Zoekresultaat: 23 artikelen

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Artikel

Het contact tussen gedetineerden en interne en externe re-integratieprofessionals in Nederlandse penitentiaire inrichtingen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden contact, professionals, gevangenis, re-integratie, casemanagement
Auteurs Amanda Pasma, Esther van Ginneken, Anouk Bosma e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Prisoners often encounter multiple barriers when returning to society, resulting in higher risks of recidivism. To overcome these barriers, prison-based and community-based professionals assist with preparation for release. Prison-based professionals, such as the case manager and mentor, screen and monitor the problems regarding work and income, housing, healthcare, financial debts and valid identification. Community-based professionals, such as municipal officials, parole officers, healthcare professionals and volunteers, can provide additional and specialized help. First, this research discusses the current policy of the Dutch Custodial Institutions Agency (DJI) and the role of different types of professionals. Second, it presents a nationwide picture of the extent to which prisoners report contact with prison-based and community-based professionals, and to what degree prisoners appreciate this contact. The results are specified for various types of regimes and time served and are based on 4308 prisoner surveys of the Dutch Prison Visitation Study (DPVS), part of the Life in Custody Study (LIC-study). It turns out that most prisoners seem to be in close contact with prison-based professionals and that prisoners positively value this contact. However, contact with community-based professionals is limited and prisoners are somewhat dissatisfied about their contact with parole officers and municipal officials. Furthermore, the amount of contact differs across various types of regimes and time served. In particular, individuals who recently entered prison report less contact. To conclude, policy implications will be discussed.


Amanda Pasma
Amanda J. Pasma is PhD-student aan de Universiteit Leiden, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid.

Esther van Ginneken
Esther van Ginneken is Universitair Docent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid.

Anouk Bosma
Anouk Bosma was ten tijde van het onderzoek Universitair Docent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid.

Hanneke Palmen
Hanneke Palmen is Universitair hoofddocent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid.

Paul Nieuwbeerta
Paul Nieuwbeerta is Hoogleraar Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid.
Artikel

Trials in absentia of foreign terrorist fighters in the Netherlands and Belgium

Tijdschrift Crimmigratie & Recht, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden the right to be present, trials in absentia, foreign terrorist fighters, The Netherlands, Belgium
Auteurs Mr. Zoë Heij
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Judgements rendered in the accused’s absence form a special category of criminal judgements that undoubtedly do not provide for the same safeguards that would be in place when a judgement is rendered in the accused’s presence. Nonetheless, provided that strict conditions are adhered to, trials in absentia can be compatible with the accused’s right to be present. This article examines the standards that have been developed under international human rights law, providing for the normative framework, to see to what extent the trials in absentia of foreign terrorist fighters in the Netherlands and Belgium comply therewith. By pointing to analogies and contrasts, this article wishes to contribute to finding answers to this dilemma.


Mr. Zoë Heij
Mr. Z. Heij behaalde de research master in Public International Law aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Zij liep ten tijde van het schrijven van dit artikel stage bij Prakken d’Oliveira.
Artikel

Access_open Technologische hulpmiddelen bij toezicht op delinquenten in de samenleving

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden supervising offenders, reintegrating offenders, technological tools, smartphone and sensor technology, GPS tracking
Auteurs Dr. Katy de Kogel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    How can technological tools contribute to supervising and reintegrating offenders in society? Globally, technological tools for supervision are broken down into so-called first generation (GPS tracking) and second generation (smartphone and sensor technology). An overview is given of what is globally known about the effectiveness and assumed mechanisms of action of first-generation technical tools. Then it is explored what added value second-generation technical aids can have and to which working mechanisms they could connect. Smartphone and sensor technology have the potential to contribute to the rehabilitation functions of the supervision, inter alia because they offer possibilities for more personalized supervision and for the combination of supervision and treatment. Although initiatives have been started in this regard and research is ongoing, hardly anything is known yet about the effectiveness of these new technological applications. The reliability and safety of IT, as well as ethical and legal aspects also require attention.


Dr. Katy de Kogel
Dr. C.H. de Kogel is senior wetenschappelijk medewerker bij het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het ministerie van Justitie en Veiligheid en senior onderzoeker bij de Capaciteitsgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Faculteit Rechten van de Universiteit Maastricht.
Artikel

Zelfredzaamheid in detentie

Kritische kanttekeningen bij het systeem van promoveren en degraderen

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden Zelfredzaamheid, Burgerschap, Gevangenis, Autonomie
Auteurs Dr. Esther van Ginneken
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the ‘participation society’ it is expected that citizens actively contribute to solving societal problems, including health care, immigration and security issues. A somewhat similar responsibilisation culture is visible in prisons, where prisoners are held responsible for their own rehabilitation. This article problematizes the way in which prisoners’ agency is promoted in Dutch prisons, considering prisoners’ constrained agency and the normative expectations that are tied to the approach. This critique is advanced through discussion of the promotion/demotion system that has been used in Dutch prisons since 2014. This system, comparable to the Incentives and Earned Privileges system in England and Wales, espouses both ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ behavioural norms. The soft behavioural norms reflect a citizenship ideal that extends beyond compliance with the law. It is argued that these normative expectations tied to agency have a limiting effect on prisoners’ autonomy. This article argues in favour of a shift from the citizenship ideal to an autonomy ideal, which applies the principle of minimum restrictions. Furthermore, access to education, reintegration courses and contact with family should be treated as a right, rather than a privilege, in order to maximise autonomy and minimise the harmful effects of imprisonment.


Dr. Esther van Ginneken
Dr. Esther van Ginneken is universitair docent Criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Article

Access_open Legal Constraints on the Indeterminate Control of ‘Dangerous’ Sex Offenders in the Community: The Dutch Perspective

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden Dutch penal law, preventive supervision, dangerous offenders, human rights, social rehabilitation
Auteurs Sanne Struijk en Paul Mevis
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands, the legal possibilities for post-custodial supervision have been extended considerably in recent years. A currently passed law aims to further increase these possibilities specifically for dangerous (sex) offenders. This law consists of three separate parts that may all result in life-long supervision. In the first two parts, the supervision is embedded in the conditional release after either a prison sentence or the safety measure ‘ter beschikking stelling’ (TBS). This paper focuses on the third part of the law, which introduces an independent supervisory safety measure as a preventive continuation of both a prison sentence and the TBS measure. Inevitably, this new independent sanction raises questions about legitimacy and necessity, on which this paper reflects from a human rights perspective. Against the background of the existing Dutch penal law system, the content of the law is thoroughly assessed in view of the legal framework of the Council of Europe and the legal principles of proportionality and less restrictive means. In the end, we conclude that the supervisory safety measure is not legitimate nor necessary (yet). Apart from the current lack of (empirical evidence of) necessity, we state that there is a real possibility of an infringement of Article 5(4) ECHR and Article 7 ECHR, a lack of legitimising supervision ‘gaps’ in the existing penal law system, and finally a lack of clear legal criteria. Regardless of the potential severity of violent (sex) offenses, to simply justify this supervisory safety measure on the basis of ‘better safe than sorry’ is not enough.


Sanne Struijk
Sanne Struijk, Ph.D., is an Associate Professor at the Erasmus School of Law.

Paul Mevis
Paul Mevis is a Professor at the Erasmus School of Law.
Artikel

Vrijwilligers bij de Nationale Politie: leren van andere organisaties

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2016
Trefwoorden Dutch National Police, volunteering work, innovative mechanisms, customization, managing expectations
Auteurs Prof. dr. M. Thaens en Dr. D. de Kool
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article summarizes the results of a study into new innovative forms of volunteer work which could possibly help the Dutch National Police to increase the number of volunteers. The empirical data were collected by a desk study, the analysis of five case studies and two focus groups. Three different themes were analyzed: mobilizing target groups, matching expectations, and formalization and institutionalization of volunteering work. Public organizations in general don’t realize enough the value of volunteers. Often there is lack of a clear vision, while more attention should go to managing expectations, customization, furthering the education of police volunteers, acceptance and support, guidance and support, recognition, appreciation and reward, and finally more room for volunteers.


Prof. dr. M. Thaens
Prof. dr. Marcel Thaens is bestuurskundige en werkzaam als Principal Consultant bij PBLQ. Daarnaast is hij bijzonder hoogleraar Bestuurskunde aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Dr. D. de Kool
Dr. Dennis de Kool is bestuurskundige en als onderzoeker werkzaam bij Risbo, een onafhankelijk instituut voor onderzoek, training en advies, dat is verbonden aan de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Waartoe is de Protestantse Kerk in Nederland op aarde?

Haar toekomst volgens de nota Kerk 2025

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden Protestantse Kerk in Nederland, kerk in de samenleving, krimpende kerk
Auteurs Prof. dr. Herman Noordegraaf
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Protestant Church accepted in November 2015 a report about her future. This reflection was necessary because of the shrinking amount of members and of income. The report combines a principal view on the essence of being church with practical proposals to get a more simple organisation of the church and savings in expenditures. The responsibility of the church for society is explicitly stated. Much shall depend on the concrete follow up. Needed is more attention to the question how this responsibility can get shape.


Prof. dr. Herman Noordegraaf
Prof. dr. H. Noordegraaf is universitair docent en bijzonder hoogleraar voor diaconaat aan de Protestantse Theologische Universiteit Amsterdam/Groningen.
Artikel

Access_open Bekering als asielmotief

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden Bekering, Asielzoeker, Vluchteling, Bekeerde christen
Auteurs Mr. Kezia Haar en Mr. Gieneke Douma
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A foreign national can be granted asylum if he has made it plausible that he is persecuted in his country for reasons related to religion. In order to make his asylum motives plausible, an applicant must declare consistently and coherently. There cannot be any doubt as to his identity or his asylum motives. A claimed convert has to declare convincingly about his conversion and has to demonstrate a broad knowledge of his Faith. Often, pastors and churches write testimonies stating the conversion is genuine. These letters are important, but never a decisive factor.


Mr. Kezia Haar
Mr. K. Haar is in 2014 cum laude afgestudeerd in het Nederlands recht aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen en is thans werkzaam als procesvertegenwoordiger bij de Immigratie- en Naturalisatiedienst. Dit artikel is geschreven op persoonlijke titel.

Mr. Gieneke Douma
Mr. G.J. Douma is in 1985 afgestudeerd in het Nederlands recht aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen en is thans werkzaam als senior procesvertegenwoordiger bij de Immigratie- en Naturalisatiedienst.
Redactioneel

Dreiging

Tijdschrift Advocatenblad, Aflevering 2 2016
Auteurs Daphne van Paassen

Daphne van Paassen
Artikel

Waarom advocaten zwijgen over agressie

Tijdschrift Advocatenblad, Aflevering 2 2016
Auteurs Sabine Droogleever Fortuyn

Sabine Droogleever Fortuyn
Artikel

Een kwestie van integraal slim slaan?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2015
Trefwoorden elder abuse, financial exploitation, criminal investigation, all party approach, cases of prosecutionof financial abuse
Auteurs Drs. L.M. Cremers en Drs. E.J.H. de Kluijs
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the authors discuss the opportunities and challenges they experience from the criminal investigation of financial exploitation of the elderly. By sharing knowledge and experience, they stress that the all party approach in this distressing problem, from the viewpoint of criminal investigations, will achieve the best results. This article could thus be seen as a first step, and invitation, to discuss future interventions and policymaking on fighting the exploitation of the elderly to prevent, detect and investigate these crimes.


Drs. L.M. Cremers
Drs. Lucas Cremers MCI is als operationeel specialist werkzaam bij het Team Financieel Rechercheren van de politie Oost-Nederland.

Drs. E.J.H. de Kluijs
Drs. Esther de Kluijs is als operationeel specialist werkzaam bij het Team Financieel Rechercheren van de politie Oost-Nederland.
Artikel

Ouderenmishandeling

Een verkenning naar aard en omvang

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2015
Trefwoorden elder abuse, victims, prevalence, definition, study method
Auteurs Drs. I. Plaisier en Drs. M. de Klerk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Older people can become victims of abuse by someone they know and whom they depend on, such as family, friends or professional caregivers. Elder abuse is not always intentional, sometimes it is due to care falling short. Conducting a study to explore the prevalence of elder abuse is difficult. Commissioned by the Dutch State Secretary for Health, Welfare and Sport, the Netherlands Institute for Social Research (SCP) has brought together the current knowledge on this topic using the most recent data drawn from qualitative research, surveys of older persons, professionals and volunteers, and record data. The sources together do not produce an unambiguous picture of the actual number of victims in the Netherlands. All sources produce far lower figures than the estimated 200,000 based on a study of twenty years ago. The numbers found depend strongly on the research method and definition of the phenomenon.


Drs. I. Plaisier
Drs. Inger Plaisier is als onderzoeker werkzaam bij het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau (SCP) in Den Haag.

Drs. M. de Klerk
Drs. Mirjam de Klerk is als onderzoeker werkzaam bij het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau (SCP) in Den Haag.
Artikel

Systeemmishandeling: recht doen aan de zienswijzen van ouderen zelf

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2015
Trefwoorden Definitions of elder abuse, System abuse, Societal norms, Institutional reforms, Discrimination of the elderly
Auteurs Dr. J. Lindenberg, Dr. Y. Mysyuk en Prof.dr. R.G.J. Westendorp
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Two approaches have dominated the way elder abuse is explained and defined: the intrapersonal and interpersonal approaches. More recently, an environmental approach is emerging that takes into account contextual factors. This approach also meets the perspectives of older individuals themselves better. They describe how they feel abused or neglected by the system – by the way in which we organize our institutions. Institutions mirror our society and are shaped in interaction with societal norms and expectations. This influences the way in which older individuals are looked upon, are being approached, and how they see themselves within these institutions. This system abuse is currently beyond the scope of the most commonly used definitions and approaches of elder abuse. However, it is important to acknowledge system abuse, because it makes explicit how older individuals feel abused by and within our institutions. The distress and harm that they experience can therewith be acknowledged and prevented.


Dr. J. Lindenberg
Dr. Jolanda Lindenberg is wetenschappelijk stafmedewerker bij de Leyden Academy on Vitality and Ageing en tevens verbonden aan het Leids Universitair Medisch Centrum (LUMC).

Dr. Y. Mysyuk
Dr. Yuliya Mysyuk is recent gepromoveerd op haar proefschrift over perspectieven op ouderenmishandeling in Nederland en verbonden aan de Leyden Academy on Vitality and Ageing.

Prof.dr. R.G.J. Westendorp
Prof. dr. Rudi Westendorp is hoogleraar ouderengeneeskunde aan de afdeling publieke gezondheidszorg van de Universiteit van Kopenhagen en tevens verbonden aan het Leids Universitair Medisch Centrum (LUMC).
Artikel

De ervaren mogelijkheden om te re-integreren vanuit detentie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 0304 2015
Trefwoorden Prison life, staff-prisoner relationships, correctional officers, rehabilitation, survey
Auteurs Toon Molleman en Karin Lasthuizen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article we examine which factors are correlated to the rehabilitation of prisoners. Central is the prisoners’ willingness during their imprisonment to work on a successful return in society. Assumptions derived from the theory were statistically tested with data from the Dutch Detainee Survey 2014; a large-scale study, in which prisoners held in all Dutch penitentiary institutions (N = 29) were surveyed (n = 2120). The results are in line with the theory and show that detainees are more positive about their (potential for) rehabilitation when they are more satisfied with a) the way they are treated by correctional officers (staff orientation); b) active deployment of the so-called Detention and Re-integration Plan; c) their daily program and activities, and; d) the experienced autonomy and personal decision-making. These outcomes offer fruitful perspectives on how the prison system can promote a successful return of prisoners in our society.


Toon Molleman
Toon Molleman is strategisch management adviseur bij de divisie gevangeniswezen en vreemdelingenbewaring van de Dienst Justitiële Inrichtingen.

Karin Lasthuizen
Karin Lasthuizen is universitair hoofddocent Bestuurskunde aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

De stekker eruit? Over de relatie tussen cybercrime en geweld in afhankelijkheidsrelaties

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 5 2015
Trefwoorden geweld in afhankelijkheidsrelaties, cybercrime
Auteurs Dr. Janine Janssen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    People have all kinds of dependency relationships, for example in family life and on the work floor. Since almost a decade, the Dutch government uses the term ‘violence in dependency relationships’ for all kinds of violence that are applied in these dependency relationships: domestic violence, honour-based violence, child abuse, abuse of the elderly, abuse by professionals for example in homes for children or the elderly and violence related to prostitution and the trafficking of humans. In this article an overview is given that demonstrates how in all these forms of violence elements of cybercrime can be recognized.


Dr. Janine Janssen
Dr. Janine Janssen is lector ‘Veiligheid in afhankelijkheidsrelaties’ aan de Avans Hogeschool in Den Bosch en hoofd onderzoek van het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld van de nationale politie. Zij is tevens redactielid van PROCES.
Artikel

Access_open Van ambt naar vrij beroep

De geestelijke verzorging als voorziening in het publieke domein

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden office, liberal profession, spiritual care
Auteurs Prof. dr. Hans Schilderman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution discusses two forms in which spiritual care in the Netherlands can be organized: in terms of a (church) office which reflects the current form, or as liberal profession which is a form to be conceivably pursued as an alternative proper to the sociocultural and institutional developments that this text indicates. The historical Dutch context of pillarization is tributary to a form of spiritual care that seems less apt to deal with the challenges ahead. The conditions and requirements of a liberal model are presented, but also put into perspective of the limited opportunities of the professional association of spiritual care to manoeuvre in politics and policies.


Prof. dr. Hans Schilderman
Prof. dr. H. Schilderman is hoogleraar Religie en zorg aan de Radboud Universiteit in Nijmegen. Hij is verantwoordelijk voor de masteropleiding Geestelijke verzorging aan de faculteit der Filosofie, Theologie en Religiewetenschappen. Hij publiceert over empirische religiewetenschap, zingeving en religieuze veranderingsprocessen.
Artikel

Over het denken en voelen achter straf- en herstel(recht)

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden cognitive emotion theory, punishment, interconnectedness, (ir)rationality, mysticism
Auteurs Jacques Claessen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article attention is paid to the thoughts and feelings which underlie criminal law and restorative justice, as well as the question whether those thoughts and feelings have to be regarded as rational or irrational. For this purpose, the author has firstly examined the relationship between thinking and feeling from the perspective of the so-called cognitive emotion theory as put forth by the American philosopher Martha Nussbaum and the Dutch philosopher Mirjam van Reijen. In addition, this contribution also addresses the ideas of the Stoics, Spinoza and Schopenhauer, since the aforementioned theory goes back on the ideas of these philosophers. These philosophers depart from the view on man and world in which interconnectedness plays an important role – as the opposite of separateness. This view which reflects the mystic-religious perspective on man and world forms an important connecting thread in this article, as this turns out to have direct consequences for the idea about the (ir)rationality of certain thoughts and feelings, as well as for the (ir)rationality of criminal law and restorative justice. Special attention is paid to emotions that are relevant within the context of criminal law and restorative justice – which include anger, resentment, hatred, fear and compassion. After having explained – on the basis of the cognitive emotion theory – how thinking and feeling relate to each other and which thoughts and feelings – on the basis of the perspective of interconnectedness – have to be considered as (ir)rational, the article examines whether punishment is (ir)rational and whether the regular theories which legitimate punishment (i.e. retribution and prevention theories) are ‘rationalities of something irrational’. Furthermore, it is assessed whether the thoughts and feelings behind restorative justice are (ir)rational. The article concludes with a suggestion in which the main findings of this contribution are summarized, in order to stimulate discussion.


Jacques Claessen
Jacques Claessen (1980) is universitair docent straf(proces)recht aan de faculteit der rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Maastricht. In 2010 verscheen zijn dissertatie Misdaad en straf. Een herbezinning op het strafrecht vanuit mystiek perspectief (Nijmegen: Wolf Legal Publishers). Zijn interessegebieden zijn sanctierecht, herstelrecht en de strafrechtelijke positie van het slachtoffer. Claessen is redacteur van dit tijdschrift en van de Nieuwsbrief Strafrecht. Voorts is hij rechter-plaatsvervanger bij de Rechtbank Maastricht. Hij is winnaar van de Bianchi Herstelrechtprijs 2012.
Artikel

Stilzwijgen onder toezichthouders

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden secrecy, denial, silence, monitoring
Auteurs Henk van de Bunt
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article examines the silence of control agents. It is often said that control agents as representatives of the risk society are obsessed with control activities and fact-finding, and that rule breakers are regularly exposed by negative publicity. The author takes the contrary position that even major cases demonstrate the persistence of silence on the part of control agents. He distinguishes between two types of silence: denial and secrecy. Denial means that control agents saw nothing while they could have discovered wrongdoing. He points to the fact that this denial in the face of knowledge is the result of sociological ambivalence: control agents are often forced to reconcile conflicting interests, which supersede the importance of supervision. The article shows that secrecy plays an important role in trust relationships between control agents and the objects of their supervision. Secrecy enables control agents to better obtain information. In effect, with regard to the supply of information and the scrutiny of the objects under supervision, control agents are dependent on the cooperativeness of the objects of supervision. These days, much emphasis is placed on breaking the walls of silence. Perpetrators, victims and witnesses, as well as control agents, are being encouraged to break the silence through the use of star witness arrangements, whistleblower arrangements, witness protection, and reporting centres. But is this effective? The author suggests that maintaining secrecy is essential and that those measures limit the space for control agents to develop trust relationships with the objects of supervision, and thereby the opportunity to engage in fact-finding.


Henk van de Bunt
Prof. dr. Henk van de Bunt is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. E-mail:vandebunt@law.eur.nl
Artikel

De preventieve inzet van het tijdelijk huisverbod bij dreigend huiselijk geweld

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden domestic violence, temporary restraining order, domestic violence risk, prevention, assessment
Auteurs Leontien M. van der Knaap
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    On January 1, 2009 the Temporary Restraining Order Act entered into force allowing mayors to impose a ten-day restraining order on potential perpetrators of domestic violence. This restraining order, which may be extended to 28 days, prohibits the perpetrator from entering his or her house as well as from contacting the persons staying behind in the home (partner, children, or other members of the household). In order to impose a temporary restraining order, risk factors relating to the perpetrator, the incident, and the family have to be assessed using a domestic violence risk assessment tool (RiHG).The immediate cause to introduce the Act was to enable mayors to take action in situations that, before, would not have given police just cause to intervene because no offences had (yet) been committed. However, evaluations show that temporary restraining orders are mainly imposed in conjunction with criminal proceedings. Yet, researchers suggest that the temporary restraining order may be imposed as a truly preventive measure in a large amount of situations that until now have not been considered (for instance, situations that have not escalated into physical violence). This article examines whether such preventive restraining orders exist within a sample of imposed orders and if so, what characteristics they share.Results show that truly preventive restraining orders are extremely rare. Closer inspection of cases that according to the available risk assessment were not notably violent showed that most of these cases could not be regarded as cases of truly preventive restraining orders. The discussion of the article focuses on the implications of these results for the suggestion that a large number of situations could be suitable for imposing a preventive restraining order.


Leontien M. van der Knaap
Dr. L.M. (Leontien) M. van der Knaap is universitair hoofddocent bij het International Victimology Institute Tilburg (INTERVICT) van Tilburg University. E-mail: l.mvdrknaap@uvt.nl
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