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Artikel

Access_open Bestuurlijke aanpak van ondermijning: ervaringen in Nederland en het buitenland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Bijzonder Strafrecht & Handhaving, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden Openbare orde, Ondermijning, Bestuurlijke aanpak, Handhaving, Bestuursrecht
Auteurs Prof. dr. A.C.M. Spapens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Een bestuurlijke aanpak van ondermijnende criminaliteit, al dan niet als onderdeel van een integrale aanpak, is in Nederland inmiddels gemeengoed. Toch bestaan er nog volop misverstanden over, die ook aanleiding geven tot niet altijd terechte kritiek. Het handhavingsinstrumentarium waarop deze aanpak is gebaseerd vinden we in alle landen terug. De mate waarin het wordt toegepast om (zware en georganiseerde) misdaad te bestrijden verschilt echter, al naar gelang de aard, ernst en de historie van die problematiek. Een bestuurlijke aanpak is een manier om hogere drempels op te werpen voor criminele bedrijfsprocessen, maar is geen afzonderlijk alternatief voor het strafrecht.


Prof. dr. A.C.M. Spapens
Prof. dr. A.C.M. Spapens is hoogleraar criminologie aan Tilburg University.
Redactioneel

Access_open Intergenerationele overdracht en criminele families: introductie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden Intergenerational transmission, Criminal families, Mechanisms, Organized crime, Prevention
Auteurs Dr. Steve van de Weijer en Prof. dr. Toine Spapens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this introductory chapter we provide an overview of criminological research into intergenerational transmission of criminal behaviour that currently is, and has been, conducted both internationally and in the Netherlands. The most important findings of these studies are also discussed. Next, possible explanations are discussed for intergenerational transmission of crime in general, and more particularly for families that are involved in more serious and organized crime. Moreover, possible ways in which intergenerational transmission of crime can be prevented are discussed. Finally, we give some directions for future research on this topic and will introduce the contributions to this special issue.


Dr. Steve van de Weijer
Dr. S.G.A. van de Weijer is postdoctoraal onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Prof. dr. Toine Spapens
Prof. dr. A.C.M. Spapens is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Redactioneel

Groene criminologie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2018
Auteurs Dr. Daan van Uhm en Prof. dr. Toine Spapens
Auteursinformatie

Dr. Daan van Uhm
Dr. D.P. van Uhm is universitair docent criminologie bij het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht.

Prof. dr. Toine Spapens
Prof. dr. A.C.M. Spapens is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Drie perspectieven op de illegale vogelhandel in Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden green criminology, illicit trade in species of endangered birds, CITES convention
Auteurs Dr. Daan van Uhm en Prof. dr. Toine Spapens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Netherlands are considered as an important hub for the illicit trade in species of endangered birds protected by the CITES convention. In this article the authors analyze five substantial criminal cases from three different perspectives. First, from a criminal business perspective, the cases illustrate that logistics vary from relatively simple to highly complex, but always require in-depth knowledge of the animals as well as regulations, to be able to keep the birds alive to make a profit, and to smuggle them to the Netherlands, respectively. Second, from a network perspective, it is clear that those who are involved in the illicit trade – suppliers, traders and customers – are part of a closed and often long-lasting group of people who know the trade. Finally, from a green criminological perspective, the authors conclude that harms of the illicit trade in protected birds are mentioned only to a limited extent in court rulings, contrary to what one might expect based on social construction theories of criminalization and sentencing.


Dr. Daan van Uhm
Dr. D.P. van Uhm is universitair docent criminologie bij het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht.

Prof. dr. Toine Spapens
Prof. dr. A.C.M. Spapens is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Criminele families in Noord-Brabant

Over generatie-effecten in de zware criminaliteit

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden criminal family networks, organized crime, North Brabant, intergenerational transmission, opportunity structures
Auteurs Drs. H. Moors en Prof. dr. T. Spapens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article on intergenerational transmission of crime in families is based on a study of seven families of which at least one member held a key position in an organized crime group. The authors retrieved information on at least three generations (preceding and succeeding this key member’s generation) to investigate whether transmissions occurred, and if so, how these might be explained. Throughout the generations the majority of family members indeed have criminal records. However, it seems to be less easy to transfer criminal leadership in organized crime from one generation to the next. Leading a criminal group seems to demand qualities that are not transferred easily. Successful successors appear to be able to establish their own networks within the deviant subcultures from which they stem. This also explains the persistence of criminal behavior: both men and women select their friends and partners from these closed communities and seem to prefer for their social and love relationships those who have already developed substantial criminal track records. Organized crime families in North Brabant took advantage of criminal opportunities that were presented to them over the years. Particularly XTC production, starting in the 1990s, allowed them to step up their criminal activities from the local to the global level. In addition, they may have capitalized on a moral economy with sentiments of subordination present in the province of North Brabant, dating back to the seventeenth century, which resulted in a more reserved attitude towards authorities than in other parts of the Netherlands. Finally, law enforcement agencies have been generally slow to respond to developments in criminal opportunities that benefited these seven families.


Drs. H. Moors
Drs. Hans Moors is partner van advies- en onderzoeksbureau EMMA, Experts in Media en Maatschappij, in Den Haag.

Prof. dr. T. Spapens
Prof. dr. Toine Spapens is hoogleraar criminologie aan Tilburg University.
Redactioneel

Georganiseerde misdaad in de 21ste eeuw

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden organized crime
Auteurs Prof. dr. Toine Spapens, Prof. dr. Emile Kolthoff en Prof. dr. Wouter Stol
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the past decades, organised crime internationalised rapidly as a result of increasing mobility and ‘open’ borders. At the same time developments in information and communication technology have led to modernisation of existing types of crime and the introduction of novel ones. Finally, criminals have benefited from increasingly diversified migration streams. In the Netherlands and Belgium, organised crime appeared on the agenda in the 1990s. For a long time emphasis was on ‘trade crimes’ i.e. trafficking in drugs and humans, as well as human smuggling, followed by the production of synthetic drugs and cannabis. More recently the Low Countries are confronted by more visible manifestations of organised crime, for example rapid growth of outlaw motorcycle gangs. Criminals also try to utilise their capital to invest in businesses and real estate and to influence local politics.


Prof. dr. Toine Spapens
Prof. dr. A.C.M. Spapens is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.

Prof. dr. Emile Kolthoff
Prof. dr. E.W. Kolthoff is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Open Universiteit en lector Veiligheid, openbare orde en recht bij Avans Hogeschool in Den Bosch.

Prof. dr. Wouter Stol
Prof. dr. W.Ph. Stol is lector Cybersafety aan de NHL Hogeschool en Politieacademie en bijzonder hoogleraar Politiestudies aan de Open Universiteit.

Prof. dr. Toine Spapens
Prof. dr. A.C.M. Spapens is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.

    Comparing an organized crime group to an ‘enterprise’ or ‘firm’ and its key persons to ‘entrepreneurs’ is only a small step to viewing its illegal activities as a business process. Yet, it took until the early 1990s before criminologists started to study the logistics of specific illegal activities. Since then, the Dutch police have adapted to thinking of organized crime in terms of criminal business processes and to erecting barriers (preferably insurmountable ones) to specific steps in these processes. Firstly, the police analyze logistical processes to find weak spots that can be targeted to hinder illegal activities most effectively, either through investigative action or by means of preventive measures. Secondly, law enforcement agencies consider such an analytical approach an attractive tool to explore the viability of involving other public or private parties in setting up barriers. The Dutch investigation authorities have used this concept successfully in the case of ecstasy production, by aiming at the small number of suppliers of particular chemicals and hardware. As regards large-scale (and indoor) cannabis cultivation, however, the approach is less fruitful, because there are no explicitly ‘vulnerable’ stages in the cultivation process. Furthermore, some of the intended barriers can be deemed rather intrusive, such as a plan to persuade banks to withdraw a mortgage if the police discover a cannabis nursery in a person's private home. This raises the question to what extent the police and the judiciary may call in other parties to help them put up barriers to illegal activities, instead of using the conventional tool of criminal investigation.


A.C.M. Spapens
Dr. Toine Spapens is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan de Faculteit Rechtswetenschappen van de Universiteit van Tilburg. Hij is tevens lector milieucriminaliteit aan de Politieacademie te Apeldoorn.
Artikel

De Brabantse smokkelaars

Een grensgeschiedenis vol heroïek en eigenbelang

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2010
Auteurs P. Spapens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Considerable differences in tax and excise levels since the Belgium independence in 1830 gave rise to large scale smuggling between the Dutch border province Noord-Brabant en Belgium. The smuggling history can be divided in six periods. Salt was the most important contraband in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. During the First World War a lot of food was smuggled from the Netherlands to Belgium. During the crisis years in the 1930s unemployed people used to supplement their scarce income through smuggling. Belgian tobacco was the most important contraband during the Second World War. After the war ten thousands of Dutch occasional smugglers illegally fetched consumer and luxury goods in Belgium. In the 1950s and 1960s millions of kilo's of Dutch butter were smuggled to Belgium. The smuggling business gradually came into the hands of professional criminal gangs. In the second half of the 1960s the smugglers switched to the illegal distilling of alcohol. Many years later these would evolve into labs for the production of chemical drugs.


P. Spapens
Paul Spapens (Hilvarenbeek, 1949) is professioneel dagbladjournalist. Hij publiceerde enkele tientallen boeken over de geschiedenis, de volkscultuur en de identiteit van Noord-Brabant en de Noord-Brabanders. Hij is onder meer gespecialiseerd in thema's die voortvloeien uit de aanwezigheid van de rijksgrens. Dit artikel is voor een groot deel gebaseerd op de boeken Smokkelen in Brabant (1988) en Tappen uit een geheim vaatje (1990) over respectievelijk de geschiedenis van het smokkelen tussen Noord-Brabant en België en de geschiedenis van het illegaal alcohol stoken in Nederland. De beide boeken zijn geschreven op basis van onderzoek van officiële bronnen, zoals politie- en douaneverslagen en daarnaast krantenverslagen. Een belangrijke bron zijn ook de vele tientallen interviews met de direct betrokkenen, dus smokkelaars, alcoholstokers en hun opponenten.
Titel

De logistiek en aanpak van ilegale vuurwapenhandel binnen de EU-landen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 04 2008
Trefwoorden Illegaal, Vuurwapen, Wapen, Lidstaat, Legaliteit, Handel, Pistool, Beslaglegging, Verkoop, Europese unie
Auteurs Spapens, A.C.M.

Spapens, A.C.M.
Titel

Vuurwapens tussen servet en tafellaken

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 01 2003
Trefwoorden Vuurwapen, Illegaal, Wapen, Politie, Roofoverval, Aanhouding, Pistool, Tussenpersoon, Levering, Bezit
Auteurs Spapens, A.C. en Bruinsma, M.Y.

Spapens, A.C.

Bruinsma, M.Y.
Artikel

Analyse van het Zuid-Nederlandse xtc-netwerk

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2009
Trefwoorden sociale netwerkanalyse, xtc-netwerk, xtc-handel, crimineel macronetwerk
Auteurs Dr. Toine Spapens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The social network approach is gaining influence among criminologists studying organized crime and terrorism. The theoretical concept, however, still needs further elaboration. To this end, concepts developed within the field of economic sociology could provide a substantial contribution. Economic sociologists have, among other things, focused on the role of social networks with regard to the completion of economic transactions. They regard mutual trust built through personal relations as an essential part of economic transactions, particularly if these imply certain risks for the parties involved. In other words, before transactions materialize, the parties must first be able to establish trustworthy personal relations. Based on these ideas, Spapens introduced in 2006 the theoretical concept of the criminal macro network, being a social network consisting of individuals able and willing to engage in illegal activities. The capital of each member of the criminal network consists, on the one hand, of his links, defined as information relations, within the network. On the other hand, a person’s position is determined by personal knowledge and skills. It is assumed that executing an actual illegal activity – e.g. drug production, trafficking human beings, bank robbery – requires cooperation between a subset of members of the criminal network, the criminal group.An extensive study of xtc production in the south of the Netherlands between 1996 and 2004 revealed the existence of a ‘xtc network’ consisting of individuals interconnected by social relations. The macro network proved to be relatively stable over time. The composition of the criminal groups, however, changed regularly. This was not only explained by shifting business opportunities, but also by the efforts of the police and the Public Prosecution Service leading to convictions and the dismantling of criminal groups. Better knowledge of the functioning of the criminal macro network can provide valuable contributions to criminological understanding of organized crime. These insights are of course also of great practical importance for law enforcement agencies.


Dr. Toine Spapens
Dr. Toine Spapens is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan de vakgroep Strafrecht van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid aan de Universiteit van Tilburg. Contactadres: Universiteit van Tilburg, Vakgroep Strafrechtswetenschappen, Postbus 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg. E-mail: a.c.spapens@uvt.nl.
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