Zoekresultaat: 10 artikelen

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Artikel

Big data, kleine rechtsstaat?

Over de roep van uitvoerende professionals om rechtstatelijke bezinning bij big-datatoepassingen in de Nederlandse politiefunctie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2021
Trefwoorden big data, politiefunctie, rechtsstaat, technologische innovatie
Auteurs Remco Spithoven en Elsa Foppen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The promises of big data have reached the domain of safety and security. After these techniques proved their added value in the private sector, they soon reached the attention of the public sector. In this article we present the results of our interviews with 27 executive professionals of the Dutch police and the department of public order and safety of local governments. What are their expectations of big data? Their experience with big data varied. Our respondents gave expression to a basic positive attitude towards intelligence led policing and the chances that big data brings to it. But anticipation of working with big data was not free from discussion and the respondents stressed the need for securing privacy and other constitutional rights of citizens before big data applications are implemented in the police function. With that, our respondents strongly aligned with the international, academic call for a constitutional reflection about the application of big data withing the police function.


Remco Spithoven
Dr. Remco Spithoven is lector Maatschappelijke Veiligheid bij Hogeschool Saxion en tevens hoofdredacteur van Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid. r.spithoven@saxion.nl

Elsa Foppen
Elsa Foppen is onderzoeker bij het lectoraat Maatschappelijke Veiligheid en docent bij de opleiding Integrale Veiligheidskunde/Security Management bij Hogeschool Saxion.
Redactioneel

Big-datatoepassingen bij de politie: een verkenning van een actueel en veelomvattend thema

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2021
Trefwoorden big data, politie
Auteurs Thom Snaphaan, Wim Hardyns en Remco Spithoven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This special issue reflects about big data applications in policing. Terpstra and Salet (2020) refer to this development as ‘one of the greatest changes within the police about the past decade’ (p. 25). Beside attention to this topic in Dutch literature (e.g. Janssen et al., 2020; Spithoven & Beerends, 2019), the relevance of the subject is also internationally recognized (e.g. Brayne, 2021; Ferguson, 2017; Ridgeway, 2018). In this special issue, we examine – with a view to the past, present and future – how big data could be used in policing in the Netherlands and Belgium. This special issue is not about empirical big data applications, for that we would like to refer to specific studies (e.g., Rummens et al., 2021); in this issue we especially want to outline the breadth of this research area.


Thom Snaphaan
Thom Snaphaan is doctoraatsonderzoeker aan het Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy, Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht, Universiteit Gent. Thom.Snaphaan@UGent.be

Wim Hardyns

Remco Spithoven
Artikel

Veiligheid uit de glazen bol?

Naar verantwoorde toepassingen van big data in het veiligheidscomplex

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3-4 2019
Trefwoorden Big data, Security, good governance
Auteurs Remco Spithoven en Siri Beerends
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The promises of Big Data, predictive policing and artificial intelligence hold a key position in the public debate for quite some time now. Optimists tell that it is possible to predict where criminal events will occur before they take place. This would implicate a major shift towards a crime and insecurity preventive society, feeding on our cultural longing for a secure future. Therefore we give algorithms and deep learning access to more and more aspects of our lives. But how realistic and desirable is the application of Big Data techniques in the area of security?
    In this article we put focus on the research question ‘In which way can Big Data and predictive policing support good governance of security?’, that has led our study. By exploring the central concepts, the processes behind them and their results in the domain of public security, we conclude that there are only rather disappointing results from the application of these techniques: crime and insecurity have not dropped when the police and other organizations turned to Big Data techniques. Instead, many negative side effects occurred. We search for explanations in six central academic critiques on the application of these techniques in the area of security.
    We have found several ways to guaranty principles of good governance in the application of Big Data techniques, but these require a firm paradigm shift on Big Data in general. The heuristics of security professionals should not be overshadowed by technological promises: the professional should always be in the loop, must understand the way predictions come into existence and must be able to correct flaws and bugs of (semi-)automated decisions. We conclude that safeguarding public security must remain human work in which Big Data techniques can assist.


Remco Spithoven
Remco Spithoven is lector Maatschappelijke Veiligheid aan de Hogeschool Saxion en redacteur van dit tijdschrift.

Siri Beerends
Siri Beerends is cultureel socioloog, onderzoeker en schrijver bij SETUP en pro‍movenda aan de Universiteit Twente.

Dr. Remco Spithoven
Dr. R. Spithoven is lector Maatschappelijke Veiligheid aan de Academie voor Bestuur, Recht & Ruimte van Hogeschool Saxion en research-fellow bij de kenniswerkplaats Veiligheid & Veerkracht van de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Peer reviewed

Het zal je dochter maar zijn

Op zoek naar verklaringen voor de maatschappelijke impact van drie zaken van dodelijk seksueel geweld tegen jonge vrouwen in 2017

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2018
Trefwoorden Sexual violence, societal impact, media impact, altruistic fear of crime
Auteurs Dr. Remco Spithoven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Three cases of sexual violence with two teenagers and one young woman as dead victims have put – besides the indescribable sufferings of themselves, their families, friends and acquaintances – a heavy burden on Dutch collective memories of the year 2017. Dutch society commiserated on a massive scale: volunteers helped searching, thousands united in silent marches and more than 400 thousand citizens signed an online petition that emotionally called for a firm revision of the ‘failing justice system’. In this article we explore the deeper social, personal and cultural elements that gave media messages their strong emotional impact in Dutch society.


Dr. Remco Spithoven
Dr. R. Spithoven is lector Maatschappelijke Veiligheid bij de Academie voor Bestuur, Recht en Ruimte van Hogeschool Saxion en research fellow bij de leerstoel Veiligheid en Veerkracht aan de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Graven naar de wortels van onveiligheidsgevoelens

Resultaten van een onderzoek in twaalf buurten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2018
Trefwoorden fear of crime, tailor-made policy, neighborhoods, avoidance behavior, social stability
Auteurs Dr. Remco Spithoven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The aim of this article is to search for a more focused approach of fighting back against ‘the fear of crime’. It is based on a study of the backgrounds of risen levels of fear of crime in twelve neighborhoods in the regions of Utrecht and Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Eight central themes could be identified in the stories of 240 respondents: specific locations, avoidance behavior, social stability, social quality, superdiversity, negative neighborhood images, burglary, and societal pessimism. Despite the fact that these central themes appeared in the overall analysis, every neighborhood showed another mix of factors explaining risen levels of fear of crime. This means that policies to reduce ‘the fear of crime’ should focus on specific, local explanations and should always be tailor-made.


Dr. Remco Spithoven
Dr. R. Spithoven is als lector Maatschappelijke Veiligheid verbonden aan de Academie voor Bestuur, Recht en Ruimte van de Hogeschool Saxion. Hij is tevens research-fellow bij de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en redacteur van Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid.
Artikel

Verstoorde veiligheidsbeleving

In gesprek met buurtbewoners over de ‘onveiligheid’ in hun buurt naar aanleiding van gestegen ‘gevoelens van onveiligheid’

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2017
Trefwoorden fear of crime, qualitative analysis, evidence based policy
Auteurs Remco Spithoven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The ‘fear of crime’ is a buzzword among citizens, media, politicians and professionals by now. But the phenomenon seems to be as intangible as it is important. The struggle of professionals with this concept is the result of a too wide and self-evident problem definition. This article contains an alternative approach. The focus is on disturbed fear of crime: a negatively changed and problematically experienced fear of crime on the level of the neighborhood.
    Through a review of the literature and previous research, we work towards this concept and apply it to the neighborhood of Kerckebosch in the municipality of Zeist in the Netherlands. As during 2014 the local quantitative indicators for ‘the fear of crime’ rose from 7% of the local population indicating to ‘sometimes feel unsafe’ to 22%, while the rest of the municipality remained quite stable. Additionally, several local professionals received complaints of multiple local inhabitants claiming to ‘feel unsafe’ in the neighborhood. Our research question was: What explanations for their ‘disturbed fear of crime’ do local inhabitants of the neighborhood Kerckebosch give?
    It was highly plausible that this local rise of the fear in Kerckebosch was connected to the social re-engineering of the neighborhood, but the exact nature of the quantitative rise was unclear. Therefore, we have interviewed 25 local inhabitants. Qualitative analyses showed the local rise of ‘the fear of crime’ to be the result of: (I) physical characteristics of the neighborhood; (II) events of burglary and intimidation from the past; (III) the presence of loitering youths and – primarily – (VI) a backlash of social integration as a side effect of the social re-engineering of the neighborhood. These qualitative explanations to the observed quantitative discontinuity led to several policy advises, which were based on international effect studies.


Remco Spithoven
Remco Spithoven is hoofddocent bij het Instituut voor Veiligheid en het lectoraat Kennisanalyse Sociale Veiligheid aan de Hogeschool Utrecht. Daarnaast is hij research-fellow bij de leerstoel Veiligheid en Veerkracht aan de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Een terughoudende praktijk

Over de praktische vraagtekens bij het bestrijden van onveiligheidsgevoelens

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden reducing fear of crime, reflective practitioners
Auteurs Remco Spithoven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Despite the international scientific inconclusiveness about the nature of the fear of crime, the strategic layer of the Dutch government aims to reduce the fear of crime in general by 2017. But their policy-goals were not accompanied with a plan how to realize them. Meanwhile, local practitioners claim to be in search of practical tools and substantive support how to fight back the public’s fear of crime. This study was aimed to feed the discussion with a constructive and realistic input from both the practitioners and the scientific view. The research question was: ‘What do local practitioners do against the public’s fear of crime and how can these activities be improved?’ 36 local practitioners from Dutch local municipalities, the police force and the public prosecutor were interviewed. Schön’s idea of the ‘reflective practitioner’ (1983) was the underlying argument to make practical knowledge about reducing the fear of crime explicit. The respondents from both institutional layers of local ‘policy advise’ and ‘policy implementation’ were quite reluctant about fighting back the public’s fear of crime. They aim to reduce the fear of crime in a doubtful and indirect way. Because many sources of the public’s fear of crime were unknown to them or were not in the reach of their professional activities. In this way, the interviewed local practitioners approach strongly aligned with the advice of international scientists to be reluctant and realistic about fighting back the public’s fear of crime. We advised an approach of ‘local fear of and worry about crime’ in dialog between international science and the interviewed local Dutch practitioners. The results of it will probably not contribute to quantitative policy goals at the national level, but rather to custom fit, qualitative improvements on the local level. This will probably be the most effective way to fight back the few tractable elements that make up the fear of crime.


Remco Spithoven
Remco Spithoven is promovendus bij de leerstoel Burgerschap en Veiligheid aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam in samenwerking met het lectoraat Participatie en Maatschappelijke Ontwikkeling aan de Hogeschool Utrecht en docent Integrale Veiligheidskunde bij het Instituut voor Veiligheid aan de Hogeschool Utrecht.
Boekbespreking

Buurtregie met mate

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2014
Auteurs Remco Spithoven
Auteursinformatie

Remco Spithoven
Remco Spithoven is promovendus bij het lectoraat Participatie en Maatschappelijke Ontwikkeling van de Hogeschool Utrecht. Hij is tevens docent Integrale Veiligheidskunde bij het Instituut voor Veiligheid aan de Hogeschool Utrecht. E-mail: remco.spithoven@hu.nl
Artikel

Geen angst, maar onbehagen

Resultaten van een Q-studie naar subjectieve sociale onveiligheid

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden anti-social behavior, public perception, risk aversion
Auteurs Remco Spithoven, Gjalt de de Graaf en Hans Boutellier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    People vary in their perceptions and opinions, and that seems to be the case for the way they perceive anti-social behavior too. Scientific literature concerning the fear of crime hypothesizes diversity in the public’s perception of anti-social behavior and crime. But this fear of crime research tradition has been criticized repeatedly for its conceptual and methodological arrears. The focus has particularly been narrowed to ‘fear’ of ‘crime’, being measured by surveys. So, it is not very surprising that there has not been a thorough empirical focus on the assumed diversity in the perception of crime and anti-social behavior. To fill in this gap, the main research question in this article is: which differences in the perception of anti-social behavior exist within contemporary Dutch society? Using Q-methodology, five different factors were found in the perception of anti-social behavior. These factors have been labeled respectively: ‘disaffected residents’, ‘untroubled liberals’, ‘anxious communitarians’, ‘concerned spectators’ and ‘non-averse professionals’. These factors showed the empirical reality of the assumed diversity in the public perception of anti-social behavior. In all of these factors, people seem to address crime and anti-social behavior to a decrease of social standards and values in Dutch society, instead of worrying about chances and consequences of personal victimization. This was even the case for people who signalized crime and anti-social behavior in their own neighborhood. What really stands out is that people strongly agreed about the unacceptability of crime and anti-social behavior. People seem to have an aversion against these rude types of behavior. Altogether this image does not comply to the mainstream image of a ‘crime fearing society’. People do not seem to fear crime, but they seem to be worried and agitated about the moral conditions of the Dutch society in a wider framework. This might be a more reassuring illustration than a ‘crime fearing society’, but this proposition needs further and additional quantitative assessment.


Remco Spithoven
Remco Spithoven MSc is promovendus bij het lectoraat Participatie en Maatschappelijke Ontwikkeling aan de Hogeschool Utrecht, in samenwerking met de leerstoel Burgerschap en Veiligheid aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en docent integrale veiligheidskunde bij het Instituut voor Veiligheid aan de Hogeschool Utrecht. E-mail: remco.spithoven@hu.nl

Gjalt de de Graaf
Dr. Gjalt de Graaf is universitair hoofddocent bestuurswetenschappen aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen, Afdeling Bestuurswetenschappen, De Boelelaan 1081, 1081 HV Amsterdam.

Hans Boutellier
Prof. dr. J.C.J. (Hans) Boutellier is algemeen directeur van het Verwey-Jonker Instituut en bijzonder hoogleraar veiligheid & burgerschap aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen, Afdeling Bestuurswetenschappen, De Boelelaan 1081, 1081 HV Amsterdam. E-mail: j.c.j.boutellier@vu.nl
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