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De definitieve nieuwe Richtlijn Audiovisuele Mediadiensten: een eerste analyse

Tijdschrift Nederlands tijdschrift voor Europees recht, Aflevering 1-2 2019
Trefwoorden Richtlijn Audiovisuele Mediadiensten, mediaregulering,, video sharing platforms, mediadiensten op aanvraag, uitingsvrijheid
Auteurs Mr. E.W. Jurjens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Dit artikel bevat een eerste analyse van de inhoud van de definitieve herziene Richtlijn Audiovisuele Mediadiensten, waarbij aandacht wordt besteed aan de uitbreiding van de reikwijdte van de Richtlijn naar ‘video sharing platforms’. Daarbij komt aan de orde dat de richtlijn nieuwe regels stelt voor alle gereguleerde partijen over content die schadelijk kan zijn voor minderjarigen en content die kwalificeert als ‘hate speech’. Mede aan de hand van de positie van Nederland bij de onderhandelingen over de richtlijn en een analyse van artikel 7 Grondwet wordt tot slot een eerste aanzet gegeven voor de discussie over de implementatie van de richtlijn in Nederland.
    Richtlijn (EU) 2018/1808 van het Europees Parlement en de Raad van 14 november 2018 tot wijziging van Richtlijn 2010/13/EU betreffende de coördinatie van bepaalde wettelijke en bestuursrechtelijke bepalingen in de lidstaten inzake het aanbieden van audiovisuele mediadiensten (richtlijn audiovisuele mediadiensten) in het licht van een veranderende marktsituatie, PbEU 2018, L 303/69.


Mr. E.W. Jurjens
Mr. E.W. (Emiel) Jurjens is advocaat bij Kennedy Van der Laan.

    A provision of Dutch law, according to which employees who lose their jobs upon retirement are excluded from the right to statutory severance compensation, is not in breach of the Framework Directive.


Peter C. Vas Nunes
Peter Vas Nunes is Of Counsel at BarentsKrans N.V., The Hague, the Netherlands.

    The Finnish Supreme Court has held that an employer discriminated against an employee by not renewing his employment at the end of a fixed-term contract because he was overweight.


Janne Nurminen
Janne Nurminen is a Senior Associate with Roschier, Attorneys Ltd in Helsinki, www.roschier.com.

    The Court of Appeal has confirmed that an expectation that a disabled employee would work long hours was a ‘provision, criterion or practice’ in a disability discrimination claim regarding reasonable adjustments. It also held that, on the facts, the employer’s conduct had caused the employee to resign and this entitled him to claim constructive unfair dismissal.


Tom McEvoy
Tom McEvoy is an Associate Solicitor at Lewis Silkin LLP.

Dr. Andreas Hofmann
Andreas Hofmann is a post-doctoral researcher at Freie Universität Berlin. He has held previous positions as lecturer at the University of Cologne and post-doctoral fellow at the Centre for European Research (CERGU), University of Gothenburg.
Article

Access_open Right to Access Information as a Collective-Based Approach to the GDPR’s Right to Explanation in European Law

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden automated decision-making, right to access information, right to explanation, prohibition on discrimination, public information
Auteurs Joanna Mazur
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article presents a perspective which focuses on the right to access information as a mean to ensure a non-discriminatory character of algorithms by providing an alternative to the right to explanation implemented in the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). I adopt the evidence-based assumption that automated decision-making technologies have an inherent discriminatory potential. The example of a regulatory means which to a certain extent addresses this problem is the approach based on privacy protection in regard to the right to explanation. The Articles 13-15 and 22 of the GDPR provide individual users with certain rights referring to the automated decision-making technologies. However, the right to explanation not only may have a very limited impact, but it also focuses on individuals thus overlooking potentially discriminated groups. Because of this, the article offers an alternative approach on the basis of the right to access information. It explores the possibility of using this right as a tool to receive information on the algorithms determining automated decision-making solutions. Tracking an evolution of the interpretation of Article 10 of the Convention for the Protection of Human Right and Fundamental Freedoms in the relevant case law aims to illustrate how the right to access information may become a collective-based approach towards the right to explanation. I consider both, the potential of this approach, such as its more collective character e.g. due to the unique role played by the media and NGOs in enforcing the right to access information, as well as its limitations.


Joanna Mazur
Joanna Mazur, M.A., PhD student, Faculty of Law and Administration, Uniwersytet Warszawski.

    The Court of Appeal has confirmed that discrimination arising from disability had occurred when an employer dismissed an employee for misconduct which was connected to the employee’s disability, even though the employer had no knowledge of the connection.


Emma Langhorn
Emma Langhorn is an Associate Solicitor at Lewis Silkin LLP.

    The Labour Court of Brussels treats the long-term effects of cancer as a disability in accordance with the case law of the ECJ. This has triggered an obligation on employers to consider making reasonable adjustments before looking at dismissal.


Gautier Busschaert
Gautier Busschaert is an attorney-at-law at Van Olmen & Wynant, Brussels.
Rulings

ECJ 19 September 2018, case C-312/17 (Bedi), Collective agreements, disability discrimination

Surjit Singh Bedi – v – Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Bundesrepublik Deutschland in Prozessstandschaft für das Vereinigte Königreich von Großbritannien und Nordirland, German case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Gender discrimination, Working time
Samenvatting

    Bridging assistance paid to a worker who loses his or her job by reason of redundancy, but ceasing once the worker becomes eligible to receive retirement benefits, is discriminatory under Directive 2000/78 if this moment comes earlier for disabled than non-disabled workers.

Case Reports

2018/13 Discrimination based on perceived disability found unlawful (UK)

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden Disability discrimination, Other forms of discrimination
Auteurs Sam Minshall
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Employment Appeal Tribunal (‘EAT’) has confirmed that, even if an employee is not actually disabled for the purpose of the relevant statutory test, it is unlawful for an employer to discriminate against that employee because of a perceived disability.


Sam Minshall
Sam Minshall is an associate solicitor at Lewis Silkin LLP.

    The Danish Supreme Court has ruled that a medical diagnosis is not required when deciding whether a person suffers from a disability protected under Directive 2000/78.


Christian K. Klasen
Christian K. Clasen is a partner at Norrbom Vinding, Copenhagen.

    The Irish Court of Appeal recently clarified the obligations of employers towards employees with a disability.
    The judgment suggests that an employer is not required to alter the duties of a position held by an employee with a disability in order to accommodate that employee’s return to work if the duties, which the employee is no longer capable of performing, are considered essential to the employee’s position.


Lucy O’Neill
Lucy O’Neill is an attorney at law at Mayson Hayes & Curran.

Dr. L. Kovudhikulrungsri
Dr. L. (Lalin) Kovudhikulrungsri is lecturer at Thammasat University, Bangkok, Thailand. This paper is summarized and rearranged from part of the doctoral dissertation ‘The Right to Travel by Air of Persons with Disabilities’, defended at Leiden University on 16 November 2017.
Law Review

Access_open 2018/1 EELC’s review of the year 2017

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 1 2018
Auteurs Ruben Houweling, Catherine Barnard, Zef Even e.a.
Samenvatting

    This is the first time we have produced a review of employment law cases from the previous year, based on analysis by various of our academic board members. But before looking at their findings, we would first like to make some general remarks.


Ruben Houweling

Catherine Barnard

Zef Even

Amber Zwanenburg

Daiva Petrylaitė

Petr Hůrka

Jean-Philippe Lhernould

Erika Kovács

Jan-Pieter Vos

Andrej Poruban

Luca Ratti

Niklas Bruun

Francesca Maffei

    On 10 January 2017, the Labour Court of Mons ruled that in the case of a collective dismissal, an employer may use absenteeism measured by the Bradford factor as a criterion for selecting employees for redundancy, without breaching anti-discrimination law.


Gautier Busschaert
Gautier Busschaert is an attorney at Van Olmen & Wynant in Brussels, www.vow.be.

    This paper discusses three approaches that can be helpful in the area of comparative rights jurisprudence, oriented in reference to three different kinds of studies that are possible in that area. To a large extent the methods for a comparative legal research depend on the research question and the goal of the researcher. First, a comparative law study may focus on the sociocultural context that led to the elaboration of differences or similarities in the protection of rights. Second, a comparative law approach can be a normative enterprise. It can focus on engaging in a philosophical analysis enlightened by the differences or similarities in the regulation of rights, in order to propose concrete solutions for the regulation of a right. Third, a comparative law approach can combine both elements of the two previously mentioned approaches. The paper discusses the challenges that the researcher faces in her attempt to use these methodologies and how these challenges can be overcome. The law as a normative discipline has its own constraints of justifiability. If what motivates a comparative law study is the search for principles of justice the researcher needs to persuade that her methodological approach serves her aim.


Ioanna Tourkochoriti
School of Law, NUI Galway, Ireland.
Case Reports

2017/30 Discrimination of workers’ representatives – burden of proof (LI)

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden Discrimination (other), Discrimination of workers’ representatives
Auteurs Vida Petrylaite
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Lithuanian Supreme Court has found discrimination against an employee based on his trade union activities and ruled that there was no need for the burden of proof to shift to the employer.


Vida Petrylaite
Vida Petrylaite is a partner with CONFIDENCE Law Office, Vilnus (www.confidence.lt).
Case Reports

2017/27 Supreme Court clarifies indirect discrimination test (UK)

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden General discrimination, Indirect discrimination
Auteurs Soyoung Lee
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Supreme Court has given a clear explanation of how the test for indirect discrimination works, holding that it is not necessary to know why a particular group is disadvantaged by an employer’s policy in order to show indirect discrimination. This decision is not particularly helpful for employers as it makes it easier for individuals to make an indirect discrimination claim. However, the Supreme Court emphasised that it is always open to an employer to show that indirect discrimination is justified.


Soyoung Lee
Soyoung Lee is an Associate Solicitor at Lewis Silkin LLP (www.lewissilkin.com).
Case Reports

2017/31 Lawful positive discrimination in favour of women (FR)

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden Discrimination (other), Positive discrimination
Auteurs Claire Toumieux en Susan Ekrami
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Company agreement provisions granting a half-day of leave to female employees on International Women’s Day constitute lawful positive discrimination in favour of women.


Claire Toumieux
Claire Toumieux is a partner with Allen & Overy LLP in Paris (www.allenovery.com).

Susan Ekrami
Susan Ekrami is a senior associate with Allen & Overy LLP in Paris (www.allenovery.com).
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