Zoekresultaat: 45 artikelen

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Article

Access_open Privatising Law Enforcement in Social Networks: A Comparative Model Analysis

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden user generated content, public and private responsibilities, intermediary liability, hate speech and fake news, protection of fundamental rights
Auteurs Katharina Kaesling
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    These days, it appears to be common ground that what is illegal and punishable offline must also be treated as such in online formats. However, the enforcement of laws in the field of hate speech and fake news in social networks faces a number of challenges. Public policy makers increasingly rely on the regu-lation of user generated online content through private entities, i.e. through social networks as intermediaries. With this privat-ization of law enforcement, state actors hand the delicate bal-ancing of (fundamental) rights concerned off to private entities. Different strategies complementing traditional law enforcement mechanisms in Europe will be juxtaposed and analysed with particular regard to their respective incentive structures and consequential dangers for the exercise of fundamental rights. Propositions for a recommendable model honouring both pri-vate and public responsibilities will be presented.


Katharina Kaesling
Katharina Kaesling, LL.M. Eur., is research coordinator at the Center for Advanced Study ‘Law as Culture’, University of Bonn.

    The Spanish Supreme Court has again ruled on the highly controversial question of whether limitations to the liability of a transferee established in a collective bargaining agreement (‘CBA’) in the context of a CBA-led transfer are valid, or whether they contravene the Spanish implementation of the Acquired Rights Directive.


Luis Aguilar
Luis Aguilar is an attorney-at-law at Eversheds Sutherland and an associate professor in Labour Law at IE University.
Article

Access_open The Right to Same-Sex Marriage: Assessing the European Court of Human Rights’ Consensus-Based Analysis in Recent Judgments Concerning Equal Marriage Rights

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden same-sex marriage, gay marriage, European consensus, margin of appreciation, consensus-based analysis by the ECtHR
Auteurs Masuma Shahid
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution assesses the consensus-based analysis and reasoning of the European Court of Human Rights in recent judgments concerning equal marriage rights and compares it to the Court’s past jurisprudence on European consensus and the margin of appreciation awarded to Member States regarding the issue of equal marriage rights. The contribution aims to analyse whether there is a parallel to be seen between the rapid global trend of legalisation of same-sex marriage and the development or evolution of the case law of the ECtHR on the same topic. Furthermore, it demonstrates that the Court’s consensus-based analysis is problematic for several reasons and provides possible alternative approaches to the balancing of the Court between, on the one hand, protecting rights of minorities (in this case same-sex couples invoking equal marriage rights) under the European Convention on Human Rights and, on the other hand, maintaining its credibility, authority and legitimacy towards Member States that might disapprove of the evolving case law in the context of same-sex relationships. It also offers insights as to the future of European consensus in the context of equal marriage rights and ends with some concluding remarks.


Masuma Shahid
Lecturer, Department of International and European Union Law, Erasmus School of Law, Rotterdam.
Article

Access_open Religious Freedom of Members of Old and New Minorities: A Double Comparison

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden ECtHR, UNHRC, religious manifestations, religious minorities, empirical analysis
Auteurs Fabienne Bretscher
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Confronted with cases of restrictions of the right to manifest religious beliefs of new religious minorities formed by recent migration movements, the ECtHR and the UNHRC seem to opt for different interpretations and applications of this right, as recent conflicting decisions show. Based on an empirical legal analysis of the two bodies’ decisions on individual complaints, this article finds that these conflicting decisions are part of a broader divergence: While the UNHRC functions as a protector of new minorities against States’ undue interference in their right to manifest their religion, the ECtHR leaves it up to States how to deal with religious diversity brought by new minorities. In addition, a quantitative analysis of the relevant case law showed that the ECtHR is much less likely to find a violation of the right to freedom of religion in cases brought by new religious minorities as opposed to old religious minorities. Although this could be a hint towards double standards, a closer look at the examined case law reveals that the numerical differences can be explained by the ECtHR’s weaker protection of religious manifestations in the public as opposed to the private sphere. Yet, this rule has an important exception: Conscientious objection to military service. By examining the development of the relevant case law, this article shows that this exception bases on a recent alteration of jurisprudence by the ECtHR and that there are similar prospects for change regarding other religious manifestations in the public sphere.


Fabienne Bretscher
PhD candidate at the University of Zurich.

    Under the Latvian Labour Law an employee has the right to terminate an employment contract with immediate effect, i.e. without complying with the statutory notice period of one month, if the employee has ‘good cause’. Under the Labour Law, ‘good cause’ is any situation, which, based on considerations of morality and fairness, would not allow for the employment to continue. If an employee terminates their employment contract for good cause the employer must pay severance to the employee based on the employee’s years of service with the employer and amounting to between one and four months’ average earnings. If the employee gives notice for good cause, this terminates the employment contract with immediate effect.
    Even if the employer disagrees with the reasons given in the termination notice, the employer cannot terminate the employment contract on any other ground and does not have the right to challenge the validity of the notice in court. However, if the employer suffers loss as a result of the immediate termination; its reputation is damaged based on the reasons given in the notice; or it has faced some other adverse consequence; the employer can bring a claim arguing that what is stated in the notice is untrue.


Andis Burkevics
Andis Burkevics is a senior associate with the Latvian office of law firm SORAINEN (www.sorainen.com).
Jurisprudentie

Het Europees Hof voor de Rechten van de Mens en nationale integratiedebatten

Zwitserse verplichting tot gemengd zwemmen in het primair onderwijs geoorloofd

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden vrijheid van godsdienst, Europees Hof voor de Rechten van de Mens (EHRM), Integratie, Pluralism, Islam
Auteurs Prof. dr. Sophie van Bijsterveld
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In a unanimous decision, the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) has accepted the refusal of an exemption of compulsory mixed swimming lessons for elementary school girls in Switzerland. The exemption was requested by the parents of the two girls as the requirement to let their daughters participate in those lessons was contrary to their religious conviction. The author discusses the decision in the light of national debates on integration and subscribes its outcome. Specific attention is paid to the ECtHR’s interpretation of the legitimacy of the aim of the Swiss authorities and the role of the numerical presence of Islam in the underlying Swiss court’s ruling which is upheld by ECtHR.


Prof. dr. Sophie van Bijsterveld
Prof. dr. S.C. van Bijsterveld is hoogleraar Religie, recht en samenleving aan de Radboud Universiteit te Nijmegen.

    This article uses the rise of referendum democracy to highlight the tenacity of modern nationalism in Western Europe. The proliferation of direct democracy around the world raises important questions about the health of representative democracy. The paper offers a theoretical re-evaluation of the role of the referendum, using the 2014 referendum on Scottish independence to challenge some of the traditional democratic criticisms of popular democracy. The final part of the paper addresses the specific application of referendums in the context of sub-state nationalism, addressing what might be called `the demos question'. This question was addressed by the Supreme Court in Canada in the Quebec Secession Reference but has also been brought to the fore by the Scottish reference and the unresolved issue of self-determination in Catalonia.


Stephen Tierney
Stephen Tierney is Professor of Constitutional Theory at the University of Edinburgh and Director of the Edinburgh Centre for Constitutional Law.
Artikel

Het nemo-teneturbeginsel en de verhouding met de Wet herziening strafbaarstelling faillissementsfraude

Een analyse naar de verhouding tussen het nemo-teneturbeginsel en nieuwe strafbaarstellingen van de meld- en inlichtingenplicht uit de Wet herziening strafbaarstelling faillissementsfraude

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Bijzonder Strafrecht & Handhaving, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden Nemo-teneturbeginsel, faillissementsfraude, Wet herziening strafbaarstelling faillissementsfraude, meewerkverplichting, Artikel 6 EVRM
Auteurs E.M. van Gelder LLB en D.A.G. van Toor LLM BSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In dit artikel worden de nieuwe strafbaarstellingen uit de Wet herziening strafbaarstelling faillissementsfraude, inhoudende een inlichtingen- en administratieplicht, in het licht van het nemo-teneturbeginsel geanalyseerd. Deze strafbaarstellingen verplichten de failliet inlichtingen en administratie over te dragen aan de curator op straffe van een gevangenisstraf. De vraag is of deze strafbaarstellingen de Straatsburgse toets kunnen doorstaan.


E.M. van Gelder LLB
E.M. van Gelder volgt de Legal Research Master aan de Universiteit Utrecht en was tot juli 2016 als student-assistent werkzaam bij het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen.

D.A.G. van Toor LLM BSc
D.A.G. van Toor is als onderzoeksmedewerker verbonden aan de Universität Bielefeld.
Artikel

Een nieuwe Regeling beoordelingscommissie late zwangerschapsafbreking en levensbeëindiging bij pasgeborenen

Goede inval of bedenkelijke manoeuvre?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Gezondheidsrecht, Aflevering 6 2016
Trefwoorden late zwangerschapsafbreking, levensbeëindiging pasgeborenen, beoordelingscommissie, meldingsprocedure
Auteurs Mr. dr. J.H.H.M. Dorscheidt
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In deze bijdrage wordt de nieuwe Regeling inzake late zwangerschapsafbreking (LZA) en levensbeëindiging bij pasgeborenen (LP) besproken en becommentarieerd. Daarbij wordt vooral nagegaan in hoeverre deze nieuwe Regeling eerder gesignaleerde knelpunten in de LZA/LP-praktijk daadwerkelijk kan verhelpen en hoe de keuze om de nieuwe beoordelingscommissie overwegend medisch in te kleuren past bij het te waarborgen belang van maatschappelijke zorgvuldigheid.


Mr. dr. J.H.H.M. Dorscheidt
Jo Dorscheidt is als universitair docent gezondheidsrecht verbonden aan het Universitair Medisch Centrum Groningen en de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.

    This report discusses the interesting remarks and conclusions made by the speakers at the ERA seminar, ‘Recent Case Law of the European Court of Human Rights in Family Law Matters’, which took place in Strasbourg on 11-12 February 2016. The report starts with a brief discussion on the shifting notion of ‘family life’ in the case law of the ECtHR, then turns to best interests of the child in international child abduction cases, the Court’s recognition of LGBT rights and finally the spectrum of challenges regarding reproductive rights in the Court’s case law. The overarching general trend is that the Court is increasingly faced with issues concerning non-traditional forms of family and with issues caused by the internationalisation of families. How this is seen in the Court’s recent case law and how it effects the various areas of family law is discussed in this report.


Charlotte Mol LL.B.
Charlotte Mol is a Legal Research Master student at the University of Utrecht, where she specializes in family law and private international law. She has assisted the Commission on European Family Law with the editing of the comparative study on informal relationships. As a guest student she visited the University of Antwerp for two months, where she researched the best interests of the child in international child abduction cases in collaboration with, and under the supervision of, Prof. Thalia Kruger. She holds a European Law School LL.B. from Maastricht University.
Artikel

Access_open ‘Dissenting opinions’ in religiezaken voor het Europees Hof (II)

De gewone kamer

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden dissenting opinions, Godsdienstvrijheid, margin of appreciation, EVRM
Auteurs Prof. dr. Sophie van Bijsterveld
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    What divides the ECtHR in religion cases? Study of dissenting opinions in religion cases of the ECtHR sheds a light on dividing lines within the ECtHR and deepens our understanding of the methods of reasoning of the ECtHR itself. Following an analysis of dissenting opinions in religion cases in the rulings of the Grand Chamber of the ECtHR, this article focuses on the Chamber. As in the previous analysis, a clear pattern in the dividing lines is brought to light. This article discusses and evaluates this finding.


Prof. dr. Sophie van Bijsterveld
Prof. dr. S.C. van Bijsterveld is hoogleraar Religie, recht en samenleving aan de Radboud Universiteit te Nijmegen.
Artikel

Het nemo-teneturbeginsel

Rechtspraak van het Europese Hof voor de Rechten van de Mens en de Hoge Raad vergeleken

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Bijzonder Strafrecht & Handhaving, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden nemo-teneturbeginsel, zwijgrecht, EHRM, Hoge Raad
Auteurs D.A.G. van Toor LLM BSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Het nemo-teneturbeginsel en het zwijgrecht zijn internationaal erkende onderdelen van het eerlijk-procesrecht. Deze rechten spelen een belangrijke rol in zaken waarin sfeercumulatie en/of -overgang bestaat van het bestuurs- en het strafrecht. Vaak gaat het dan om in een administratieve procedure verplicht afgelegde verklaring of overdragen document dat ook als bewijs voor een strafbaar feit in een strafzaak wordt gebruikt. De precieze betekenis van en afscheiding tussen het nemo-teneturbeginsel en het zwijgrecht wordt al jaren bediscussieerd. Daarom wordt in dit artikel de rechtspraak van het EHRM en de Hoge Raad met betrekking tot deze rechten vergelijken.


D.A.G. van Toor LLM BSc
D.A.G. van Toor LLM BSc is onderzoeker Straf(proces)recht & Criminologie aan de Universität Bielefeld, docent Straf(proces)recht aan de Universiteit Utrecht en redactiesecretaris van dit tijdschrift.
ECtHR Court Watch

ECtHR 12 January 2016, application 61496/08. (Bărbulescu), Fundamental Rights

Bărbulescu –v– Romania, Romanian case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden Fundamental Rights
Article

Access_open Cutting Corners or Enhancing Efficiency?

Simplified Procedures and the Israeli Quest to Speed up Justice

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden Israel, austerity, civil procedure, simplified procedures, small claims
Auteurs Ehud Brosh
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Israel was spared the worst of the world financial crisis of 2008-2009. However, austerity concerns are by no means invisible in the developments in the field of civil procedure. These concerns correlate heavily with the long-standing Israeli preoccupation with ‘speeding up’ justice. An array of simplified procedural tracks, aimed at addressing the perceived inadequacy of ‘standard’ procedure, have been developed in Israel over the years. The importance of simplified procedures in the Israeli system cannot be overestimated. Their development illustrates the dialectical tension between the values of ‘efficiency’ and ‘quality’ in the administration of justice. During periods of austerity, the scales are easily (or easier) tipped in favour of efficiency and general or particular simplification of procedure. In times of prosperity, on the other hand, concerns over ‘quality’, access to justice, and truth discovery predominate, and attempts at promoting efficiency and/or simplification at their expense tend to be bogged down. Such attempts also tend to lose their extrinsic legitimacy and are widely viewed as ‘cutting corners’. This is evident in the recent Israeli experience with civil procedure reform.


Ehud Brosh
Ehud Brosh, LL.M., is a research student at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Article

Access_open Relief in Small and Simple Matters in Belgium

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden Belgium, small matters, simple matters, recovery of unchallenged claims, summary order for payment
Auteurs Stefaan Voet
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article is based on a national report that was written for the XVth World Congress of the International Association of Procedural Law that was held in Istanbul in May 2015 and that focused on Effective Judicial Relief and Remedies in an Age of Austerity. It first of all sketches the general judicial context in Belgium and some of its relevant features: the judicial organisation, the goals of the civil justice system, the course of an ordinary civil lawsuit, the role of the court, and the litigation costs. Next, a detailed and critical overview of the current and future procedures that offer relief in small and simple matters is given. The current summary order for payment procedure, which was introduced in 1967, did not meet its goals. The article concludes that a new trend is emerging in Belgium, namely keeping small and unchallenged claims outside the judiciary and providing for cheaper and more efficient alternatives.


Stefaan Voet
Stefaan Voet is an Associate Professor of Law at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven and a Visiting Professor at the Universiteit Hasselt.
Artikel

Een visie op de taak van de Hoge Raad in de 21e eeuw

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Civiele Rechtspleging, Aflevering 5 2015
Trefwoorden kostenbeheersing, rechtsregels voor burgers, vereenvoudiging procesrecht, massaschadezaken, institutionele veranderingen
Auteurs Mr. drs. R.M. Hermans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In deze bijdrage geeft de auteur vanuit zijn rol als cassatieadvocaat zijn visie op het functioneren van de Hoge Raad.


Mr. drs. R.M. Hermans
Mr. drs. R.M. Hermans is partner bij De Brauw Blackstone Westbroek N.V. te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Access_open ‘Dissenting opinions’ in religiezaken voor het Europees Hof (I)

De Grote Kamer

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden dissenting opinions, freedom of religion, margin of appreciation, ECHR
Auteurs Prof. dr. Sophie van Bijsterveld
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Religion cases of the European Court of Human Rights are much commented on. A systematic analysis of dissenting opinions in religion cases, however, does not exist. Such analysis can shed light on dividing lines within the ECtHR and deepen our understanding of the methods of reasoning of the ECtHR itself. This article contains analysis of dissenting opinions in the rulings of the Grand Chamber in religion cases. The analysis shows a pattern in the dividing lines. Contrary to the prior expectation, the margin of appreciation as such forms no such dividing line. The article discusses and evaluates the findings.


Prof. dr. Sophie van Bijsterveld
Prof. dr. S.C. van Bijsterveld is hoogleraar Religie, recht en samenleving aan de Radboud Universiteit te Nijmegen.

    When discussing O. W. Holmes’s answer to the question What constitutes the law? Morton White underlines the fact that Holmes’s inquiry didn’t focus on developing the concept of law. White states: '…Holmes said little in The Path of the Law about the notion of legal authority, perhaps because he was interested not in what he called a "useless quintessence of all legal systems" but in "an accurate anatomy of one"'. Such ambition (or lack of ambition) is characteristic of many pragmatic enterprises in the field of jurisprudence. However, sometimes the opposition between legal pragmatism and other legal theories is built upon a reference to the notion of the 'nature' or 'essence' of law. Many legal philosophers who aim to reveal the very 'nature of law' (or 'the concept of law' as H. L. A. Hart did) try to interpret Holmes and other pragmatists as offering a competitive view to their own. I will follow White’s early intuition that such a construal of the controversy is simply wrong. Afterwards I will sketch a portrait of legal pragmatism in the context of White’s own inquiry and his version of 'holistic pragmatism'; thirdly, I will present in brief the main reasons for exploring the concept of law in the contemporary analytic philosophy of law. Then I will show that traditionally 'pragmatic' and 'analytic' efforts in legal theory are situated on different levels of generality and conceptuality. However, these efforts can be, at least to some extent, reordered under the aegis of holistic pragmatism.


Adam Michał Dyrda
Adjunct Professor, Department of Legal Theory, Faculty of Law, Jagiellonian University, Cracow, Poland. Contact: adam.dyrda@uj.edu.pl; http://jagiellonian.academia.edu/AdamDyrda.
Artikel

Grote diversiteit en enige rechtsgelijkheid

Juridische samenlevingsvormen voor paren van gelijk geslacht in Europa

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden family life, same-sex partners, registered partnership, cohabitation, non-discrimination
Auteurs Prof. mr. K. Waaldijk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article gives a compact overview of developments in national and European law regarding same-sex partners. Over the last decades, new legal family formats (such as registered partnership and de facto union) have been made available in a growing number of countries. The number of countries that have opened up marriage to same-sex couples is also growing. Authors of comparative family law have proposed various classifications of the new legal family formats. Meanwhile, an increasing number of EU laws now acknowledge non-marital partners. The European Courts have been asked several times to rule on controversial differentiations between different legal family formats or between same-sex and different-sex partners. In the case law of the European Court of Human Rights one can find examples of affirmative eloquence which suggest that more steps towards full legal recognition of same-sex families could be expected.


Prof. mr. K. Waaldijk
Prof. mr. Kees Waaldijk is als hoogleraar comparative sexual orientation law verbonden aan het Grotius Centre for International Legal Studies van Universiteit Leiden, www.law.leidenuniv.nl/waaldijk. Eerdere versies van dit artikel verschenen in het Engels (Waaldijk 2015; Waaldijk 2014). Momenteel leidt hij een onderzoek naar de rechtsgevolgen van huwelijk, partnerschap en samenwonen in een groot aantal Europese landen. Vandaar de volgende acknowledgement: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no. 320116 for the research project FamiliesAnd Societies (www.familiesandsocieties.eu). De auteur dankt José Maria Lorenzo Villaverde, onderzoeker in dit project, voor zijn nuttige opmerkingen en Jingshu Zhu voor haar hulp bij het vinden van de EU-regelingen.

    Those who talk can be heard. Those who are allowed to talk may be listened to. This study is an attempt to give legal voice to those who cannot talk or are usually not listened to: children. This study is about the attention given to their interests, the best interests of the child. When these interests are immersed in a minority context, children may be overlooked for different reasons, including discriminatory attitudes or prejudice regarding their families. Law and its interpretation must be changed in order to include the difference. This study discusses the best interests of the child principle with special attention to its legal relevance in cases where lesbians, gays, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) are, or want to be, parents. The authoritative source for the interpretation of the principle is the United Nations (UN) Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). The analysis focuses on the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) and its case law. The study aims to explore the Court’s approach to the best interest of the child and identify whether the principle is being consistently applied in cases involving LGBT families, given the fact that sexual orientation and gender identity are still sensitive issues in Europe. This is done by comparing these cases to cases lodged by applicants who were not identified as an LGBT person. The margin of appreciation doctrine and the lack of European consensus on sexual minorities’ rights are confronted with the urgent paramount consideration that has to be given to children’s best interests. The analysis explores whether there is room for detecting a possible Court’s biased approach towards the concept of the best interests of the child. This study challenges the Court’s decisions in the sense that the focus should not only be at the LGBT parents’ rights to private and family life, but also at the interests of their daughters and sons. This is an attempt to call upon the ECtHR and all states not only to actively fight discrimination against LGBT persons, but, ultimately, to stop interpreting the concept of the best interests of the child in an arguably biased way, and to consider the principle’s legal value in any decision, regardless of their parents’ sexual orientation, gender identity or any other distinction.


Mr. Gabriel Alves de Faria
Gabriel Alves de Faria is a Brazilian lawyer, LGBTI activist and human rights specialist who holds a Law degree from the Federal University of Espirito Santo and a European Master’s Degree in Human Rights and Democratisation (E. MA/EIUC - Utrecht University). Among other legal and social experiences in the human rights field, Gabriel has worked as a researcher in comparative sexual orientation Law at Leiden University and most recently as a Fellow and consultant lawyer at the LGBTI Rapporteurship of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights in Washington, DC. His latest project is a documentary on the situation of LGBTI persons in Southeast Asia.
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