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De begeleiding van SVG-cliënten naar een structurele dagbesteding

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 3 2021
Trefwoorden structural daytime activities, Probation Service for addicted offenders, Subgroups, heterogeneity
Auteurs Yentl Keijser MSc en Dr. Victor van der Geest
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This study investigates daytime activities in clients at the Dutch Probation Service for addicted offenders (SVG). The article describes daytime activities, including work, based on official registrations of 9717 clients and an additional selection of client file study for 50 clients. The majority of the population does not have structural daytime activities, and within this group, substance use problems are slightly more prevalent. This study identifies four subgroups of clients without daytime activities: job seekers, work-incapacitated clients, motivated unemployed clients, and unmotivated unemployed clients. There is some heterogeneity between subgroups in terms of different background problems.


Yentl Keijser MSc
Yentl Keijser MSc is afgestudeerd criminoloog.

Dr. Victor van der Geest
Dr. Victor van der Geest is universitair docent/onderzoeker aan de Vrije Universiteit.
Artikel

‘Laat je niet misleiden door afwijkende prijzen’

Een exploratieve studie naar de ambiguïteit van betrouwbaarheid van cocaïnedealers op Telegram Messenger

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden drug dealing, trust, signaling theory, social media, netnography
Auteurs Robby Roks en Joëlle Hendriksen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In order to advance our understanding of digital drug markets on social media, this article examines the trustworthiness of cocaine dealers on Telegram Messenger. Based on an exploratory netnography, we illustrate that digital dealers on Telegram Messenger use a number of sales tactics to attract potential customers, emphasizing the quality of the goods and service and (competitive) pricing strategies. These sales tactics include various signals that seem intended to appear as trustworthy as possible to potential customers. Seen from the perspective of signaling theory, our study highlights the ambiguity of these signals that, depending on the online observer, could both signal trustworthiness and untrustworthiness.


Robby Roks
Dr. R.A. Roks is universitair docent Criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Joëlle Hendriksen
J.M.C. Hendriksen MSc is projectassistent bij RIEC Midden-Nederland districtelijk team Ondermijning Flevoland. Haar scriptie ‘“Dankjewel gozer, nooit meer een andere dealer”: een netnografische studie naar risico en vertrouwen in het online vraag en aanbod van verdovende middelen via Telegram Messenger’ (2020), geschreven als masterscriptie Criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, vormde de basis van het onderhavige artikel.
Artikel

Herstelrecht en recidivevermindering

Meningen van Surinaamse ex-gedetineerde jongemannen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden Suriname, herstelrecht, jongvolwassenen, ex-gedetineerden
Auteurs Sabine de Vries
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article analyzes the opinion of twenty-four Surinamese ex-convicted young men on restorative justice. The results were obtained through four focus group sessions and a concise survey form. The factors (a) type of offense, (b) seriousness of offense and (c) prevention of recurrence were discussed. The opinions are divided, but the majority is of the opinion that restorative justice can mainly work for serious and violent crimes. Fear of revenge appears to be a barrier to participation. Employment has been indicated as the key to real recovery of the offender and prevention of recidivism (and thus satisfaction for the victim). The results provide insight into the susceptibility to restorative justice among this specific group in Suriname.


Sabine de Vries
Sabine M. de Vries is socioloog en als fulltime onderzoeker verbonden aan het Instituut voor Maatschappijwetenschappelijk Onderzoek (IMWO), Anton de Kom Universiteit van Suriname.
Artikel

Bounding Border Checks

A Comparative Approach to Crimmigration, Race, and Policing at the US Internal Border

Tijdschrift Crimmigratie & Recht, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden Border checks, US International Border, US Border Patrol, Schengen area
Auteurs David Hamburger
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Crimmigration – the hybridization of criminal law and migration policy – is a transatlantic phenomenon. Despite this growing recognition, however, academic attention has thus far tended to focus more on discrete cases than on the similarities across regional contexts. In considering internal checkpoint stops conducted by US Border Patrol within the context of ongoing debates about racial profiling and policing of the internal border in the Schengen area, this article aims to provide a comparative lens by which to assess the questions at the heart of the current European discussion. An examination of both the jurisprudence and practice of the US internal border, this comparison suggests, offers a cautionary tale for European attempts to balance the fight against cross-border crime with the principles of human rights and the promise of a Europe free of internal frontiers.


David Hamburger
D.J. Hamburger LLM is a recent LLM graduate of the Europa Instituut at Leiden Law School, where he was an NAF-Fulbright fellow.
Artikel

The Crimmigration Trend in the Netherlands: Some Critical Reflections

Tijdschrift Crimmigratie & Recht, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden crimmigration, immigration control, irregular migrants, the Netherlands, crimmigration critique
Auteurs Richard Staring en Ruben Timmerman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Over the past decade, the concept of crimmigration has dominated legal and criminological understanding of contemporary immigration control. Drawing on the Netherlands as case study, this article provides a critical reflection on ‘crimmigration’ as both a policy trend and a scholarly trend. We argue that much of the existing scholarship has presented a one-dimensional understanding of crimmigration as a unilateral process singularly trending towards increasing punitiveness, securitization and exclusion. We examine a number of concrete examples illustrating the need for a more complex understanding that incorporates an analysis of the full range of actors and (counter)processes within the field of crimmigration.


Richard Staring
Prof. dr. R.H.J.M. Staring, sectie Criminologie, Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Ruben Timmerman
R.I. Timmerman LLM, MA, PhD candidate, sectie Criminologie, Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Article

Access_open The Influence of Strategic Culture on Legal Justifications Comparing British and German Parliamentary Debates Regarding the War against ISIS

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden strategic culture, international law, ISIS, parliamentary debates, interdisciplinarity
Auteurs Martin Hock
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article presents an interdisciplinary comparison of British and German legal arguments concerning the justification of the use of force against the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS). It is situated in the broader framework of research on strategic culture and the use of international law as a tool for justifying state behaviour. Thus, a gap in political science research is analysed: addressing legal arguments as essentially political in their usage. The present work questions whether differing strategic cultures will lead to a different use of legal arguments. International legal theory and content analysis are combined to sort arguments into the categories of instrumentalism, formalism and natural law. To do so, a data set consisting of all speeches with regard to the fight against ISIS made in both parliaments until the end of 2018 is analysed. It is shown that Germany and the UK, despite their varying strategic cultures, rely on similar legal justifications to a surprisingly large extent.


Martin Hock
Martin Hock is Research Associate at the Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.
Artikel

Access_open Het spanningsveld tussen regels en ruimte: een onderzoek naar taakgerelateerd ongeoorloofd handelen binnen de Nederlandse politie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden taakgerelateerd ongeoorloofd handelen, noble cause corruption, politie, leiderschap, ethiek
Auteurs Robin Christiaan van Halderen en Benjamin Rafaël van Gelderen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The aim of the present research was to gain insight into the topic of ‘task-related rule-breaking behavior’ (TRB) among Dutch police officers. TRB is a more refined alternative for the concept of noble cause corruption and has been defined as: police officers breaking rules or formal agreements for the purpose of acting in a manner that contributes to the lawful police task. Qualitative research has been conducted within one of the ten regional police forces in the Netherlands. Results show that TRB appears to be a relatively common phenomenon during policework. Behaviors are categorized in sixteen categories and five overarching outlines. In addition, attention is given to several important factors that could be related to TRB being distinguishable between police officers’ individual responsibility and organizational factors. To handle TRB, it is recommended to pay attention to the police officers’ approach of judging and rationalizing their own behavior, their level of knowledge, and social skills. Furthermore, organizational structure (i.e., spam of control) and police leadership may, among other factors, play an important role in encouraging TRB. Especially the way supervisors deal with police officers’ professional autonomy needs specific attention in order to reduce TRB. Autonomy needs guidance in the form of clear orders followed by feedback and coaching. Also, an active form of ethical leadership is needed. An action framework is presented that could be helpful to supervisors to judge and thereby reduce forms of TRB.


Robin Christiaan van Halderen
Robin Christiaan van Halderen is werkzaam bij het Expertisecentrum Veiligheid van Avans Hogeschool te 's-Hertogenbosch.

Benjamin Rafaël van Gelderen
Benjamin Rafaël van Gelderen is Sectorhoofd Politie van de Eenheid Limburg, District Noord- en Midden-Limburg.
Titel

De verstrekking van juridische voorwaarden in het voorportaal van de cloud

Tijdschrift Contracteren, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden account, cloudcontract, algemene voorwaarden, toestemming, gegevensbescherming
Auteurs Mr. dr. Evert Neppelenbroek
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Steeds meer particulieren maken gebruik van een cloudprovider voor het delen of bewaren van documenten. Bij het aanmaken van het account voor de toegang tot deze digitale dienst moeten deze gebruikers akkoord gaan met de juridische voorwaarden. In deze bijdrage wordt de terbeschikkingstelling van deze voorwaarden kritisch bekeken vanuit de regelingen over algemene voorwaarden in het Burgerlijk Wetboek en over toestemming als grond voor gegevensverwerking in de Algemene Verordening Gegevensbescherming.


Mr. dr. Evert Neppelenbroek
Mr. dr. E.D.C. Neppelenbroek is universitair docent IT-recht aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. Hij dankt masterstudent Maarten Bouwman, die als paralegal voorbereidend werk heeft verricht.
Artikel

Access_open De gelegenheid te baat nemen?

Criminaliteit in tijden van corona en sociale onthouding

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden Corona, Crime, Lockdown, Opportunity theory, COVID-19
Auteurs Dr. Edwin Kruisbergen, Marco Haas MA, Drs. Joanieke Snijders e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    To control the COVID-19 outbreak Dutch government opted for a so-called intelligent lockdown. The virus as well as the lockdown caused significant personal and societal damage. It also created, however, a unique natural experiment. How did the forced stay in affect the crime levels? This article presents empirical data on crime trends during the lockdown. Initially, the general crime level decreased sharply. However, the general crime level quickly returned to pre-lockdown levels. Different types of crime displayed divergent trends, e.g. property crimes decreased sharply whereas online crime rates increased considerably. These trends fit rather well with an opportunity theoretical approach regarding crime.


Dr. Edwin Kruisbergen
Edwin Kruisbergen is onderzoeker Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) en Kenniscoördinator DG Politie en Veiligheidsregio’s, Ministerie van Justitie en Veiligheid. Als onderzoeker vooral actief op de terreinen georganiseerde criminaliteit en opsporing.

Marco Haas MA
Marco Haas is teamleider van het Informatie-analyseteam (IAT) van DG Politie en Veiligheidsregio’s (Ministerie van JenV) en de politie. Het IAT is een gecombineerd team van politie, JenV en het CBS dat op basis van data-analyse politiethema’s onderzoekt ten behoeve van beleids- en besluitvorming.

Drs. Joanieke Snijders
Joanieke Snijders is informatieanalist bij het Informatie-analyseteam (IAT) van DG Politie en Veiligheidsregio’s (Ministerie van JenV) en de politie. Projectcoördinator van de ontwikkeling van een datagedreven monitor die maatschappelijke ontwikkelingen volgt en de mogelijke invloed daarvan in kaart brengt.

Ron Maas MMO
Ron Maas is teamleider Informatie-analyseteam (IAT) en Hoofd Nationale Briefing, Politie.
Artikel

Vergissingen of leugens?

Tijdschrift Advocatenblad, Aflevering 10 2020
Auteurs Lex van Almelo

Lex van Almelo

Mr. K.R. Concincion
Mr. K.R. Concincion is de Ombudsman van Curaçao. Deze boekbespreking is op persoonlijke titel geschreven.

Mr. M.E.B. de Haseth
Mr. M.E.B. de Haseth is lid van het Gemeenschappelijk Hof van Justitie van Aruba, Curaçao, Sint Maarten en van Bonaire, Sint Eustatius en Saba.

    The Danish Supreme Court recently held that an employer had discharged the reversed burden of proof in a case concerning a physiotherapist who was dismissed shortly after her return from maternity leave.


Christian K. Clasen
Christian K. Clasen is a partner at Norrbom Vinding, Copenhagen.
Artikel

Access_open Kenmerken van kunstcriminaliteit

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden art theft, history of art theft, organized crime, motives for stealing, international networks
Auteurs Noah Charney
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article seeks to provide an introduction to art theft today. It is divided into sections that look at the context in which art is stolen, definitions of key terms, an explanation as to why the field is understudied and under-reported, and a brief history of the phenomenon. It also contains sidelines on actual developments like the theft of a Van Gogh painting from the Singer Laren Museum in the Netherlands as well as on the drop of art theft since the start of the Corona pandemic.


Noah Charney
Dr. N. Charney is als adjunct-professor Kunstgeschiedenis verbonden aan de American University of Rome en de universiteit van Ljubljana. Hij is de oprichter van ARCA, the Association for Research into Crimes against Art (www.artcrimeresearch.org).
Article

Access_open The Challenges for England’s Post-Conviction Review Body

Deference to Juries, the Principle of Finality and the Court of Appeal

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden wrongful conviction, criminal justice, Criminal Cases Review Commission, Court of Appeal, discretion
Auteurs Carolyn Hoyle
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since 1997, the Criminal Cases Review Commission of England, Wales and Northern Ireland has served as a state-funded post-conviction body to consider claims of wrongful conviction for those who have exhausted their rights to appeal. A meticulous organisation that has over its lifetime referred over 700 cases back to the Court of Appeal, resulting in over 60% of those applicants having their convictions quashed, it is nonetheless restricted in its response to cases by its own legislation. This shapes its decision-making in reviewing cases, causing it to be somewhat deferential to the original jury, to the principle of finality and, most importantly, to the Court of Appeal, the only institution that can overturn a wrongful conviction. In mandating such deference, the legislation causes the Commission to have one eye on the Court’s evolving jurisprudence but leaves room for institutional and individual discretion, evidenced in some variability in responses across the Commission. While considerable variability would be difficult to defend, some inconsistency raises the prospects for a shift towards a less deferential referral culture. This article draws on original research by the author to consider the impact of institutional deference on the work of the Criminal Cases Review Commission and argues for a slightly bolder approach in its work


Carolyn Hoyle
Carolyn Hoyle is Professor of Criminology at the Faculty of Law, University of Oxford, UK.
Article

Access_open Between Legal Certainty and Doubt

The Developments in the Procedure to Overturn Wrongful Convictions in the Netherlands

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden revision law, post-conviction review, wrongful convictions, miscarriages of justice, criminal law, empirical research
Auteurs Nina Holvast, Joost Nan en Sjarai Lestrade
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch legislature has recently (2012) altered the legislation for post-conviction revision of criminal cases. The legislature aimed to improve the balance between the competing interests of individual justice and the finality of verdicts, by making post-conviction revision more accessible. In this article we describe the current legal framework for revising cases. We also study how the revision procedure functions in practice, by looking at the types and numbers of (successful) requests for further investigations and applications for revision. We observe three challenges in finding the right balance in the revision process in the Netherlands. These challenges concern: 1) the scope of the novum criterion (which is strict), 2) the appropriate role of an advisory committee (the ACAS) in revision cases (functioning too much as a pre-filter for the Supreme Court) and, 3) the difficulties that arise due to requiring a defence council when requesting a revision (e.g., financial burdens).


Nina Holvast
Nina Holvast is Assistant Professor at the Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Joost Nan
Joost Nan is Associate Professor at the Erasmus University Rotterdam.

Sjarai Lestrade
Sjarai Lestrade is Assistant Professor at the Radboud University Nijmegen.
Artikel

Kroniek van het bestuursrecht

Tijdschrift Caribisch Juristenblad, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden Landsverordeningen administratieve rechtspraak (Lar), mandaat
Auteurs Prof. mr. L.J.J. Rogier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Bij de opheffing van het land de Nederlandse Antillen op 10 oktober 2010 (10-10-’10) is de bestuursrechtelijke regelgeving grotendeels ongewijzigd overgenomen door de nieuwe landen Curaçao en Sint Maarten. Aruba had al sinds zijn status aparte in 1986 zijn eigen bestuursrechtelijke regelgeving en wetten. Voor Caribisch Nederland (de BES-eilanden) bleef ook grotendeels de oude Nederlands-Antilliaanse wetgeving van kracht. Dat maakt dat de regelgeving van alle Caribische landen en eilanden van het Koninkrijk in het algemeen sterk verouderd is. De bestuursrechtelijke jurisprudentie in de West volgt in het algemeen die in Nederland. Er zijn in het afgelopen decennium geen baanbrekende uitspraken gedaan.


Prof. mr. L.J.J. Rogier
Prof. mr. L.J.J. Rogier is als buitengewoon hoogleraar staats- en bestuursrecht verbonden aan de Universiteit van Curaçao en maakt deel uit van de redactie van het Caribisch Juristenblad.
Article

Access_open Can Non-discrimination Law Change Hearts and Minds?

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden law and society, social change, discrimination, non-discrimination law, positive action
Auteurs Anita Böcker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A question that has preoccupied sociolegal scholars for ages is whether law can change ‘hearts and minds’. This article explores whether non-discrimination law can create social change, and, more particularly, whether it can change attitudes and beliefs as well as external behaviour. The first part examines how sociolegal scholars have theorised about the possibility and desirability of using law as an instrument of social change. The second part discusses the findings of empirical research on the social working of various types of non-discrimination law. What conclusions can be drawn about the ability of non-discrimination law to create social change? What factors influence this ability? And can non-discrimination law change people’s hearts and minds as well as their behaviour? The research literature does not provide an unequivocal answer to the latter question. However, the overall picture emerging from the sociolegal literature is that law is generally more likely to bring about changes in external behaviour and that it can influence attitudes and beliefs only indirectly, by altering the situations in which attitudes and opinions are formed.


Anita Böcker
Anita Böcker is associate professor of Sociology of Law at Radboud University, Nijmegen.
Article

Access_open The Potential of Positive Obligations Against Romaphobic Attitudes and in the Development of ‘Roma Pride’

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden Roma, Travellers, positive obligations, segregation, culturally adequate accommodation
Auteurs Lilla Farkas en Theodoros Alexandridis
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article analyses the jurisprudence of international tribunals on the education and housing of Roma and Travellers to understand whether positive obligations can change the hearts and minds of the majority and promote minority identities. Case law on education deals with integration rather than cultural specificities, while in the context of housing it accommodates minority needs. Positive obligations have achieved a higher level of compliance in the latter context by requiring majorities to tolerate the minority way of life in overwhelmingly segregated settings. Conversely, little seems to have changed in education, where legal and institutional reform, as well as a shift in both majority and minority attitudes, would be necessary to dismantle social distance and generate mutual trust. The interlocking factors of accessibility, judicial activism, European politics, expectations of political allegiance and community resources explain jurisprudential developments. The weak justiciability of minority rights, the lack of resources internal to the community and dual identities among the Eastern Roma impede legal claims for culture-specific accommodation in education. Conversely, the protection of minority identity and community ties is of paramount importance in the housing context, subsumed under the right to private and family life.


Lilla Farkas
Lilla Farkas is a practising lawyer in Hungary and recently earned a PhD from the European University Institute entitled ‘Mobilising for racial equality in Europe: Roma rights and transnational justice’. She is the race ground coordinator of the European Union’s Network of Legal Experts in Gender Equality and Non-discrimination.

Theodoros Alexandridis
Theodoros Alexandridis is a practicing lawyer in Greece.
Artikel

Pro-cycling’s doping pentiti

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden doping, cycling, cultural criminology, crime facilitative system, organisational crime
Auteurs Dr. mr. Roland Moerland en Giulio Soana
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Throughout the last decade several cyclists have published memoirs in which they account for their doping use. In previous literature such autobiographical accounts have been characterized as attempts of fallen sports stars to sanitize their spoiled public image. In contrast, the analysis in this article will show that the accounts are of relevance when it comes to understanding the problem of doping in professional cycling. Their accounts break the omertà regarding doping, providing insights about the motivation and opportunity structures behind doping and how such structures are endemic to the system of professional cycling.


Dr. mr. Roland Moerland
Dr. mr. Roland Moerland is universitair docent criminologie aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Universiteit Maastricht.

Giulio Soana
Giulio Soana is afgestudeerd Master Forensica, Criminologie en Rechtspleging, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Universiteit Maastricht.
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