Zoekresultaat: 169 artikelen

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Artikel

Gesloten jeugdinrichtingen in Nederland en België: anders maar hetzelfde?

Een rechtsvergelijkend onderzoek naar de rechtspositie in gesloten jeugdinrichtingen in Nederland en België vanuit historisch en internationaal perspectief

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden Gesloten jeugdinrichting, Interne rechtspositie, Jeugdzorgplus, Gemeenschapsinstelling, Justitiële jeugdinrichting
Auteurs Mr. Charmaine Purperhart
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A comparative legal research between Dutch and Belgian closed juvenile detention centres, focused on the internal legal status


Mr. Charmaine Purperhart
Mr. C.A. Purperhart is masterstudent Double Degree Programma Toga aan de Maas aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Het leefklimaat in Nederlandse penitentiaire inrichtingen: de Life In Custody–studie

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden Quality of prison life, Imprisonment, Prison Climate Questionnaire, LIC-study
Auteurs Dr. Hanneke Palmen, Dr. Anouk Bosma en Dr. Esther van Ginneken
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Life In Custody-study is a large scale, prospective panel study, aimed to examine the quality of prison life in The Netherlands. This paper describes the LIC-study by giving a detailed overview of the data collection procedure, and strategies to optimize response, and presents the first nationwide results on prison climate in The Netherlands. Results show that the data collection procedures utilized were successful in obtaining a high response rate (which was an exceptional 81%) and reaching a representative group of prisoners. Furthermore, results show that the perceptions of prison climate vary across prison regimes, and to a lesser extent across age groups and time spent in detention.


Dr. Hanneke Palmen
Dr. Hanneke Palmen is universitair docent Criminologie.

Dr. Anouk Bosma
Dr. Anouk Bosma is universitair docent Criminologie.

Dr. Esther van Ginneken
Dr. Esther van Ginneken is universitair docent Criminologie.

Onderzoeksnotities

Vrijheidsbeneming in Nederland sinds 1837

Een analyse van 180 jaar gevangenisstatistieken

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden gevangenissen, detentie, criminaliteitstrends, historische criminologie
Auteurs Prof. dr. Paul Nieuwbeerta
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article studies the development in the prison system over the period 1837-2016 in the Netherlands. It describes trends in three characteristics of the Dutch prison system: (a) the number of prisoners, (b) the number of cells, and (c) the inflow of persons from the free society. The findings are twofold. On the one hand – when examining absolute numbers – the article shows that three distinct periods can be distinguished: a period of 140 years with low stable numbers (1837-1975), four decades in which the numbers tripled (1975-2005), and a subsequent decade where the numbers halved (2005-2016). On the other hand – when examining relative numbers, i.e. per 100.000 inhabitants, and thus controlling for the growth in population – the article displays that developments in the prison system in the Netherlands between 1837-2016 can best be characterized by a long-term continuous decrease in detention.


Prof. dr. Paul Nieuwbeerta
Prof. dr. P. Nieuwbeerta is hoogleraar Criminologie aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Empiricism as an ethical enterprise. On the work of Erhard Blankenburg

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Empiricism, Erhard Blankenburg, mobilization of law, legal instruments, problems and disputes
Auteurs Prof. dr. Pieter Ippel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article gives an interpretation of the empirical work of the well-known sociologist of law Erhard Blankenburg, who passed away in the Spring of 2018. He conducted interesting and intelligent research on the process of ‘mobilization of law’. The thesis of this article is that Blankenburg’s empirical approach is actually guided and stimulated by normative considerations. A complete and coherent picture of the concrete utilization of legal instruments shows that ‘alternative’ ways of dealing with problems and disputes are often morally preferable as they are inspired by a realistic assessment of persons-in-a-social-context.


Prof. dr. Pieter Ippel
Pieter Ippel is professor of law at University College Roosevelt (Middelburg) and Utrecht University. He studied philosophy, criminology and Dutch Law. From 1981-1987 he worked as an assistant with Erhard Blankenburg and finished his PhD in 1989. From 1989-1995 he worked as a civil servant in The Hague and from 1995-2005 he was professor of jurisprudence in Utrecht.
Article

Access_open Evidence-Based Regulation and the Translation from Empirical Data to Normative Choices: A Proportionality Test

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden evidence-based, regulation, proportionality, empirical law studies, law and society studies
Auteurs Rob van Gestel en Peter van Lochem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Studies have shown that the effects of scientific research on law and policy making are often fairly limited. Different reasons can be given for this: scientists are better at falsifying hypothesis than at predicting the future, the outcomes of academic research and empirical evidence can be inconclusive or even contradictory, the timing of the legislative cycle and the production of research show mismatches, there can be clashes between the political rationality and the economic or scientific rationality in the law making process et cetera. There is one ‘wicked’ methodological problem, though, that affects all regulatory policy making, namely: the ‘jump’ from empirical facts (e.g. there are too few organ donors in the Netherlands and the voluntary registration system is not working) to normative recommendations of what the law should regulate (e.g. we need to change the default rule so that everybody in principle becomes an organ donor unless one opts out). We are interested in how this translation process takes place and whether it could make a difference if the empirical research on which legislative drafts are build is more quantitative type of research or more qualitative. That is why we have selected two cases in which either type of research played a role during the drafting phase. We use the lens of the proportionality principle in order to see how empirical data and scientific evidence are used by legislative drafters to justify normative choices in the design of new laws.


Rob van Gestel
Rob van Gestel is professor of theory and methods of regulation at Tilburg University.

Peter van Lochem
Dr. Peter van Lochem is jurist and sociologist and former director of the Academy for Legislation.
Artikel

Access_open Oververtegenwoordiging van jongeren met een migratieachtergrond in de strafrechtketen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden disproportionate minority contact, DMC, juvenile justice, ethnicity, adolescents
Auteurs Dr. Albert Boon, Melissa van Dorp MSc en Drs. Sjouk de Boer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the United States, the term disproportionate minority contact (DMC) is used to refer to the disproportionate number of minority youth who come into contact with the juvenile justice system. Statistics on DMC in the United States put the issue on the political agenda and measures have been taken to reduce the inequality. In the Netherlands, there are some studies on the representation of ethnic minority groups in suspect statistics, but data regarding all ethnic groups at various stages of the juvenile justice chain are lacking. Due to this lack of information, DMC is not mentioned in Dutch research literature and is not a political issue. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to explore whether DMC existed in the Netherlands and whether elements of the US policy could be applied to the Dutch situation. To investigate this, the likelihood (odds ratio (OR)) was calculated for young people with a migration background to be registered and held as a suspect, to participate in an alternative punishment program (Halt) and their likelihood of incarceration. It turned out that the OR for young people with a non-Western migration background to be registered as a suspect was more than three times as high, with an OR of 5 or higher for some ethnic groups. The chances of a Halt-settlement were much lower for young people with a non-Western background. The odds of ending up in a youth prison was over six times higher for youngsters with a non-Western background compared to their Dutch native peers. For young people of Caribbean and Moroccan origin the likelihood was more than ten times higher. These results showed that DMC is present at all examined stages in the Dutch juvenile justice chain. The large overrepresentation of young people with a migration background (especially of Moroccan and Caribbean origin) shows that further research is needed in order to develop programs to reduce DMC. To establish this, it is important to register the ethnic origin of the individuals at all stages of the juvenile justice chain.


Dr. Albert Boon
Dr. A.E. Boon is psycholoog/onderzoeker bij Lucertis/De Jutters: kinder- en jeugdpsychiatrie (Parnassia Groep) en bij Curium-LUMC, de afdeling kinder- en jeugdpsychiatrie Universiteit Leiden.

Melissa van Dorp MSc
M. van Dorp, MSc is psycholoog/onderzoeker bij Lucertis/De Jutters: kinder- en jeugdpsychiatrie (Parnassia Groep) en bij de Academische Werkplaats Risicojeugd.

Drs. Sjouk de Boer
Drs. S.B.B. de Boer is psycholoog/onderzoeker bij Lucertis/De Jutters: kinder- en jeugdpsychiatrie (Parnassia Groep).
Artikel

Het verloop van de partnerrelaties van gedetineerden tijdens en na detentie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden detention, partnerships, relationship quality, longitudinal
Auteurs Anne Brons MSc, Prof. dr. Paul Nieuwbeerta en Dr. Anja Dirkzwager
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the current criminological literature surprisingly little is known about the development of partnerships of detainees during and after detention. In particular, it is unknown to what extent existing differences in the relationship quality at the start of the detention period continue. Therefore, this study examined how the partnerships of detainees developed by using data from the Prison Project. This is a longitudinal study in which 747 detainees with a partner were interviewed at various moments during detention and six months after detention. The results show that bad partnerships at the beginning of detention remain in general bad or end during and/or after detention, while the average to good relationships remain the same.


Anne Brons MSc
M.D. Brons, MSc is PhD student bij het Nederlands Interdisciplinair Demografisch Instituut (NIDI).

Prof. dr. Paul Nieuwbeerta
Prof. dr. P. Nieuwbeerta is hoogleraar Criminologie bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Anja Dirkzwager
Dr. A.J.E. Dirkzwager is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).
Artikel

Overnachten in een politiecel

Een onderzoek naar het psychisch welzijn en slaapproblemen van verdachten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden police detention centres, police suspects, psychological wellbeing, sleep problems, environmental psychology
Auteurs Koen Geijsen MSc, Dr. Nicolien Kop en Prof. dr. Corine de Ruiter
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This study explores the influence of police detention centres environments on police suspects’ psychological wellbeing and sleep problems. Results showed that suspects detained in a police cell experience a decreased psychological wellbeing, that they sleep poorly, and that their psychological wellbeing is related to sleep problems. Implications for police detention in relation to suspects’ psychological wellbeing and sleep problems, as well as directions for future research on police detention centre environments, are discussed.


Koen Geijsen MSc
K. Geijsen, MSc is promovendus aan de Universiteit Maastricht en de Politieacademie en tevens werkzaam bij de politie.

Dr. Nicolien Kop
Dr. N. Kop is lector Criminaliteitsbeheersing en Recherchekunde aan de Politieacademie.

Prof. dr. Corine de Ruiter
Prof. dr. C. de Ruiter is hoogleraar Forensische Psychologie aan de Universiteit Maastricht.

Prof. dr. Miranda Boone
Prof. dr. M.M. Boone is hoogleraar Criminologie en vergelijkende Penologie bij de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Voorlopige vrijheidsbeperking vooropgesteld

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift Modernisering Strafvordering, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden voorlopige vrijheidsbeperking, voorlopige hechtenis, schorsing, modernisering strafvordering, ultimum remedium
Auteurs Mr. dr. S. Meijer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    De regeling van de voorlopige hechtenis verandert mogelijk ingrijpend, blijkens het conceptwetsvoorstel tot vaststelling van Boek 2 van het nieuwe Wetboek van Strafvordering. De rechter krijgt ingevolge dit voorstel de mogelijkheid om in plaats van de voorlopige hechtenis de voorlopige vrijheidsbeperking te bevelen en de schorsing van de voorlopige hechtenis komt te vervallen. De ultimum remedium-gedachte rechtvaardigt dat gekozen wordt voor een systeem waarin de voorlopige vrijheidsbeperking voorop staat. Dat stelsel geniet ook op Europees niveau de voorkeur. De keuze voor dit systeem is evenwel niet geheel zonder risico’s en het vooropstellen van de voorlopige vrijheidsbeperking zal de praktijk ook voor nieuwe uitdagingen stellen. In deze bijdrage worden deze risico’s besproken en wordt een aantal aanbevelingen gedaan tot aanpassing van het voorliggende conceptwetsvoorstel.


Mr. dr. S. Meijer
Mr. dr. S. Meijer is universitair docent straf(proces)recht aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, raadslid van de afdeling Advies Raad voor de Strafrechtstoepassing en Jeugdbescherming en rechter-plaatsvervanger in de Rechtbank Amsterdam.
Artikel

Zelfredzaamheid in detentie

Kritische kanttekeningen bij het systeem van promoveren en degraderen

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden Zelfredzaamheid, Burgerschap, Gevangenis, Autonomie
Auteurs Dr. Esther van Ginneken
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the ‘participation society’ it is expected that citizens actively contribute to solving societal problems, including health care, immigration and security issues. A somewhat similar responsibilisation culture is visible in prisons, where prisoners are held responsible for their own rehabilitation. This article problematizes the way in which prisoners’ agency is promoted in Dutch prisons, considering prisoners’ constrained agency and the normative expectations that are tied to the approach. This critique is advanced through discussion of the promotion/demotion system that has been used in Dutch prisons since 2014. This system, comparable to the Incentives and Earned Privileges system in England and Wales, espouses both ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ behavioural norms. The soft behavioural norms reflect a citizenship ideal that extends beyond compliance with the law. It is argued that these normative expectations tied to agency have a limiting effect on prisoners’ autonomy. This article argues in favour of a shift from the citizenship ideal to an autonomy ideal, which applies the principle of minimum restrictions. Furthermore, access to education, reintegration courses and contact with family should be treated as a right, rather than a privilege, in order to maximise autonomy and minimise the harmful effects of imprisonment.


Dr. Esther van Ginneken
Dr. Esther van Ginneken is universitair docent Criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Access_open Crisis in the Courtroom

The Discursive Conditions of Possibility for Ruptures in Legal Discourse

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden crisis discourse, rupture, counterterrorism, precautionary logic, risk
Auteurs Laura M. Henderson LL.M
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article addresses the conditions of possibility for the precautionary turn in legal discourse. Although the precautionary turn itself has been well-detailed in both legal and political discourse, insufficient attention has been paid to what made this shift possible. This article remedies this, starting by showing how the events of 9/11 were unable to be incorporated within current discursive structures. As a result, these discursive structures were dislocated and a new ‘crisis discourse’ emerged that succeeded in attributing meaning to the events of 9/11. By focusing on three important cases from three different jurisdictions evidencing the precautionary turn in legal discourse, this article shows that crisis discourse is indeed employed by the judiciary and that its logic made this precautionary approach to counterterrorism in the law possible. These events, now some 16 years ago, hold relevance for today’s continuing presence of crisis and crisis discourse.


Laura M. Henderson LL.M
Laura M. Henderson is a researcher at UGlobe, the Utrecht Centre for Global Challenges, at Utrecht University. She wrote this article as a Ph.D. candidate at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Staatloosheid als moderne vorm van uitsluiting

Naar een duurzame oplossing voor staatlozen in Nederland

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden statelessness, determination procedure, legislative proposal, limbo, exclusion
Auteurs Marlotte van Dael MSc, Mr. Jelle Klaas en Loïs Vaars LLM
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article maps the current Dutch practice on statelessness, and tries to expose the current issues in particular. The published legislative proposal for a statelessness determination procedure in September 2016 is an attempt by the Dutch government to solve part of these problems after wide criticism from, among others, the Advisory Committee on Migration Affairs (ACVZ) in 2013. The introduction of a statelessness determination procedure is a long awaited development and a step in the right direction with a view of improving current practice and law for stateless persons residing in the Netherlands. However, significant deficiencies in the legislative proposal risk to greatly undermine the operation and value of the new procedure, especially for those currently left in limbo and excluded from society. This article focuses on the shortcomings in the procedure and provides recommendations how to revise these to ensure that stateless persons are enabled to demonstrate their statelessness adequately and obtain the rights associated with it as intended in the Statelessness Conventions signed by the Netherlands.


Marlotte van Dael MSc
M. van Dael MSc is als projectcoördinator en onderzoeker staatloosheid verbonden aan het ASKV/Steunpunt Vluchtelingen.

Mr. Jelle Klaas
Mr. J. Klaas is mensenrechtenadvocaat en Litigation Director NJCM.

Loïs Vaars LLM
L. Vaars LLM is dossierhouder staatloosheid bij het Public Interest Litigation Project (PILP).
ECtHR Court Watch

ECtHR 23 January 2018, application no. 15374/11, Unfair dismissal, Other fundamental rights

Mr Güç – v – Turkey, Turkish case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden Unfair dismissal, Other fundamental rights
Samenvatting

    Dismissal for harassment despite acquittal in criminal proceedings is not incompatible with Article 6(2) of the Convention (presumption of innocence).

ECtHR Court Watch

ECtHR 23 January 2018, application no. 60392/08, Unfair dismissal, Other fundamental rights

Seven – v – Turkey, Turkish case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden Unfair dismissal, Other fundamental rights
Samenvatting

    The Turkish Supreme Administrative Court cast doubt on a dismissed police officer’s innocence by failing, in an appeal review, to take proper account of the fact that he had been acquitted of rape, in breach of the presumption of innocence contained in Article 6 §2 of the European Convention on Human Rights.

Praktijk

Suïcide bij gedetineerden in België: een dossierstudie

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden Zelfdoding, Suïcidepreventie, Detentie, België, suicide, prevention, prison, Belgium
Auteurs Louis Favril, Ciska Wittouck, Kurt Audenaert e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Reducing the number of suicides in prison has been highlighted as an international priority. To date, however, studies examining prison suicides in Belgium are lacking. Therefore, adopting a retrospective record-based approach, we sought to investigate all suicides occurring in the whole Belgian prison estate during a 17-year period. The results underline the need for suicide prevention among prisoners in Belgium, and echo prior findings that restrictive preventive measures should be combined with psychosocial interventions in order to address the causes of prisoners being suicidal. Such strategies are ideally embedded within a comprehensive suicide prevention policy on a national level.


Louis Favril
Louis Favril is klinisch psycholoog en criminoloog van opleiding en voert momenteel een doctoraatsonderzoek uit aan de Universiteit Gent.

Ciska Wittouck
Ciska Wittouck is klinisch psycholoog en criminoloog van opleiding en voert momenteel een doctoraatsonderzoek uit aan de Universiteit Gent.

Kurt Audenaert
Kurt Audenaert is buitengewoon hoogleraar Psychiatrie en hoofddocent Criminologie, en is verbonden aan de Universiteit Gent.

Freya Vander Laenen
Freya Vander Laenen is buitengewoon hoogleraar Psychiatrie en hoofddocent Criminologie, en is verbonden aan de Universiteit Gent.
Artikel

Psychische problemen tijdens detentie: een overzicht van kernresultaten uit het Prison Project

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden mental health, prisoners, longitudinal, Geestelijke gezondheid, Gedetineerden, Longitudinaal
Auteurs Dr. A.J.E. Dirkzwager en Prof. dr. P. Nieuwbeerta
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution summarizes findings from the Prison Project on the longitudinal course of mental health problems during imprisonment. The findings illustrate that prisoners experience high levels of mental health problems. Shortly after their arrival in detention, a quarter of them experienced a high level of mental health problems, which is five times as high as men in the general population. Prisoners’ mental health problems decreased during imprisonment. Both characteristics of the correctional environment (e.g. a fair and respectful treatment by prison staff) and pre-existing characteristics of the prisoners (e.g. personality traits) are related to the course of mental health problems in detention.


Dr. A.J.E. Dirkzwager
Dr. Anja Dirkzwager is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Prof. dr. P. Nieuwbeerta
Prof. dr. Paul Nieuwbeerta is hoogleraar Criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
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