Zoekresultaat: 13 artikelen

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Artikel

Open heimelijke netwerken in de Nederlandstalige georganiseerde synthetische-drugscriminaliteit

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden synthetic drugs, poly-drug trafficking, organized crime, encrypted communication data, social network analysis
Auteurs Irma Vermeulen, Melvin Soudijn en Wouter van der Leest
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In recent years, the authorities have dismantled several encrypted phone providers. These providers stored millions of messages about covert activities that were overtly exchanged between criminals. This type of communication offers a unique insight into serious organized crime and the people involved. Based on one such intercepted encrypted phone network, called PGP-Safe, we carried out a social network analysis on the Dutch-speaking synthetic drug market. Three findings stand out. Firstly, three-quarters of all accounts (N=4,158) are interconnected in a giant component, resulting in a criminal small-world effect. Secondly, the network appears to be robust. As a consequence, the removal of central accounts will hardly have any impact on the network as a whole. Thirdly, the majority of the accounts within the synthetic drug market is involved in poly-drug trafficking. The Dutch synthetic drug market is much more closely intertwined with other drug markets than is commonly known.


Irma Vermeulen
Drs. I.J. Vermeulen MSc is onderzoeker bij de afdeling Analyse & Onderzoek van de Dienst Landelijke Informatieorganisatie van de Landelijke Eenheid van de politie.

Melvin Soudijn
Dr. M.R.J. Soudijn is senior onderzoeker bij de afdeling Analyse & Onderzoek van de Dienst Landelijke Informatieorganisatie van de Landelijke Eenheid van de politie.

Wouter van der Leest
Drs. W.P.E. van der Leest is onderzoeker bij de afdeling Analyse & Onderzoek van de Dienst Landelijke Informatieorganisatie van de Landelijke Eenheid van de politie.
Artikel

Access_open Witwassen als bedrijfsmatige activiteit: de verborgen netwerken van witwassers

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden money laundering, financial facilitators, networked criminology, organized crime
Auteurs Jo-Anne Kramer, Arjan Blokland en Melvin Soudijn
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Financial Action Task Force reported that money launderers may operate in professional money laundering networks. Whether such money laundering networks operate in the Netherlands is unclear. In this article the authors therefore explore whether professional money launderers collaborate in network structures and the business-like manner in which they offer their services. Business-like refers to their involvement in multiple cases, the amount of repeat customers, and excludes family relations. The research is based on Dutch police registrations of 236 professional money launderers. Our results suggest that professional money laundering networks are indeed active in the Netherlands and that money launderers in these networks offer their services in a business-like manner to a varying extent. An important caveat to the current findings is that the criminal cases analyzed predominantly pertain drug-related offenses, leaving the existence and professionalism of money laundering networks in other types of crime, like large-scale fraud, a question open for future research.


Jo-Anne Kramer
J. Kramer MSc is onderzoeker en docent Criminologie bij de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en was als junior onderzoeker verbonden aan het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) in Amsterdam.

Arjan Blokland
Prof. dr. mr. A.A.J. Blokland is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) in Amsterdam en bijzonder hoogleraar Criminology & Criminal Justice bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Melvin Soudijn
Dr. M.R.J. Soudijn is research fellow bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) in Amsterdam en Operationeel Specialist bij de Nationale Politie.
Artikel

Access_open Van salafistisch gedachtegoed alleen kun je niet leven: de financiële zelfredzaamheid van 131 uitreizigers nader bekeken

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden jihadi travellers, terrorism, terrorist financing, financial independence
Auteurs Dr. Melvin Soudijn
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The present article examines the financial life of 131 jihadi travellers (JTs), also known as foreign terrorist fighters, from the Netherlands. For the purpose of the research, access was acquired to all their banking transactions in the year preceding their departure: over 60,000 transactions in total. Their income from work or employment, various forms of social assistance, student grants, and other income or expenditure were examined. The data provided a good picture of their financial independence, i.e., the extent to which they were capable of making their own living or needed to claim assistance from the authorities. The analysis shows that it is highly exceptional for Dutch JTs to be financially independent. Only 5 percent have sufficient income from work or employment without making any claims on the government for financial assistance, and are free of mounting debts. The low score can for a large part be explained by the fact that almost half of the JTs are under 23 years of age and/or receive a student grant. Their financial picture largely resembles ordinary students. Older JTs (over 22 years of age, and not having received a student grant for at least one year) underperform, however. Only 9 percent are financially independent. Financial support could perhaps be used to monitor or steer recipients’ role in society.


Dr. Melvin Soudijn
Dr. M.R.J. Soudijn is operationeel specialist bij de afdeling Analyse & Onderzoek, Dienst Landelijke Informatieorganisatie, Landelijke Eenheid, Politie.
Artikel

Rechercheren een vorm van street-level bureaucracy?

Een verkenning van de opsporingspraktijk naar georganiseerde misdaad

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2016
Trefwoorden Street-level bureaucracy, Recherche, Georganiseerde misdaad
Auteurs Dr. Melvin Soudijn
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Academic researchers in the Netherlands working on organized crime often make use of police files. This produces a lot of knowledge and helps building and testing theories about organized crime. However, it is also known that police files have their limitations. This article uses the concept of ‘street-level bureaucracy’ to explain some of these limitations. For instance, routines and biases can influence the way an investigation is conducted, i.e. avoiding or not following up certain lines of enquiry. Researchers who make use of case file analysis should therefore keep in mind the extent to which an investigation team functioned as a street-level bureaucracy.


Dr. Melvin Soudijn
Dr. Melvin R.J. Soudijn is senior onderzoeker bij de Landelijke Eenheid, Dienst Landelijke Informatievoorziening.
Redactioneel

Inleiding

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2015
Auteurs E.W. Kruisbergen en M.R.J. Soudijn
Auteursinformatie

E.W. Kruisbergen
Gastredacteur drs. Edwin Kruisbergen is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.

M.R.J. Soudijn
Gastredacteur dr. Melvin Soudijn is als senior onderzoeker werkzaam bij de afdeling Analyse & Onderzoek van de Landelijke Eenheid Nationale Politie.
Artikel

De criminele levensloop van hawaladars

Een verkennend onderzoek

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden hawala, underground banking, criminal career, Financial sector, Organised crime
Auteurs M.R. J. Soudijn en E.M. de Groen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This research takes a closer look at the criminal careers of 89 offenders who are involved in offering hawala services. The main finding is that 61% has a criminal record that does not consist of hawala related offenses. This finding is important from both a policy and criminological perspective. Firstly, incorporating hawala in the legal financial sector is a difficult prospect with the current people involved. Somehow the sector needs to be cleaned up. Secondly, the findings tie in with other research about criminal careers in organized crime. About two-thirds came into contact with the authorities later in life. However, an important caveat to the authors’ findings is that the outcomes are based on a known group of offenders. The total size of the hawala population is a dark number.


M.R. J. Soudijn
Dr. Melvin Soudijn is als senior-onderzoeker werkzaam bij de Nationale Politie, afdeling Analyse & Onderzoek van de Landelijke Eenheid.

E.M. de Groen
Eline de Groen MSc. studeerde aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en liep in het kader van dit onderzoek stage bij het Flexibel Informatie Expertise Team (FIET) Financieel van de Landelijke Eenheid.
Artikel

Wat is witwassen eigenlijk?

Introductie tot theorie en praktijk

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden money laundering, Organized, Crime, Bitcoin, financial crime
Auteurs E.W. Kruisbergen en M.R.J. Soudijn
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, which serves as an introduction, the authors take a closer look at theoretical definitions as well as empirical manifestations of money laundering. They discuss the judicial definition and the often used theoretical distinction between ‘three stages’ of money laundering. Furthermore, the authors provide the reader with a quick overview of several forms of money laundering. This overview is based on actual criminal investigations. It covers the transfer of cash money and ‘concealed consumption’, both of which are frequently overlooked by authors who use the three stages model. Also ‘traditional’ forms of money laundering such as loan backs, abuse of legal trade, feigning gambling profit, structuring of real estate deals and ‘new’ forms, i.e. the use of bitcoins, are dealt with.


E.W. Kruisbergen
Drs. Edwin Kruisbergen werkt als onderzoeker bij het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.

M.R.J. Soudijn
Dr. Melvin Soudijn is als senior-onderzoeker werkzaam bij de Nationale Politie, afdeling Analyse & Onderzoek van de Landelijke Eenheid.
Artikel

‘We zijn geen padvinders’

Een verkennend onderzoek naar de criminele carrières van leden van één procent motorclubs

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs, one percenters, criminal careers, adult onset
Auteurs Prof. Dr. Mr. Arjan Blokland, Melvin Soudijn en Dr. Eric Teng
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Using officially registered conviction history data, this study examines the criminal careers of 601 members of Dutch outlaw motorcycle gangs, identified as such by the Dutch police. We find that the average 1% er in our sample is a 44-year-old, Dutch-born male. The large majority of these 1% ers have been convicted for a crime at least once. One in four convicted 1% ers can be classified as a chronic offender accumulating over ten convictions from age 12 until 2013. The large majority of 1% ers experiences an adult onset of their officially registered criminal career, with almost half acquiring their first conviction when they are aged 30 or older, challenging the generality of criminology's accepted conclusions about criminal career development.


Prof. Dr. Mr. Arjan Blokland
Prof. Dr. Mr. A.A.J. Blokland is senior Onderzoeker Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving en Bijzonder Hoogleraar Criminology and Criminal Justice, Universiteit Leiden.

Melvin Soudijn
Politie, Landelijke Eenheid afdeling Analyse & Onderzoek

Dr. Eric Teng
Dr. M.R.J. Soudijn is Senior Onderzoeker, Landelijke Eenheid, afdeling Analyse & Onderzoek.
Artikel

Virtuele ontmoetingsruimtes voor cybercriminelen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2012
Trefwoorden offender convergence settings, cyber crime, phishing, carding
Auteurs Dr. Melvin Soudijn en Eileen Monsma MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Felson introduced the concept of offender convergence settings in his articles on situational crime prevention. He refers to physical locations where criminals get together to relax, share information, fence stolen goods, plot new crimes, etc. Such places come in the form of restaurants and cafes that are in the hands of the ‘underworld’, but may equally well consist of deserted schoolyards where unruly adolescents gather. According to Felson, such settings facilitate the committing of crimes and enable the creation of structure and continuity in criminal networks.
    In this article the authors argue that virtual meeting places also exist that can be labeled as offender convergence settings. To demonstrate this, a case study regarding a so-called ‘carding’ forum is used. Carding is a term from the world of cybercrime and refers to the set of techniques by which personal financial information is acquired, traded and abused by criminals. Through a qualitative and a quantitative analysis of the carding forum, the possibilities for cyber criminals to come into contact with each other, co-offending, and the durability of the criminal network is analyzed.


Dr. Melvin Soudijn
Dr. M.R.J. Soudijn is senior onderzoeker bij de KLPD.

Eileen Monsma MSc
E. Monsma, MSc. is senior adviseur Team High Tech Crime bij de KLPD.
Artikel

Geen smoesjes meer

De strategie van ‘removing excuses’ toegepast op financiële facilitators

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2011
Auteurs M.R.J. Soudijn
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Criminals sometimes use so-called financial facilitators to invest their ill-gotten gains without drawing attention to themselves. These facilitators are experts at getting round anti-money laundering procedures. Because of their expertise and unique capabilities they play an important role in criminal networks. It therefore stands to reason that law enforcement focuses on them. That focus often translates in prosecution when laws are broken. However, what can we do to prevent financial experts in breaking the law? In this article the focus lies on the method of removing excuses. This technique is employed in every day crimes but has not been put to the test in the context of organized crime. Interviews with police officers show that the technique of removing excuses could work under certain conditions. However, it turns out that an important differentiation lies in the sort of activities financial facilitators undertake. Not all financial activities take place in the legal financial-economic system. Instead of distinguishing between the three classical phases of money laundering (placement, layering, integration), a two-pronged focus is proposed on those who are involved in cash based transactions and those who construct smokescreens on paper.


M.R.J. Soudijn
Dr. Melvin Soudijn is als senior wetenschappelijk onderzoeker werkzaam bij het KLPD. Hij schreef deze bijdrage op persoonlijke titel.
Artikel

Vrouwen en witwassen: een logische combinatie met incoherente resultaten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2010
Trefwoorden vrouwen, georganiseerde misdaad, witwassen, 420bis
Auteurs Melvin Soudijn
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A part in Dutch penal law defines money laundering as ‘any person who acquires an object, possesses it, hands it over or sells it or makes use of an object, knowing that the object originates – directly or indirectly – from an offense’. Under object is meant any goods and any property rights. With this in mind, the author argues that whoever knows that money (the object) is derived from crime, but spends the money anyway, is committing a money laundering offense. Taking the argument one step further, it is therefore a reasonable hypothesis that a large number of wives or girlfriends of criminals, have been prosecuted for money laundering. That is, if the women knew that the money they spent was obtained through crime. To test the hypothesis, 62 cases dealing with organized crime were selected and analyzed. These cases largely focus on male perpetrators of drug crimes, money laundering, human smuggling and human trafficking. It turns out that the women often knew their male friends or husbands were involved in crime. The women also profited of these crimes because they used their friends’ expensive cars, lived in large mansions and often went shopping for luxury items. Still, hardly anyone was prosecuted for money laundering offenses. Several explanations were found, ranging from pity of officers, an overload of work, absence of direct proof or simply male chauvinist bias. Only if the women were actively involved in other crimes, would they find themselves prosecuted with (among others) money laundering offenses.


Melvin Soudijn
Melvin Soudijn is als senior wetenschappelijk onderzoeker werkzaam bij de KLPD. E-mail: Melvin.Soudijn@klpd.politie.nl.
Artikel

Criminele expats

Britse criminelen in Nederland en Nederlandse criminelen in Spanje

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2010
Trefwoorden drugshandel, Internationale criminaliteit, Spanje, Verenigd Koninkrijk
Auteurs Dr. Melvin Soudijn en Dr. Sander Huisman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article focuses on migration with criminal motives. Two specific groups are discussed, British migrants in the Netherlands and Dutch migrants in Spain. Little is written on criminal migration motives in combination with Western subjects. On the other hand, investigative authorities have first-hand knowledge on this matter. An analysis of 25 closed case files shows that within these two groups of migrants, some people are heavily involved in the international drugs trade. Although their numbers are small, their function is important. Through their actions it becomes possible for certain cities or areas to evolve into international criminal drug marketplaces. There are also some differences between British and Dutch criminals abroad. British criminals are often involved as brokers. They broker drugs for third parties in Great Britain. Their stay in the Netherlands seems temporarily. They do not invest in the economy or buy property. Conversely, Dutch criminals in Spain could be described as leaders of organized crime groups. They invest in Spain by buying companies and property.


Dr. Melvin Soudijn
Dr. M. Soudijn is senior onderzoeker bij de KLPD, melvin.soudijn@klpd.politie.nl.

Dr. Sander Huisman
Dr. S. Huisman is senior onderzoeker bij de KLPD, Sander.huisman@klpd.politie.nl.
Boekbespreking

Illegalen en veiligheid

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 04 2008
Trefwoorden Illegaal, Legaliteit, Arbeidsmarkt, Concentratie, Diefstal, Aanhouding, Discriminatie, Geweld, Grenscontrole, Lage lonen
Auteurs Soudijn, M.

Soudijn, M.
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