inge Vanfraechem is senior onderzoeker aan het KU Leuven Instituut voor Criminologie (België) en manager van een Europees FP7 project rond herstelrecht en interculturele conflicten. Zij is redactielid van dit tijdschrift.

Lode Walgrave
Lode Walgrave was tot 2002 gewoon hoogleraar aan de KU Leuven in het domein van Jeugdcriminologie, Criminologische Psychologie en Theoretische Criminologie. Hij is redactielid van dit tijdschrift.

Ivo Aertsen
Prof. Dr. Ivo Aertsen is hoogleraar aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (KU Leuven) en redactielid van dit tijdschrift.

    At the end of 2000, a pilot project began in Flanders (Belgium) to offer family group conferencing for juvenile offenders. Since June 2006, this restorative practice – together with victim-offender mediation – has been inserted in the new Youth Justice Act, making conferencing available in all judicial districts in Flanders. Five years later, however, the mediation-services had to conclude that the number of referrals for conferencing remains rather limited. This observation inspired the mediation services to take actions to bring conferencing more to the attention. This article reports on the findings of a study that was part of this process. Based on (1) an analysis of all conferencing-files that were referred between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 31, (2) focus groups with youth court social workers and criminologists working at the level of the public prosecutor and (3) surveys conducted with youth judges, the study aimed to identify and discuss barriers and obstacles within the current referral practice of conferencing in Flanders.


Lieve Bradt
Lieve Bradt studeerde af als sociaal agoog aan de Universiteit Gent. In 2009 promoveerde zij op een proefschrift over herstelbemiddeling en sociaal werk. Momenteel is zij als doctor-assistent verbonden aan de Vakgroep Sociale Agogiek van de Universiteit Gent.
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