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Article

Access_open Migration and Time: Duration as an Instrument to Welcome or Restrict

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden Migration, EU migration law, time
Auteurs Gerrie Lodder
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    States apply different material conditions to attract or restrict residence of certain types of migrants. But states can also make use of time as an instrument to design more welcoming or more restrictive policies. States can apply faster application procedures for desired migrants. Furthermore, time can be used in a more favourable way to attract desired migrants in regard to duration of residence, access to a form of permanent residence and protection against loss of residence. This contribution makes an analysis of how time is used as an instrument in shaping migration policy by the European Union (EU) legislator in the context of making migration more or less attractive. This analysis shows that two groups are treated more favourably in regard to the use of time in several aspects: EU citizens and economic- and knowledge-related third-country nationals. However, when it comes to the acquisition of permanent residence after a certain period of time, the welcoming policy towards economic- and knowledge-related migrants is no longer obvious.


Gerrie Lodder
Gerrie Lodder is a lecturer and researcher at the Europa Institute of Leiden University.
Article

Access_open Can Non-discrimination Law Change Hearts and Minds?

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden law and society, social change, discrimination, non-discrimination law, positive action
Auteurs Anita Böcker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A question that has preoccupied sociolegal scholars for ages is whether law can change ‘hearts and minds’. This article explores whether non-discrimination law can create social change, and, more particularly, whether it can change attitudes and beliefs as well as external behaviour. The first part examines how sociolegal scholars have theorised about the possibility and desirability of using law as an instrument of social change. The second part discusses the findings of empirical research on the social working of various types of non-discrimination law. What conclusions can be drawn about the ability of non-discrimination law to create social change? What factors influence this ability? And can non-discrimination law change people’s hearts and minds as well as their behaviour? The research literature does not provide an unequivocal answer to the latter question. However, the overall picture emerging from the sociolegal literature is that law is generally more likely to bring about changes in external behaviour and that it can influence attitudes and beliefs only indirectly, by altering the situations in which attitudes and opinions are formed.


Anita Böcker
Anita Böcker is associate professor of Sociology of Law at Radboud University, Nijmegen.
Article

Access_open Positive State Obligations under European Law: A Tool for Achieving Substantive Equality for Sexual Minorities in Europe

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden Positive obligations, sexual minorities, sexual orientation, European law, human rights
Auteurs Alina Tryfonidou
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article seeks to examine the development of positive obligations under European law in the specific context of the rights of sexual minorities. It is clear that the law should respect and protect all sexualities and diverse intimate relationships without discrimination, and for this purpose it needs to ensure that sexual minorities can not only be free from state interference when expressing their sexuality in private, but that they should be given the right to express their sexuality in public and to have their intimate relationships legally recognised. In addition, sexual minorities should be protected from the actions of other individuals, when these violate their legal and fundamental human rights. Accordingly, in addition to negative obligations, European law must impose positive obligations towards sexual minorities in order to achieve substantive equality for them. The article explains that, to date, European law has imposed a number of such positive obligations; nonetheless, there is definitely scope for more. It is suggested that European law should not wait for hearts and minds to change before imposing additional positive obligations, especially since this gives the impression that the EU and the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) are condoning or disregarding persistent discrimination against sexual minorities.


Alina Tryfonidou
Alina Tryfonidou is Professor of Law, University of Reading.
Article

Access_open A Positive State Obligation to Counter Dehumanisation under International Human Rights Law

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden Dehumanisation, International Human Rights Law, Positive State obligations, Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, International Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Racial Discrimination
Auteurs Stephanie Eleanor Berry
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    International human rights law (IHRL) was established in the aftermath of the Second World War to prevent a reoccurrence of the atrocities committed in the name of fascism. Central to this aim was the recognition that out-groups are particularly vulnerable to rights violations committed by the in-group. Yet, it is increasingly apparent that out-groups are still subject to a wide range of rights violations, including those associated with mass atrocities. These rights violations are facilitated by the dehumanisation of the out-group by the in-group. Consequently, this article argues that the creation of IHRL treaties and corresponding monitoring mechanisms should be viewed as the first step towards protecting out-groups from human rights violations. By adopting the lens of dehumanisation, this article demonstrates that if IHRL is to achieve its purpose, IHRL monitoring mechanisms must recognise the connection between dehumanisation and rights violations and develop a positive State obligation to counter dehumanisation. The four treaties explored in this article, the European Convention on Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities and the International Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Racial Discrimination, all establish positive State obligations to prevent hate speech and to foster tolerant societies. These obligations should, in theory, allow IHRL monitoring mechanisms to address dehumanisation. However, their interpretation of the positive State obligation to foster tolerant societies does not go far enough to counter unconscious dehumanisation and requires more detailed elaboration.


Stephanie Eleanor Berry
Stephanie Eleanor Berry is Senior Lecturer in International Human Rights Law, University of Sussex.
Article

Access_open How Far Should the State Go to Counter Prejudice?

A Positive State Obligation to Counter Dehumanisation

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden prejudice, soft paternalism, empathy, liberalism, employment discrimination, access to goods and services
Auteurs Ioanna Tourkochoriti
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article argues that it is legitimate for the state to practice soft paternalism towards changing hearts and minds in order to prevent behaviour that is discriminatory. Liberals accept that it is not legitimate for the state to intervene in order to change how people think because ideas and beliefs are wrong in themselves. It is legitimate for the state to intervene with the actions of a person only when there is a risk of harm to others and when there is a threat to social coexistence. Preventive action of the state is legitimate if we consider the immaterial and material harm that discrimination causes. It causes harm to the social standing of the person, psychological harm, economic and existential harm. All these harms threaten peaceful social coexistence. This article traces a theory of permissible government action. Research in the areas of behavioural psychology, neuroscience and social psychology indicates that it is possible to bring about a change in hearts and minds. Encouraging a person to adopt the perspective of the person who has experienced discrimination can lead to empathetic understanding. This, can lead a person to critically evaluate her prejudice. The paper argues that soft paternalism towards changing hearts and minds is legitimate in order to prevent harm to others. It attempts to legitimise state coercion in order to eliminate prejudice and broader social patterns of inequality and marginalisation. And it distinguishes between appropriate and non-appropriate avenues the state could pursue in order to eliminate prejudice. Policies towards eliminating prejudice should address the rational and the emotional faculties of a person. They should aim at using methods and techniques that focus on persuasion and reduce coercion. They should raise awareness of what prejudice is and how it works in order to facilitate well-informed voluntary decisions. The version of soft paternalism towards changing minds and attitudes defended in this article makes it consistent with liberalism.


Ioanna Tourkochoriti
Ioanna Tourkochoriti is Lecturer Above the Bar, NUI Galway School of Law.
Article

Access_open The Potential of Positive Obligations Against Romaphobic Attitudes and in the Development of ‘Roma Pride’

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden Roma, Travellers, positive obligations, segregation, culturally adequate accommodation
Auteurs Lilla Farkas en Theodoros Alexandridis
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article analyses the jurisprudence of international tribunals on the education and housing of Roma and Travellers to understand whether positive obligations can change the hearts and minds of the majority and promote minority identities. Case law on education deals with integration rather than cultural specificities, while in the context of housing it accommodates minority needs. Positive obligations have achieved a higher level of compliance in the latter context by requiring majorities to tolerate the minority way of life in overwhelmingly segregated settings. Conversely, little seems to have changed in education, where legal and institutional reform, as well as a shift in both majority and minority attitudes, would be necessary to dismantle social distance and generate mutual trust. The interlocking factors of accessibility, judicial activism, European politics, expectations of political allegiance and community resources explain jurisprudential developments. The weak justiciability of minority rights, the lack of resources internal to the community and dual identities among the Eastern Roma impede legal claims for culture-specific accommodation in education. Conversely, the protection of minority identity and community ties is of paramount importance in the housing context, subsumed under the right to private and family life.


Lilla Farkas
Lilla Farkas is a practising lawyer in Hungary and recently earned a PhD from the European University Institute entitled ‘Mobilising for racial equality in Europe: Roma rights and transnational justice’. She is the race ground coordinator of the European Union’s Network of Legal Experts in Gender Equality and Non-discrimination.

Theodoros Alexandridis
Theodoros Alexandridis is a practicing lawyer in Greece.

    The entry into force of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) pushed state obligations to counter prejudice and stereotypes concerning people with disabilities to the forefront of international human rights law. The CRPD is underpinned by a model of inclusive equality, which views disability as a social construct that results from the interaction between persons with impairments and barriers, including attitudinal barriers, that hinder their participation in society. The recognition dimension of inclusive equality, together with the CRPD’s provisions on awareness raising, mandates that states parties target prejudice and stereotypes about the capabilities and contributions of persons with disabilities to society. Certain human rights treaty bodies, including the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and, to a much lesser extent, the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, require states to eradicate harmful stereotypes and prejudice about people with disabilities in various forms of interpersonal relationships. This trend is also reflected, to a certain extent, in the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights. This article assesses the extent to which the aforementioned human rights bodies have elaborated positive obligations requiring states to endeavour to change ‘hearts and minds’ about the inherent capabilities and contributions of people with disabilities. It analyses whether these bodies have struck the right balance in elaborating positive obligations to eliminate prejudice and stereotypes in interpersonal relationships. Furthermore, it highlights the convergences or divergences that are evident in the bodies’ approaches to those obligations.


Andrea Broderick
Andrea Broderick is Assistant Professor at the Universiteit Maastricht, the Netherlands.
Article

Access_open State Obligations to Counter Islamophobia: Comparing Fault Lines in the International Supervisory Practice of the HRC/ICCPR, the ECtHR and the AC/FCNM

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden Human rights, positive state obligations, islamophobia, international supervisory mechanisms
Auteurs Kristin Henrard
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Islamophobia, like xenophobia, points to deep-seated, ingrained discrimination against a particular group, whose effective enjoyment of fundamental rights is impaired. This in turn triggers the human rights obligations of liberal democratic states, more particularly states’ positive obligations (informed by reasonability considerations) to ensure that fundamental rights are effectively enjoyed, and thus also respected in interpersonal relationships. This article identifies and compares the fault lines in the practice of three international human rights supervisory mechanisms in relation to Islamophobia, namely the Human Rights Committee (International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights), the European Court of Human Rights (European Convention on Human Rights) and the Advisory Committee of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities. The supervisory practice is analysed in two steps: The analysis of each international supervisory mechanism’s jurisprudence, in itself, is followed by the comparison of the fault lines. The latter comparison is structured around the two main strands of strategies that states could adopt in order to counter intolerance: On the one hand, the active promotion of tolerance, inter alia through education, awareness-raising campaigns and the stimulation of intercultural dialogue; on the other, countering acts informed by intolerance, in terms of the prohibition of discrimination (and/or the effective enjoyment of substantive fundamental rights). Having regard to the respective strengths and weaknesses of the supervisory practice of these three international supervisory mechanisms, the article concludes with some overarching recommendations.


Kristin Henrard
Kristin Henrard is Professor International Human Rights and Minorities, Erasmus School of Law, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Kristin Henrard
Kristin Henrard is Professor International Human Rights and Minorities, Erasmus School of Law, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
Artikel

De maatschappelijke onderneming en haar (nieuwe) juridische jas

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Ondernemingsrecht, Aflevering 8-9 2020
Trefwoorden BVm, sociale onderneming, stakeholder, transparant, kapitaalklem
Auteurs Mr. M.J.L.A.M. Zillikens-Loos, Mr. Q.M.J.A. Crul en Mr. T.A. Schriemer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Het Ministerie van EZK heeft onderzoek laten doen naar de maatschappelijke onderneming. Auteurs bespreken naar aanleiding daarvan de huidige toepassings- en herkenningsmogelijkheden van de maatschappelijke onderneming met een blik op het verwachte wetsvoorstel voor de BVm.


Mr. M.J.L.A.M. Zillikens-Loos
Mr. M.J.L.A.M. Zillikens-Loos is kandidaat-notaris bij Pels Rijcken te Den Haag.

Mr. Q.M.J.A. Crul
Mr. Q.M.J.A. Crul is kandidaat-notaris bij Pels Rijcken te Den Haag.

Mr. T.A. Schriemer
Mr. T.A. Schriemer is kandidaat-notaris bij Pels Rijcken te Den Haag.
Artikel

Rechtsmaatregelen tegen misbruik van abstracte bankgaranties (II)

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Ondernemingsrecht, Aflevering 8-9 2020
Trefwoorden bedrog, willekeur, fraude, bewijs, gevalstypen
Auteurs Mr. P.C. Russcher
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Het gebeurt regelmatig dat de opdrachtgever van een bankgarantie probeert uitbetaling door de bank te beletten, maar deze pogingen zijn zelden succesvol. Naar aanleiding van een aantal recente uitspraken, waarin de opdrachtgever wél succes had, wordt in deze – in twee delen te verschijnen – bijdrage aan de hand van een systematische behandeling van rechtspraak en literatuur ingegaan op rechtsmaatregelen die de opdrachtgever kan nemen.


Mr. P.C. Russcher
Mr. P.C. Russcher is advocaat bij de Brauw Blackstone Westbroek te Amsterdam. Het kantoor waar de auteur werkzaam is, was bij verschillende van de in deze bijdrage besproken uitspraken betrokken.
Artikel

Naschrift bij de reactie van mr. J. Winkels

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Ondernemingsrecht, Aflevering 8-9 2020
Trefwoorden SNS-enquête, enquêtepraktijk, verschoningsrecht
Auteurs Mr. P.H.M. Broere
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Onlangs besprak de auteur in dit tijdschrift de SNS-beschikking waarin de Hoge Raad oordeelde dat aan het verschoningsrecht in het enquêterecht ook betekenis toekomt. Mr. J. Winkels schreef een reactie op die bijdrage, waarbij in dit naschrift enkele kanttekeningen worden geplaatst.


Mr. P.H.M. Broere
Mr. P.H.M. Broere is als promovendus en docent verbonden aan het Van der Heijden Instituut, OO&R, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.
Artikel

Reactie op ‘Verstoppertje in het enquêterecht’ van mr. P.H.M. Broere

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Ondernemingsrecht, Aflevering 8-9 2020
Trefwoorden verschoningsrecht, weigeringsrecht, SNS, enquête, geprivilegieerd
Auteurs Mr. J. Winkels
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    De auteur geeft een reactie op het artikel van Broere over het verschoningsrecht en weigeringsrecht in enquêteprocedures. Ze bespreekt het belang, de grondslag en de reikwijdte van het verschoningsrecht en haar bezwaren tegen de door Broere geopperde mogelijkheden om aan de gevolgen van een beroep op het weigeringsrecht te ontkomen.


Mr. J. Winkels
Mr. J. Winkels is advocaat bij Stibbe te Amsterdam.
Artikel

De Mobiliteitsrichtlijn en implementatie van deze richtlijn voor grensoverschrijdende verrichtingen

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Ondernemingsrecht, Aflevering 8-9 2020
Trefwoorden Richtlijn (EU) 2019/2121, grensoverschrijdende omzetting, vrijheid van vestiging, grensoverschrijdende splitsing, rechtmatigheidstoezicht
Auteurs Mr. M.H. Baldee en Mr. J. Nijland
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Dit artikel beschrijft de voorgeschiedenis, totstandkoming en inhoud van Richtlijn (EU) 2019/2121. Auteurs bespreken relevante jurisprudentie en de volgens de Mobiliteitsrichtlijn te volgen procedure om een grensoverschrijdende verrichting tot stand te brengen. Daarnaast bezien zij aan welke instantie het toezicht op de rechtmatigheid van de grensoverschrijdende verrichting kan worden opgedragen.


Mr. M.H. Baldee
Mr. M.H. Baldee is van nov. 2018 t/m dec. 2019 als docent verbonden geweest aan de afdeling Ondernemingsrecht van de Universiteit Leiden.

Mr. J. Nijland
Mr. J. Nijland is als universitair docent verbonden aan de afdeling Ondernemingsrecht van de Universiteit Leiden.
Article

Access_open The Promotion of Equality and Prevention of Unfair Discrimination Act 4 of 2000: Proposals for Legislative Reform to Promote Equality through Schools and the Education System

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden Transformative pedagogy, equality legislation, promotion of equality, law reform, using law to change hearts and minds
Auteurs Anton Kok, Lwando Xaso, Annelize Steenekamp e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, we focus on how the education system can be used to promote equality in the context of changing people’s hearts and minds – values, morals and mindsets. The duties contained in the Promotion of Equality and Prevention of Unfair Discrimination Act 4 of 2000 (‘Equality Act’) bind private and public schools, educators, learners, governing bodies and the state. The Equality Act calls on the state and all persons to promote substantive equality, but the relevant sections in the Equality Act have not been given effect yet, and are therefore currently not enforceable. We set out how the duty to promote equality should be concretised in the Equality Act to inter alia use the education system to promote equality in schools; in other words, how should an enforceable duty to promote equality in schools be fashioned in terms of the Equality Act. Should the relevant sections relating to the promotion of equality come into effect in their current form, enforcement of the promotion of equality will take the form of obliging schools to draft action plans and submit these to the South African Human Rights Commission. We deem this approach inadequate and therefore propose certain amendments to the Equality Act to allow for a more sensible monitoring of schools’ duty to promote equality. We explain how the duty to promote equality should then play out practically in the classroom to facilitate a change in learners’ hearts and minds.


Anton Kok
Anton Kok is Professor of Jurisprudence at the Faculty of Law of the University of Pretoria.

Lwando Xaso
Lwando Xaso is an independent lawyer, writer and historian.

Annelize Steenekamp
Annelize Steenekamp is an independent lawyer.

Michelle Oelofse
Michelle Oelofse is an Academic associate and LLM candidate at the University of Pretoria.
Artikel

Access_open Lost verplichte aanwijzing accountant problemen van beursvennootschappen op?

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Ondernemingsrecht, Aflevering 8-9 2020
Trefwoorden ontbreken accountant, wetswijziging, wettelijke controle
Auteurs Mr. dr. E.V.A. Eijkelenboom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Controleplichtig maar geen accountant kunnen vinden. Het overkomt verschillende beursvennootschappen. Minister Hoekstra is daarom voornemens om een verplichte toewijzing van een accountant aan controleplichtige entiteiten wettelijk te verankeren. In deze bijdrage staan de achtergrond en enkele aandachtspunten bij het voornemen van verplichte aanwijzing van de accountant centraal.


Mr. dr. E.V.A. Eijkelenboom
Mr. dr. E.V.A. Eijkelenboom werkt bij VNO-NCW | MKB-Nederland, is verbonden aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en lid van de redactie van dit tijdschrift.
Artikel

Smallsteps versus Heiploeg: wat is de stand van zaken?

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Ondernemingsrecht, Aflevering 8-9 2020
Trefwoorden pre-pack, overgang van onderneming, Richtlijn 2001/23/EG, werknemersbescherming, voortzetting activiteiten
Auteurs Mr. V.M. van Erpers Roijaards
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Na het Europese Hof in het Smallsteps-arrest heeft de Hoge Raad zich in de Heiploeg-zaak onlangs uitgesproken over de arbeidsrechtelijke gevolgen van een doorstart die is voorbereid middels een pre-pack. Opvallend is dat deze uitspraken uiteenlopen. Daarom legt de auteur in deze bijdrage het Heiploeg-arrest langs de meetlat van het Smallsteps-arrest en beziet zij wat de implicaties van het Heiploeg-arrest zijn.


Mr. V.M. van Erpers Roijaards
Mr. V.M. van Erpers Roijaards is recent afgestudeerd aan Universiteit Utrecht en sinds 1 september 2020 werkzaam als advocaat bij Houthoff te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Rapport van de Adviescommissie belastingheffing van multinationals nader bekeken

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Ondernemingsrecht, Aflevering 8-9 2020
Trefwoorden concerns, fiscaliteit, belastingconcurrentie, vennootschapsbelasting, hoofdkantoren
Auteurs Prof. mr. H. Koster
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Op 15 april 2020 heeft de Adviescommissie belastingheffing van multinationals haar rapport getiteld ‘Op weg naar balans in de vennootschapsbelasting. Analyses en aanbevelingen’ gepubliceerd. In dit artikel bespreekt de auteur dit rapport.


Prof. mr. H. Koster
Prof. mr. H. Koster is verbonden aan de Universiteit Leiden, afdeling ondernemingsrecht, en aan de Universiteit van Dubai.
Artikel

Access_open UBO-registers in Nederland. It giet oan!

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Ondernemingsrecht, Aflevering 8-9 2020
Trefwoorden Wwft, UBO, pseudo-UBO, UBO-register voor trusts, FGR
Auteurs Mr. dr. B. Snijder-Kuipers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Op 27 september 2020 wordt het UBO-register in Nederland ingevoerd. Een UBO-register voor trusts en fondsen voor gemene rekening (FGR’s) volgt later in 2020. In deze bijdrage wordt ingegaan op het toepassingsbereik, het UBO-begrip en de openbaarheid van beide UBO-registers.


Mr. dr. B. Snijder-Kuipers
Mr. dr. B. Snijder-Kuipers is kandidaat-notaris bij De Brauw Blackstone Westbroek en universitair docent vakgroep privaatrecht en notarieel recht Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.
Artikel

Afbakening van de Seveso-inrichting in het Bal in strijd met Europese regelgeving?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Omgevingsrecht, Aflevering 2-3 2020
Trefwoorden complexe bedrijven, gevaarlijke stoffen, milieubelastende activiteit
Auteurs Mr. M. (Machteld) de Vries
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In dit artikel wordt het nieuwe ‘inrichtingenbegrip’ uit de Omgevingswet afgezet tegen de Seveso-III-richtlijn.


Mr. M. (Machteld) de Vries
Mr. M. de Vries is jurist bij DCMR Milieudienst Rijnmond
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