Zoekresultaat: 37 artikelen

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Artikel

Defaunatie en de coronapandemie

Overexploitatie bezien vanuit een groen criminologisch perspectief

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden defaunation, corona, wildlife trade, excess, ecological interaction
Auteurs Dr. Daan van Uhm
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The overexploitation of nature has led to anthropogenic defaunation, which results in complex socioeconomic, political and ecological consequences. Influenced by the economic growth of modernization and the interconnectedness of globalization, zoonotic diseases emerge as incalculable side effects of defaunation. By rejecting anthropocentric worldviews, this article critically examines anthropogenic defaunation and the causes and consequences of the coronavirus pandemic from a green criminological perspective.


Dr. Daan van Uhm
Dr. Daan van Uhm is als universitair docent verbonden aan de sectie criminologie van het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Access_open Criminaliteit en macht: een inleiding

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden crimes of the powerful, white collar crime, hate crime, eco crime, ‘lawful but awful’
Auteurs Prof. dr. René van Swaaningen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Criminologists have by and large sought to explain crime by the deficiencies people may have. It took till the 1970s until the idea that crime can also be caused by structural power inequalities got an actual name in criminology: crimes of the powerful. Starting with the works of Willem Bonger and Edward Ross in the early 20th century, the author analyses how critical criminologists like Frank Pearce introduced the term ‘crimes of the powerful’ in the 1970s and how this concept was subsequently applied to gender- and racial inequalities, state crime, corruption et cetera, whilst pointing at the topical relevance of using a lens of ‘crimes of the powerful’ as a sensitising concept to analyse present-day problems, ranging from sexual abuse in the Roman Catholic church to the banking sector or indeed the expropriation of indigenous lands in the Amazon by soy-farmers and timber traders.


Prof. dr. René van Swaaningen
René van Swaaningen is hoogleraar criminologie en voorzitter van de sectie criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Redactioneel

Groene criminologie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2018
Auteurs Dr. Daan van Uhm en Prof. dr. Toine Spapens
Auteursinformatie

Dr. Daan van Uhm
Dr. D.P. van Uhm is universitair docent criminologie bij het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht.

Prof. dr. Toine Spapens
Prof. dr. A.C.M. Spapens is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Georganiseerde houtcriminaliteit in de Braziliaanse Amazone

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden criminal timber networks, community-based and situational forest crime prevention, Amazon rainforest, Brazil, Illegal logging
Auteurs Dr. Tim Boekhout van Solinge
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    That criminal networks are active in the illegal exploitation of timber is increasingly acknowledged. The degree of organization of these networks, and the way in which they use (threats of) violence and corruption, is less known. This article describes and analyses, on the basis of various, including local, sources, how organized criminal groups in the Amazon rainforest illegally harvest trees which they sell on the (international) market and how they try to stay immune from the law by using threats, violence, fraud and corruption. This article also discusses the first results of a three-year pilot (2014-2017) of community-based forest monitoring and protection with waterproof GPS-camera’s, developed with communities and with support of the Brazilian Public Prosecutor’s Office.


Dr. Tim Boekhout van Solinge
Dr. T. Boekhout van Solinge is onafhankelijk criminologisch onderzoeker, docent en consultant.
Artikel

Naar een non-antropocentrische criminologie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden green criminology, non-anthropocentric criminology, environmental crime, speciesism, animal rights
Auteurs Dr. Daan van Uhm
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Changing ecological conditions in a globalizing world pose new challenges for human societies. Global warming, large-scale pollution, deforestation and species extinction have increasingly become topics on the international agenda. Even though many of these harmful activities are criminogenic, criminology pays rather little attention to environmental crimes and harms.
    Therefore, this article discusses the anthropocentric perspective within criminology and argues that a non-anthropocentric criminology can lead to new theoretical insights.


Dr. Daan van Uhm
Dr. Daan van Uhm is als universitair docent verbonden aan de sectie criminologie van het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht.
Praktijk

Uitdagingen voor de toekomst van de (groene) criminologie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden environmental crime, social harm, environmental governance, green criminology
Auteurs Dr. Lieselot Bisschop
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This narrative aims to identify a number of challenges for the future of (green) criminology. It discusses what the three traditional criminological questions about criminalization, etiology and the social reaction imply in a ‘green’ context. For each of those topics, we analyse where the goals of green and mainstream criminology align and pay attention to research projects on these topics in the Netherlands and Belgium. In the end, this allows us to identify the following challenges for the future of (green) criminology: theoretical foundations, methodological creativity, interdisciplinary research projects and dialogue, and a research focus that goes beyond a preoccupation with the Global North.


Dr. Lieselot Bisschop
Dr. L.C.J. Bisschop is postdoctoraal onderzoeker bij het Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek Vlaanderen en universitair docent bij de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Roesmiddelen en regulering: oude wijn in nieuwe regels?

Inleiding

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden pleasurable substances, regulation, cannabis, war on drugs
Auteurs Prof. dr. Tom Decorte en Dr. Damián Zaitch
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In contrast with the critical, innovative ideas developed between the 1960s and the 1980s regarding the way we deal with illegal drugs in our societies, the current dominant approaches frame the issue of drugs as a matter of crime, public order, and control. Pleasurable substances have always existed and always will, and so the efforts to cope with them. However, we witness today remarkable developments at local, national and international levels in the fields of drug policies (on cannabis for example), drug trafficking (new routes, new actors) and drug use (new substances, new drug cultures), all of which deserve our attention and push us to think beyond the repressive paradigm. This contribution, which also serves as an introduction for this special issue of ToCC on drugs, aims to present an overview of the main developments taking place, and challenges ahead, within the three above-mentioned fields. There are new markets and trends in the use of legal and illegal pleasurable substances, particularly regarding synthetic drugs (amphetamines, methamphetamines and new psychoactive substances or NPS), tobacco and alcohol. Illegal drugs are supplied from changing countries and through new routes, while retailing increasingly takes place through the so-called cryptomarkets (online). Effective policies are rendered impossible by the fundamental repression paradox: the more intensive and effective the repression, the larger the profits of drug traffickers and the balloon effects (displacement). Despite the harms and negative effects of repressive policies have extensively been documented, a societal debate towards the regulation of illegal drugs is hindered by the use of false dichotomies or presuppositions, by the use of ethical or moral appeals, or by lack of political will. Also the debate in the media is static, superficial and full of clichés. Scientific research on drugs also follows specific agendas and it is focussed on particular aspects of the problem. Changes to end the ‘war on drugs’, certainly regarding cannabis, are however underway in many places at local and national level (Uruguay, Canada, US, Spain, etc.), this despite UN bureaucracies and international conventions that fiercely resist those changes.


Prof. dr. Tom Decorte
Prof. dr. Tom Decorte is antropoloog en hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit Gent, en directeur van het Instituut voor Sociaal Drugsonderzoek (ISD). Hij publiceert geregeld over drugsbeleid, cannabisteelt en drugsgebruik.

Dr. Damián Zaitch
Dr. Damián Zaitch is universitair docent bij het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht. Hij onderzoekt en publiceert over drugshandel, drugsbeleid en georganiseerde misdaad in Nederland en Latijns-Amerika, en over diverse vormen van transnationale misdaad, globale criminele markten en organisatiecriminaliteit.
Redactioneel

De bestudering van criminaliteit op macroniveau: een inleiding

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden macro criminology, theory, crime drop, punitive turn, micro-macro problem
Auteurs Dr. Frank Weerman, Dr. André van der Laan, Prof. Ineke Haen Marshall e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this introductory article we introduce the subject of our thematic issue on ‘macro criminology’, and illustrate it with a short historical overview and examples of ‘typical macro criminological’ research. Successively we address the recent decrease in crime in many Western countries (the ‘crime drop’), the increased tendency to punish more severely in the last decennia (the ‘punitive turn’), and historical developments in homicide (‘history of violence’). After that we address an important theoretical and philosophical problem with regard to macro criminology: the balance between micro and macro factors in explaining macro phenomena. Finally, the contributions of this thematic issue are introduced.


Dr. Frank Weerman
Dr. F.M. Weerman is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Dr. André van der Laan
Dr. A.M. van der Laan is senior onderzoeker bij de afdeling Criminaliteit Rechtshandhaving en Sancties (CRS) van het WODC.

Prof. Ineke Haen Marshall
Prof. I.H. Marshall is Professor bij de School of Criminology and Criminal Justice en de Department of Sociology & Anthropology van de Northeastern University in Boston (VS).

Prof. dr. Lieven Pauwels
Prof. dr. L.J.R. Pauwels is directeur van de Onderzoeksgroep Sociale Veiligheidsanalyse binnen de vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Gent.
Artikel

Thuisdealers, ritselaars en meesnoepers. Bewoners en bezoekers van grootstedelijke crackpanden

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden Crack cocaine, Drug dealing, Ethnography
Auteurs Drs. Petra Houwing, Alberto Oteo Pérez MSc en Prof. dr. Dirk J. Korf
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article is based on ethnographical research in 24 crack houses in Amsterdam, Rotterdam and The Hague. Crack houses were defined as the homes of crack users where crack is being sold and smoked together with other users. All crack houses were located in disadvantaged, multi-ethnic neighbourhoods. Both residents and visitors were men and women, middle-aged, of various ethnic origin and with a long history of hard drug use. In addition to economic benefits for residents (crack sales, getting crack for free from visitors) and sometimes also for visitors, crack houses predominantly serve as a safe haven for drug use and as a social meeting place. Two types of crack houses were found: dealing houses (with ‘home sellers’) and home circuits (divided into ‘fixers’ who arrange or facilitate that crack is available, and ‘users-for-free’, who allow that crack is sold or delivered and used in their apartment, in exchange for a bit of crack). To reduce the risk of discovery and closure, residents take various measures, but less if they are not a legal resident of the apartment. In comparison with the Anglo-Saxon literature about crack houses, there is less ethnic segregation, a less aggressive atmosphere and less involvement with prostitution.


Drs. Petra Houwing
Drs. Petra Houwing is antropoloog. Zij was als veldonderzoeker verbonden aan het Bonger Instituut, Universiteit van Amsterdam en is nu cliëntmanager bij de GGD Haaglanden.

Alberto Oteo Pérez MSc
Alberto Oteo Pérez, MSc, is promovendus bij het Bonger Instituut, Universiteit van Amsterdam, en trainee bij het EMCDDA te Lissabon.

Prof. dr. Dirk J. Korf
Prof. dr. Dirk J. Korf is bijzonder hoogleraar criminologie en directeur van het Bonger Instituut, Universiteit van Amsterdam.
Artikel

Wie heeft hier de regie?

Coffeeshops tussen lokaal, nationaal en internationaal drugsbeleid

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden coffee shops, drug policy, international drug treaties, drug tourism, multi-level governance
Auteurs Dr. M. van Ooyen-Houben en Dr. A. Mein
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Tensions between the central national level and the local level become clearly visible in coffee shop policies, which have to fit within the international VN and EU treaties and strategies, national drug policy principles and local interests of public order. Three cases, all concerning long-term problems of drug tourism, nuisance and crime around coffee shops, illustrate these tensions. In the case of coffee shop Checkpoint near the Belgian border the Public Prosecutor aimed at solving the problem by prosecuting the coffee shop as a criminal network, while the mayor tried to minimize the negative effects by facilitating visitor flows. In the case of the private club and residence criterion in 2012 not all the mayors actually enforced these national criteria. This leads to a bigger emphasis on local tailoring. Thirdly, several mayors have opted for a regulation of cannabis production for coffee shops, while the stance of the national government is that international treaties banning this practice should be respected. The influence of local policies may be small, but in the end the local communities seem crucial when it comes to finding new ways of managing drug problems.


Dr. M. van Ooyen-Houben
Dr. Marianne van Ooyen-Houben is wetenschappelijk medewerker bij het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.

Dr. A. Mein
Dr. Arnt Mein is onderzoeker bij het Verwey-Jonker Instituut.
Artikel

Criminaliteit onder Marokkaanse jongemannen in Nederland: speelt regionale herkomst een rol?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden migration and crime, social disorganisation theory, import theory of crime, Morocco
Auteurs Prof. dr. Frank Bovenkerk en Dr. Tineke Fokkema
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    High crime rates among second-generation immigrants are usually attributed to the ethnic group’s social disorganisation and weak socio-economic position in the host society. According to the import theory, the causes of crime can however also be sought in their native countries or regions. Due to a lack of empirical data, this has rarely been tested, with Moroccan immigrants in the Netherlands as exception. Ethnographic research among small groups of delinquent boys in Dutch cities suggests that the rural background or the character of the Rif area of its Moroccan immigrants may explain their high crime rate. In this article we examine whether this holds true when all young Moroccan migrants in the Netherlands are taken into account. Crime data from a Police Identification Service System (HKS) at the individual level are linked with personal data from the Social Statistical Database (SSB) of Statistics Netherlands, including their (parents’) regional descent. Logistic regression analysis shows that the current socio-economic position in the Netherlands is a strong predictor of criminal conduct, while the impact of geographic descent, directly or indirectly via socio-economic position in the Netherlands, is negligible. Based on this study, there is no reason to revise the common explanation of the immigrant-crime nexus.


Prof. dr. Frank Bovenkerk
Prof. dr. F. Bovenkerk is emeritus hoogleraar aan het Willem Pompe Instituut van de Universiteit Utrecht.

Dr. Tineke Fokkema
Dr. C.M. Fokkema is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Interdisciplinair Demografisch Instituut (NIDI-KNAW), bij de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen en bij de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Muziek, criminaliteit en cultuur

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2013
Trefwoorden Music, Crime, Culture, Criminology
Auteurs Tom Decorte en Dina Siegel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Various disciplines have a longstanding tradition of studying musical genres and the various functions of music, but few criminologists focus on music in their scientific work. This article discusses various relationships between music, crime and culture. We discuss the hypothesis of ‘criminogenic’ music genres, and countless examples of criminalisation of music. We point at the stilistic importance of music genres for subcultures and social movements, and we raise ethical aspects: music can also be used as an instrument of (symbolic) violence, as a punishment or even as torture. Finally, we discuss other functional uses of music: as a vehicle for human emotions, for therapeutic purposes, to influence the behavior of employees and consumers, to enhance feelings of public safety, and to prevent crime and nuisance.


Tom Decorte
Prof. dr. Tom Decorte is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit Gent. E-mail: Tom.Decorte@ugent.be.

Dina Siegel
Prof. dr. Dina Siegel is hoogleraar criminologie aan het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen Universiteit Utrecht. E-mail: D.Siegel@uu.nl.

Dr. Tim Boekhout van Solinge
Dr. T. Boekhout van Solinge is als universitair docent verbonden aan de afdeling criminologie van de Universiteit Utrecht
Artikel

‘Een loverboy laat niet los’

Slachtoffers van loverboys in beeld

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden Loverboys, Revictimization, Youth prostitution, National human trafficking, Youth care
Auteurs Rianne Verwijs, Arnt Mein en Marjolein Goderie
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, the concept of ‘loverboys’ is discussed and characteristics and needs of victims are described. The term ‘loverboy’ refers to a person who uses a specific method of human trafficking of mostly girls and young women. The methods involve recruitment and grooming of the girl by contacting and seducing her by means of (the promise of) a romantic relationship, with the aim of exploiting the victim sexually and financially or use her as a drug mule or otherwise. The loverboy concept is not a new phenomenon, but the traditional image of a loverboy as a charming young man operating on his own is outmoded. Victims of loverboys form a broad and diverse group, but share certain characteristics that make them vulnerable, such as attachment issues, traumatic (sexual) events in their childhood and, to a lesser extent, intellectual disability. More insight is needed in the underlying mechanisms of repeated victimization − a serious issue with loverboy victims − and how this can be prevented. Regarding loverboy victims as a specific type of national human trafficking or youth prostitution instead of isolating it as a new phenomenon, is a first step in accomplishing this.


Rianne Verwijs
Drs. Rianne Verwijs is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Verwey-Jonker Instituut. E-mail: rverwijs@verwey-jonker.nl

Arnt Mein
Mr. Arnt Mein is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het Verwey-Jonker Instituut.

Marjolein Goderie
Drs. Marjolein Goderie is als promovenda verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht.
Discussie

Walls of silence and (dis)trust

Notities bij een onderzoek naar de gepromoveerden van Diederik Stapel

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden fraud, distrust, research, access to informants
Auteurs Thaddeus Müller
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2011 it was revealed that the Dutch social-psychologist Diederik Stapel from Tilburg University faked his experiments and fabricated findings.Many of his PhD-students relied upon his statistical data and, as a result, their dissertations and publications have been qualified as fraudulent. Here I wilI focus mainly on gaining access to the PhD-students. I show that trust and distrust played an essential part in the communication with these respondents. Some of them state that the framing of Stapel as the evil mastermind is not coherent with their experience. They also define him as an enthusiastic and brilliant supervisor who was interested in their work.


Thaddeus Müller
Dr. Thaddeus Müller is verbonden aan de sectie criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. E-mail: muller@law.eur.nl
Column

Het academische antwoord op het frauderen van Stapel

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Toezicht, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden Fraude, cultuur, universiteit, toezicht, macht
Auteurs Dr. T. Müller
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In deze beschouwing over het frauderen van Diederik Stapel wordt ingegaan op de voorgestelde maatregelen om dit in de toekomst te voorkomen: meer en beter toezicht van onafhankelijke buitenstaanders. Het is de vraag of dit aansluit op de praktijk van (het ontdekken van) fraude. Zo zijn het vaak bekenden en collega’s die de fraude ontdekken. Onafhankelijke buitenstaanders weten niet waar ze moeten beginnen en zoeken in feite naar de spreekwoordelijke speld in de hooiberg. Tevens gaan de gesuggereerde maatregelen voorbij aan de culturele en sociale context waarin Stapel opereerde. Gedetailleerd inzicht hierin dient verkregen te worden om vergelijkbare vormen van fraude in de toekomst te voorkomen.


Dr. T. Müller
Dr. T. Müller is verbonden aan de sectie criminologie van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

    Illegal deforestation is generally not considered as a criminological subject but in this article it is argued that it can easily be considered as such. The central question that is addressed here is how the theme of deforestation, which clearly fits into the new realm of green criminology, relates to more traditional criminological concepts. This question is discussed through various case studies: the Brazilian Amazon (mainly Brazil), Central Africa (mainly the Democratic Republic of Congo), South East Asia (mainly Indonesia), Russian Siberia, and Pakistan's Swat forests. The case studies show that there are actually many victims of deforestation, both human and non-human, and that deforestation is linked to a variety of other crimes and harms as well. It is concluded that even without taking a green criminological perspective, several concepts of criminology apply to illegal deforestation practices: governmental and state crimes, corporate crimes, and various types of organized crime.


T. Boekhout van Solinge
Dr. Tim Boekhout van Solinge is als universitair docent verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht.
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