Zoekresultaat: 27 artikelen

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Artikel

Het grensgebied als waterbed voor drugscriminaliteit?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden displacement, cross-border crime, organized drug crime, policy effectiveness, balloon effect
Auteurs Rik Ceulen, Stephan Van Nimwegen en Toine Spapens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper concerns the question whether in the period 2011-2017 displacement effects occurred from the Netherlands to Belgium in the context of synthetic drugs production, cannabis cultivation, and retail of illicit drugs, and if so, how these may be explained. We conclude that displacement took place in modi operandi of retail drug dealers. This is explained foremost by the policy of banning non-residents from Dutch coffeeshops in border region municipalities. Dealers and traffickers responded by switching to local distribution in Belgium as well as deliveries by drug couriers. The synthetic drugs and cannabis cultivation markets show minor changes in modi operandi, but no changes occurred in choosing production locations. Displacement effects in the context of organized drug crime must be explained from a range of factors. Reality is therefore more complex than assuming that government interventions are the main cause of a balloon effect.


Rik Ceulen
R. Ceulen MSc. is criminoloog bij de gemeente Tilburg.

Stephan Van Nimwegen
S.J.M. Van Nimwegen MCI is operationeel specialist/onderzoeker bij de Nationale Politie.

Toine Spapens
Prof. dr. A.C.M. Spapens is hoogleraar criminologie bij de Tilburg University.
Artikel

Kroniek Waterwet 2020

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Omgevingsrecht, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden watervergunning, lozing, hemelwater, gedoogplicht, Omgevingswet
Auteurs Mr. A. (Alexandra) Danopoulos, Mr. S.F.J. (Stephan) Sluiter, Mr. E.L. (Eline) van Leeuwen e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In TO 2015, afl. 2 verscheen voor het laatst een rechtspraakoverzicht over de Waterwet (Wtw). Met deze kroniek Waterwet wordt het jaarlijkse overzicht nieuw leven ingeblazen. Deze bijdrage geeft een overzicht van de belangrijkste rechtspraak op het gebied van het waterrecht. Achtereenvolgens wordt stilgestaan bij de belangrijkste ontwikkelingen rondom de watervergunning, het projectplan, lozingen, gedoogplichten, nadeelcompensatie, relativiteit en belanghebbendheid in relatie tot de Wtw. De Wtw is een van de wetten die (naar verwachting) in 2022 grotendeels op zal gaan in de Omgevingswet. Per onderwerp gaan wij daarom in deze kroniek eveneens in op de wijze waarop het betreffende onderwerp in de Omgevingswet zal worden geïncorporeerd.


Mr. A. (Alexandra) Danopoulos
Mr. A. Danopoulos is advocaat/partner bij Ploum te Rotterdam en universitair docent bij de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Mr. S.F.J. (Stephan) Sluiter
Mr. S.F.J. Sluiter is advocaat/partner bij Ploum te Rotterdam.

Mr. E.L. (Eline) van Leeuwen
Mr. E.L. van Leeuwen is advocaat-medewerker bij Ploum te Rotterdam.

Mr. M.S. (Miriam) Simman
Mr. M.S. Simman is juridisch medewerker bij Ploum te Rotterdam.

    According to German law, leave entitlements of an employee shall in principle expire at the end of the calendar year or a permissible carryover period. However, based on the case law of the ECJ, this shall only apply if the employer has previously enabled and summoned the employee to take leave and the employee has nevertheless not taken it. But what happens if an employee is incapacitated for work for a longer period of time and therefore is unable to take his or her annual leave? Does the employer also have to inform this employee about their leave entitlement? The Federal Labour Court (Bundesarbeitsgericht, ‘BAG’) recently had to deal with this question in two cases and now the ECJ will have to address this matter. This is because the BAG has asked the ECJ to decide whether and when an employee’s entitlement to paid leave can expire if an employee loses their ability to work during the course of the leave year, while the employee could have taken at least part of the annual leave before becoming incapacitated for work, but the employee was not properly informed by the employer about their leave entitlement.


Katharina Gorontzi
Katharina Gorontzi is an attorney-at-law at Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH.

Nina Stephan
Nina Stephan is an attorney-at-law at Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH.

Jule Rosauer
Jule Rosauer is a legal trainee at Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH.
Article

Access_open A Positive State Obligation to Counter Dehumanisation under International Human Rights Law

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden Dehumanisation, International Human Rights Law, Positive State obligations, Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, International Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Racial Discrimination
Auteurs Stephanie Eleanor Berry
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    International human rights law (IHRL) was established in the aftermath of the Second World War to prevent a reoccurrence of the atrocities committed in the name of fascism. Central to this aim was the recognition that out-groups are particularly vulnerable to rights violations committed by the in-group. Yet, it is increasingly apparent that out-groups are still subject to a wide range of rights violations, including those associated with mass atrocities. These rights violations are facilitated by the dehumanisation of the out-group by the in-group. Consequently, this article argues that the creation of IHRL treaties and corresponding monitoring mechanisms should be viewed as the first step towards protecting out-groups from human rights violations. By adopting the lens of dehumanisation, this article demonstrates that if IHRL is to achieve its purpose, IHRL monitoring mechanisms must recognise the connection between dehumanisation and rights violations and develop a positive State obligation to counter dehumanisation. The four treaties explored in this article, the European Convention on Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities and the International Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Racial Discrimination, all establish positive State obligations to prevent hate speech and to foster tolerant societies. These obligations should, in theory, allow IHRL monitoring mechanisms to address dehumanisation. However, their interpretation of the positive State obligation to foster tolerant societies does not go far enough to counter unconscious dehumanisation and requires more detailed elaboration.


Stephanie Eleanor Berry
Stephanie Eleanor Berry is Senior Lecturer in International Human Rights Law, University of Sussex.
Artikel

Waarom dronepiloten toch in no fly zones vliegen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Toezicht, Aflevering 3-4 2020
Trefwoorden drones, weerstand, toezicht, regelgeving, gedrag
Auteurs Stephanie Wassenburg, Tess Beke, Han Pret e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Een scherpe stijging in het aantal drones en snelle vorderingen in dronetechnologie creëren nieuwe mogelijkheden en risico’s voor veiligheid en privacy. Door een beperkte toezichtcapaciteit is er behoefte aan gedragsinterventies die spontane naleving stimuleren. Het huidige onderzoek beschrijft psychologische factoren, zoals weerstand, die het regelnalevingsgedrag van dronepiloten beïnvloeden omtrent vliegen in no fly zones (gebieden waar men niet met een drone mag vliegen). De gemodelleerde antwoorden van 843 dronepiloten laten zien dat twee typen weerstand, inertie en scepticisme, invloed hebben op het gedrag van dronepiloten. Dit artikel beschrijft hoe deze inzichten door toezichthouders kunnen worden gebruikt om gewenst gedrag te bevorderen.


Stephanie Wassenburg
Dr. S.I. Wassenburg is gedragsonderzoeker/data scientist bij de Inspectie Leefomgeving & Transport, Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Waterstaat.

Tess Beke
T.J. Beke, MSc is promovenda bij het Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.

Han Pret
J. Pret, EMoC is senior adviseur bij de Inspectie Leefomgeving & Transport, Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Waterstaat.

Barbara Müller
Dr. B.C.N Müller is universitair docent bij het Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.
Article

Access_open Safeguarding the Dynamic Legal Position of Children: A Matter of Age Limits?

Reflections on the Fundamental Principles and Practical Application of Age Limits in Light of International Children’s Rights Law

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden age limits, dynamic legal position, children’s rights, maturity, evolving capacities
Auteurs Stephanie Rap, Eva Schmidt en Ton Liefaard
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article a critical reflection upon age limits applied in the law is provided, in light of the tension that exists in international children’s rights law between the protection of children and the recognition of their evolving autonomy. The main research question that will be addressed is to what extent the use of (certain) age limits is justified under international children’s rights law. The complexity of applying open norms and theoretically underdeveloped concepts as laid down in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, related to the development and evolving capacities of children as rights holders, will be demonstrated. The UN Committee on the Rights of the Child struggles to provide comprehensive guidance to states regarding the manner in which the dynamic legal position of children should be applied in practice. The inconsistent application of age limits that govern the involvement of children in judicial procedures provides states leeway in granting children autonomy, potentially leading to the establishment of age limits based on inappropriate – practically, politically or ideologically motivated – grounds.


Stephanie Rap
Stephanie Rap is assistant professor in children’s rights at the Department of Child Law, Leiden Law School, the Netherlands.

Eva Schmidt
Eva Schmidt is PhD candidate at the Department of Child Law, Leiden Law School, the Netherlands.

Ton Liefaard
Ton Liefaard is Vice-Dean of Leiden Law School and holds the UNICEF Chair in Children’s Rights at Leiden University, Leiden Law School, the Netherlands.
Artikel

Kroniek Aansprakelijkheidsrecht

Tijdschrift Advocatenblad, Aflevering 6 2020
Auteurs Caspar Janssens, Mirjam Louws en Stephan Geense
Auteursinformatie

Caspar Janssens
Caspar Janssens is (cassatie)advocaat bij Ploum.

Mirjam Louws
Mirjam Louws is (cassatie)advocaat bij Ploum.

Stephan Geense
Stephan Geense is (cassatie)advocaat bij Ploum.
Case Reports

2019/34 Reduction of annual leave during parental leave is lawful (GE)

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden Maternity and parental leave
Auteurs Nina Stephan en David Meyer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Higher Labour Court of Berlin-Brandenburg (Landesarbeitsgericht (LAG)) has held that the pro rata reduction of annual leave depending on the period of parental leave is lawful. In general, statutory holiday entitlement also exists for the period of parental leave. However, the employer has the right to reduce leave pro rata for each full month of parental leave according to Section 17 paragraph 1 sentence 1 of the Federal Parental Allowances and Parental Leave Act (Bundeselterngeld- und Elternzeitgesetz (BEEG)). The proportional reduction is in line with European law.


Nina Stephan
Nina Stephan is an attorney-at-law at Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH.

David Meyer
David Meyer is an attorney-at-law at Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH.

    The Higher Administrative Court of Münster (Oberverwaltungsgericht, the ‘OVG’) has held that a minimum body height of 163 cm for applicants to the police service, irrespective of gender, is lawful. At least, this shall apply if the determination of a minimum body height standard is a suitability criterion for access to the police service. Minimum standards solely serve the purpose of ensuring fitness for service and result from a comprehensive investigation. The investigation in this case established that suitability for the police service can only be guaranteed from a height of 163 cm upwards.


Paul Schreiner
Paul Schreiner is a partner at Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH.

Nina Stephan
Nina Stephan is an attorney-at-law at Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH.
Case Reports

2019/9 The right to object against a transfer in case of incorrect information is not unlimited (GE)

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden Transfer of undertaking, Employees who transfer/refuse to transfer
Auteurs Nina Stephan
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    According to German law, every employee has the right to object to the transfer of their employment relationship to the transferee in the case of a transfer of business. However, the right to object is not unlimited. The Federal Labour Court (Bundesarbeitsgericht (‘BAG’)) held that an employee who had worked for the transferee for seven years had lost this right if they had been informed about the transfer.


Nina Stephan
Nina Stephan is an attorney-at-law at Luther Rechtsanwaltgesellschaft mbH

    According to German law, every employee is entitled to paid annual leave. The amount of pay is generally calculated based on the current salary (known as the “principle of loss of pay”) but a reduction of working hours during the year does not lead to a reduction of entitlement to holiday pay for previously acquired holiday entitlements. If the entitlement was already acquired before the reduction of working time (which can happen because in Germany holiday entitlement is acquired at the beginning of the calendar year), pay during leave will be based on the salary agreed between the employer and employee when the holiday entitlement was acquired and thus, based on the ‘old’ salary.


Nina Stephan
Nina-Stephan is an attorney-at-law at Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH in Essen, www.luther-lawfirm.com.

Paul Schreiner
Paul Schreiner is an attorney-at-law and partner with Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH in Essen, www.luther-lawfirm.com.
Kroniek

Het adolescentenstrafrecht in Nederland: de stand van zaken vier jaar na invoering van de Wet adolescentenstrafrecht

Kroniek van het jeugdrecht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Youth justice – Jeugdstrafrecht, Adolescence – Adolescentie, Young adults – Jongvolwassenen, Age limits – Leeftijdsgrenzen, Judicial decision-making – Rechterlijke besluitvorming
Auteurs Prof. mr. Ton Liefaard en Dr. Stephanie Rap
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    On 1 April 2014, the Dutch Act on Adolescent Criminal Law entered into force. With this law, the age limit in article 77c of the Criminal Code, which allows for the application of juvenile criminal law to young adults, was stretched from 21 to 23 years. In this article stock is taken of the developments that have taken place in the four years after the introduction of this law. In practice, article 77c Criminal Code is increasingly being applied in case of young adult suspects, however still to a little extent. Among others, this has to do with confusion about the target group that qualifies for the adolescent criminal law. The access to and justification for the application of the law show a very diverse picture.


Prof. mr. Ton Liefaard
Prof. mr. T. Liefaard is hoogleraar kinderrechten en bekleedt de UNICEF-leerstoel Kinderrechten in de Afdeling Jeugdrecht van de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Stephanie Rap
Dr. S.E. Rap is universitair docent bij de Afdeling Jeugdrecht van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Een geschonden orde

Een theologische reflectie op migratie en de christelijke identiteit van Europa

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden migratie, Europa, christelijke identiteit, theologie
Auteurs Prof. Stephan van Erp
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, the author criticizes a variety of views on the Christian identity of Europe in current discussions on migration. Next, he presents his own view on Christian identity, which consists of belief in a God who becomes present in the brokenness of the life of all. Applied to the issue of migration, this leads to a view of identity which develops in the encounter with migration. Then, the author defends the universal message of the Christian faith, and shows how this messages is violated as long as the suffering of migrants lasts. Thus, he holds a plea for a divine order over against the supposed order of christian identity.


Prof. Stephan van Erp
Prof. S. van Erp is hoogleraar Fundamentele theologie aan de faculteit Theologie en Religiewetenschappen van de Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. Van zijn hand verscheen onder andere De onvoltooide eeuw. Voorlopers van een katholieke cultuur (Nijmegen: Valkhof Pers 2015). Email: stephan.vanerp@kuleuven.be.
Artikel

Masha en Stéphanie van het bureau van de KBvG stellen zich voor

Tijdschrift De Gerechtsdeurwaarder, Aflevering 1 2018
Auteurs Masha Cazemier en Stéphanie van Koningsbrugge

Masha Cazemier

Stéphanie van Koningsbrugge

Stephan van der Giessen

Ingrid Opdebeek
Prof. dr. Ingrid Opdebeek is gewoon hoogleraar bestuursrecht aan de Universiteit Antwerpen.

Steven Denys
Dr. Steven Denys is Hoofd van het Coördinatiebureau van de Dienst van de Bestuursrechtscolleges en Vrij wetenschappelijk medewerker aan de Universiteit Antwerpen.

Stéphanie De Somer
Dr. Stéphanie De Somer is postdoctoraal onderzoeker FWO en gastprofessor aan de Universiteit Antwerpen.
Artikel

De schorsing van een bestuurder door de vennootschap en de Ondernemingskamer en diens loondoorbetaling

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Ontslagrecht, Aflevering 4 2017
Trefwoorden Bestuurder, Schorsing, Loondoorbetaling, Enquêteprocedure, Ondernemingskamer
Auteurs mr. Stéphanie Spoelder
Auteursinformatie

mr. Stéphanie Spoelder
Senior Associate (advocaat)

    A claim for compensation for discrimination was not excluded simply because the applicant did not have the ‘objective qualifications’ necessary for the job. According to the German General Equal Treatment Act (the ‘Allgemeines Gleichbehandlungsgesetz’, or ‘AGG’), what is necessary for a compensation claim is a ‘comparable situation’. According to the latest decision of the German Federal Labour Court (the ‘Bundesarbeitsgericht’, or ‘BAG’) this can occur even if the applicant does not fulfill the general requirements to do the job.


Paul Schreiner
Paul Schreiner and Nina Stephan are respectively partner and associate with Luther Rechtsanwaltgesellschaft MbH, www.luther-lawfirm.com.

Nina Stephan
Paul Schreiner and Nina Stephan are respectively partner and associate with Luther Rechtsanwaltgesellschaft MbH, www.luther-lawfirm.com.
Artikel

Over de macht van taal

Tijdschrift Advocatenblad, Aflevering 2 2017
Auteurs Francisca Mebius en Stephan Vanfleteren
Auteursinformatie

Francisca Mebius

Stephan Vanfleteren
Beeld
Case Reports

2016/60 Special protection for disabled employees against termination of employment – international apsects (GE)

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden Disabled employees, Invalid termination, International aspects
Auteurs Paul Schreiner en Nina Stephan
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    An employee may bring a claim for invalid termination before the German Labour courts, irrespective of the law governing the employment relationship. In Germany, it is only possible for an employer to dismiss a severely disabled person if the competent state authority grants a permit enabling it to do so. However, this requirement is limited to those with employment agreements under German Law.


Paul Schreiner
Paul Screiner and Nina Stephan are, respectively, a partner and an associate with Luther Rechtsanwaltgesellschaft mbH, www.luther-lawfirm.com.

Nina Stephan
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