Zoekresultaat: 3 artikelen

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Artikel

Wildlife crime als een complex systeem: hoe agent-gebaseerde modellen gebruikt kunnen worden om stroperij te bestuderen en bestrijden

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden wildlife crime, agent-based modeling, law enforcement, poaching, complex systems
Auteurs Jacob van der Ploeg MSc., Nick van Doormaal MSc., Dr. Michael Mäs e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Developing effective anti-poaching strategies is difficult because of complex interactions between animals, poachers, and rangers. This study shows the utility of agent-based models (ABM) for unraveling these interactions, and their underlying mechanisms, to identify relevant components for planning ranger operations. Here, two patrol strategies were simulated using an ABM for wildlife crime to quantify their effectiveness under different circumstances. The model showed border patrols to be more effective than search patrols in protecting both solitary and herd animals. Furthermore, the model suggests that rangers catch fewer poachers when patrols are overly focused on locations where poaching was detected previously. The study illustrates that disciplined model development and testing is required for useful conclusions to be drawn, from a fully understood ABM.


Jacob van der Ploeg MSc.
J.A. van der Ploeg, MSc. is onderzoekmedewerker aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.

Nick van Doormaal MSc.
N. van Doormaal, MSc. is promovendus bij het NSCR in Amsterdam.

Dr. Michael Mäs
Dr. M. Mäs is assistant professor aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.

Dr. Andrew M. Lemieux
Dr. A.M. Lemieux is onderzoeker bij het NSCR in Amsterdam.

Prof. Arnaud de Graaf
Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus University Rotterdam.

Prof. dr. Klaus Heine
Erasmus School of Law, Tax Law Department, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
Article

Access_open The Economics and Empirics of Tax Competition: A Survey and Lessons for the EU

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden tax competition, tax coordination, European Union, fiscal federalism
Auteurs Thushyanthan Baskaran Ph.D. en Mariana Lopes da Fonseca
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    We survey the theoretical and empirical literature on local and international tax competition in Economics. On the basis of this survey, we discuss whether EU countries should harmonise tax policies to prevent a race to the bottom. Much of the evidence suggests that tax competition does not lead to significant reductions in tax revenues. Therefore, we conclude that tax coordination is in all likelihood unnecessary to prevent inefficiently low levels of taxation in the EU. But since the evidence against the adverse effects of tax competition is not unambiguous, we also discuss whether intergovernmental transfers might be a less invasive means than outright tax harmonisation to prevent a race to the bottom.


Thushyanthan Baskaran Ph.D.
University of Goettingen, Germany.

Mariana Lopes da Fonseca
University of Goettingen, Germany.
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