Zoekresultaat: 290 artikelen

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Artikel

Access_open Control of Relative Market Power in Competition Law

An Instrument to Implement the Unfair Trading Practices Directive?

Tijdschrift Markt & Mededinging, Aflevering 4 2019
Auteurs Jochen Glöckner
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    On April 2019 the Directive on Unfair Trading Practices in business-to-business relationships in the agricultural and food supply chain has entered into force. In particular the remedies that the Member States are supposed to offer seem to be designed after the blueprint of competition law enforcement, and the practices deemed “unfair” in this Directive are closely related to abusive practices under Article 102 TFEU. While such practices are typically based on an economic dependence, no dominant position as required by Article 102 TFEU will be found. So, the question is whether an expansion of the scope of control of unilateral conduct under competition law might be the way to implement the Directive.
    Germany has a long-standing tradition with respect to the expansion of the scope of control of abusive conduct to undertakings with less than a dominant position. Following a brief introduction that outlines the contents of the Directive (I.) this contribution is going to give a picture of the provisions on control of so-called “relative market power”, i.e. a position of independence not versus all competitors and the opposite market side as defined by the ECJ, but only in the relation to individual trading partners under German competition law (II.), and finish with an outline of the structural problems that might stand in the way of implementing the new rules with a simple application or amendment of the competition law provisions on relative market power (III.)


Jochen Glöckner
Prof. Dr. iur., J. Glöckner LL.M. (USA), Chair for German and European Private and Economic Law, Universität Konstanz; Judge at the Higher Regional Court Karlsruhe.
Pending Cases

Case C-537/18, Age Discrimination, General Discrimination

YV – v – Krajowa Rada Sądownictwa, reference lodged by the Sąd Najwyższy (Poland) on 17 August 2018

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2019
Pending Cases

Case C-668/18, Age Discrimination, Miscellaneous

BP – v – UNIPARTS sàrl, reference lodged by the Sąd Najwyższy (Poland) on 26 October 2018

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2019

    The Higher Administrative Court of Münster (Oberverwaltungsgericht, the ‘OVG’) has held that a minimum body height of 163 cm for applicants to the police service, irrespective of gender, is lawful. At least, this shall apply if the determination of a minimum body height standard is a suitability criterion for access to the police service. Minimum standards solely serve the purpose of ensuring fitness for service and result from a comprehensive investigation. The investigation in this case established that suitability for the police service can only be guaranteed from a height of 163 cm upwards.


Paul Schreiner
Paul Schreiner is a partner at Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH.

Nina Stephan
Nina Stephan is an attorney-at-law at Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH.
Pending Cases

Case C-396/18, Age Discrimination

Gennaro Cafaro – v – DQ, reference lodged by the Corte suprema di cassazione (Italy) on 15 June 2018

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2019

    A decision taken by an employer based on gender which respects the national legislation was considered discriminatory based on EU legislation.


Andreea Suciu
Andreea Suciu is the Managing Partner Suciu I The Employment Law Firm (https://suciu-employmentlaw.ro/).

Gabriela Ion
Gabriela Ion is an associate at Suciu I The Employment Law Firm (https://suciu-employmentlaw.ro/).
Rulings

ECJ 8 May 2019, case C-24/17, (Österreichischer Gewerkschaftsbund), Age Discrimination

Österreichischer Gewerkschaftsbund, Gewerkschaft Öffentlicher Dienst – v – Republik Österreich, Austrian case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden Age Discrimination
Samenvatting

    A new system of remuneration and advancement according to which the initial grading of the contractual public servants is calculated according to their last remuneration paid under the previous system of remuneration and advancement, which was based on discrimination on grounds of the age of the contractual public servants, is inconsistent with Articles 1, 2 and 6 of Directive 2000/78, read in combination with Article 21 of the Charter and inconsistent with Article 45(2) TFEU.

    According to the Labour Court of Mons, calculating the termination indemnity of a worker based on the reduced remuneration paid during a career break called ‘time-credit’ is compatible with EU law, despite the Meerts judgment regarding parental leave.


Dr. Gautier Busschaert
Dr. Gautier Busschaert is attorney at Van Olmen & Wynant in Brussels, www.vow.be.
Rulings

ECJ 8 May 2019, case C-396/17, (Leitner), Age Discrimination

Martin Leitner – v – Landespolizeidirektion Tirol, Austrian case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden Age Discrimination
Samenvatting

    A new system of remuneration and advancement according to which the initial grading of the contractual public servants is calculated according to their last remuneration paid under the previous system of remuneration and advancement, that was based on discrimination on grounds of the age of the contractual public servants, is inconsistent with Articles 1, 2 and 6 of Directive 2000/78, read in combination with Article 21 of the Charter.
    National legislation which obstructs the effective judicial protection by reducing the scope of the review which national courts are entitled to conduct, by excluding questions concerning the basis of the transition amount, calculated according to the rules of the previous discriminatory remuneration and advancement system, is inconsistent with Article 47 of the Charter and Article 9 of Directive 2000/78.

Pending Cases

Case C-223/19, Social Insurance, Gender Discrimination, Pension

YS – v – NK, reference lodged by the Landesgericht Wiener Neustadt (Austria) on 13 March 2019

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2019
Pending Cases

Case C-522/18, Age Discrimination, Miscellaneous

DŚ – v – Zakład Ubezpieczeń Społecznych Oddział w Jaśle, reference lodged by the Sąd Najwyższy (Poland) on 9 August 2018

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2019
Artikel

Economische ongelijkheid: een verkenning vanuit de grondslagen van het arbeidsrecht

Tijdschrift Arbeidsrechtelijke Annotaties, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden Economische ongelijkheid, Ongelijkheidscompensatie, Collectieve arbeidsvoorwaardenvorming, Gelijke behandeling, Flexibele arbeid
Auteurs Mr. dr. N. Zekić
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    De groei van de inkomens- en welvaartsongelijkheid – samen ook wel als economische ongelijkheid aangeduid – wordt gezien als een van de grootste hedendaagse maatschappelijke problemen. Redistributie (herverdeling) van middelen, macht en risico’s kan de groei van economische ongelijkheid tegengaan. Dit artikel verkent de relatie tussen het Nederlandse arbeidsrecht en redistributie. Dit gebeurt door aan te haken bij de (internationale) discussie over de grondslagen van het arbeidsrecht. Op drie onderdelen van het arbeidsrecht wordt in dit kader dieper ingegaan: (1) collectieve arbeidsvoorwaardenvorming, (2) gelijke behandeling en (3) de regulering van atypische of flexibele arbeid. De auteur betoogt dat redistributie als een van de doelen van het arbeidsrecht gezien kan worden. Redistributie is sterk verbonden met ongelijkheidscompensatie, toch kan het onder omstandigheden nuttig zijn om de focus specifieker op redistributie te leggen.


Mr. dr. N. Zekić
Mr. dr. N. Zekić is universitair hoofddocent Arbeidsrecht aan Tilburg University, Tilburg Law School, Departement Sociaal Recht en Sociale Politiek.

    In 2016 the Dutch Government Commission of Reassessment of Parenthood (GCRP) proposed a wide array of legal changes to Family Law, e.g. with regard to legal multi-parenthood and legal multiple parental responsibility. Although the commission researched these matters thoroughly in its quest towards proposing new directions in the field of Family Law, multi-parents themselves were not interviewed by the commission. Therefore, this article aims to explore a possible gap between the social experiences of parents and the recommendations of the GCRP. Data was drawn from in depth-interviews with a sample of 25 parents in plus-two-parent constellations living in Belgium and the Netherlands. For the most part the social experiences of parents aligned with the ways in which the GCRP plans to legally accommodate the former. However, my data tentatively suggests that other (legal) recommendations of the GCRP need to be explored more in depth.
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    In 2016 stelde de Nederlandse Staatscommissie Herijking ouderschap voor om een wettelijk kader te creëren voor meerouderschap en meeroudergezag. Ondanks de grondigheid van het gevoerde onderzoek ontbraken er gegevens omtrent de ervaringen van de meerouders zelf. Dit artikel levert een bijdrage in het vullen van deze leemte door inzage te geven in de (juridische) ervaringen van 25 ouders in meerouderschapsconstellaties in België en Nederland.


Nola Cammu MA
Nola Cammu is PhD Candidate at the Law Faculty of the University of Antwerp.
Artikel

Access_open Mobile Individualism: The Subjectivity of EU Citizenship

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden Individualism, EU Citizenship, Depoliticisation, Mobile Individualism, Citizenship and Form of Life
Auteurs Aristel Skrbic
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The central aim of this article is to analyse the manner in which the legal structure of EU citizenship subjectifies Union citizens. I begin by explicating Alexander Somek’s account of individualism as a concept which captures EU citizenship and propose to update his analysis by coining the notion of mobile individualism. By looking at a range of CJEU’s case law on EU citizenship through the lens of the purely internal rule and the transnational character of EU citizenship, I suggest that movement sits at the core of EU citizenship. In order to adequately capture this unique structure of citizenship, we need a concept of individualism which takes movement rather than depoliticisation as its central object of analysis. I propose that the notion of mobile individualism can best capture the subjectivity of a model EU citizen, a citizen who is a-political due to being mobile.


Aristel Skrbic
Aristel Skrbic is a PhD candidate and teaching and research assistant at the Institute of Philosophy at the KU Leuven.
Article

Access_open Autonomy in old age

Tijdschrift Family & Law, mei 2019
Auteurs prof. dr. Tineke Abma en dr. Elena Bendien
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Background: In many European countries caring responsibilities are being reallocated to the older people themselves to keep the welfare state affordable. This policy is often legitimized with reference to the ethical principle of autonomy. Older people are expected to be autonomous, have freedom to make their own decisions, and be self-reliant and self-sufficient as long as possible.
    Aim: The purpose of this article is to explore whether and how older people can remain autonomous in order to continue living their lives in accordance with their own values in the context of declining professional caring facilities and shrinking social networks, and which concepts of autonomy can guide professionals and other involved parties in facilitating the choices of older people.
    Method: An empirical-ethical approach is used to interpret the moral values enacted in the caring practice for older people. Two cases are presented. One is the narrative of a woman who lives by herself; she has been hospitalized after a fall and hip fracture, but does not want to be operatied. The second is the narrative of man living in a residential home; he wants to be actively involved, doing good deeds like he always did as a Scout. The cases are evaluated with the help of two concepts of autonomy: autonomy as self-determination and relational autonomy.
    Results: In both cases the enactment of autonomy remains problematic. In the case of the woman there was not enough care at home to live up to her own values. After she was admitted to a hospital her wish not to be operated was questioned but ultimately honoured due to compassionate interference by close relatives and her oncologist. In the second case there was not enough space for the man to lead his life in the way he always had; his plans for improving the social environment in the care home were torpedoed by management and ultimately the man decided to step back.
    Conclusion: In order to do justice to the complexity of each empirical case that involves autonomy of an older person more than one concept of autonomy needs to be applied. Relying on self-determination or relational autonomy exclusively will give professionals and all involved parties a restricted view on the situation, where the wishes of older people are at stake. In both cases autonomy was overruled by system procedures and stereotypical ideas about old people as being weak and not able to make their own decisions. Both cases show, however, that older people - even if they are physically and mentally frail - long to remain morally responsible for the direction their lives are taking, in accordance with their own values. They communicate their wish to determine their own future and at the same time they are interdependent on others to realize their (relational) autonomy and require support in their attempt to maintain their identity. This conclusion has implications for the normative behaviour of the professionals who are involved in care and treatment of older people.
    ---
    Achtergrond: In veel landen wordt de verantwoordelijkheid voor de zorg voor ouderen naar de ouderen zelf verplaatst, dit teneinde de welvaartstaat betaalbaar te houden. Dit beleid wordt veelal gelegitimeerd met referentie naar het ethische principe van autonomie. Oudere mensen worden geacht autonoom te zijn, vrij te zijn om hun eigen beslissingen te nemen, en om zo lang mogelijk zelfredzaam te blijven.
    Doel: Het doel van dit artikel is om te onderzoeken of en hoe oudere mensen autonoom kunnen blijven teneinde hun leven in overeenstemming met hun eigen waarden te kunnen voortzetten in de context van teruglopende professionele zorgactiviteiten en krimpende sociale netwerken, en welke concepten van autonomie zorgprofessionals en andere betrokken partijen kunnen helpen bij het faciliteren van de keuzes door ouderen.
    Methode: Een empirisch-ethische benadering wordt gebuikt om de morele waarden in de zorgpraktijk voor ouderen te interpreteren. Twee casussen worden gepresenteerd. De eerste is het verhaal van een vrouw die op zichzelf woont. Ze is na een val waarbij haar heup is gebroken, in een ziekenhuis opgenomen, maar ze wil niet geopereerd worden. De tweede is het verhaal van een man die in een verzorgingshuis woont. Hij wil actief betrokken worden en goede dingen doen zoals hij die altijd heeft gedaan toen hij padvinder was. Beide verhalen worden met behulp van twee concepten van autonomie geëvalueerd: autonomie als zelfbeschikking en relationele autonomie.
    Resultaat: In beide casussen blijft de verwezenlijking van autonomie problematisch. In het geval van de vrouw was er thuis onvoldoende zorg om volgens haar waarden te kunnen leven. Toen zij in het ziekenhuis was opgenomen werd haar wens om niet te worden geopereerd tegen gehouden, maar uiteindelijk ingewilligd als gevolg van bemoeienis uit hoofde van barmhartigheid door directe verwanten en haar oncoloog. In het tweede geval was er voor de man onvoldoende ruimte om zijn leven te leiden op de manier zoals hij dat altijd had gedaan. Zijn plannen om de sociale omgeving in het verzorgingshuis te verbeteren werden door het management getorpedeerd en uiteindelijk heeft hij zich ervan teruggetrokken.
    Conclusie: Teneinde recht te doen aan de complexiteit van beide casussen die betrekking hebben op de autonomie van een oudere, dient meer dan één concept voor autonomie te worden ingezet. Het vertrouwen in zelfbeschikking of relationele autonomie alleen zal aan de professionals en alle andere betrokken partijen een beperkt zicht geven van de situatie wanneer het de wensen van ouderen betreft. In beide gevallen werd de autonomie ter zijde geschoven door protocollen en stereotypische ideeën over ouderen als kwetsbare personen die niet in staat zouden zijn om zelf hun beslissingen te nemen. Echter tonen beide voorbeelden aan dat ouderen, zelfs als ze fysiek en mentaal kwetsbaar zijn, de wens hebben om moreel verantwoordelijk te blijven voor de richting die hun leven zal nemen, in overeenstemming met hun eigen waarden. Zij geven de wens aan om hun eigen toekomst te bepalen en tegelijkertijd zijn ze onderling afhankelijk van anderen om hun (relationele) autonomie te verwezenlijken, én hebben ze behoefte aan steun bij hun poging om hun identiteit te behouden. Deze conclusie heeft gevolgen voor het normatieve handelen van professionals die bij de zorg en behandeling van ouderen betrokken zijn.


prof. dr. Tineke Abma
Professor dr. Tineke A. Abma is a full professor of Participation and Diversity at the Department of Medical Humanities of Amsterdam UMC, location VUmc.

dr. Elena Bendien
Dr. Elena Bendien is a social gerontologist and a senior researcher at the Department of Medical Humanities of Amsterdam UMC, location VUmc.
Artikel

Extremisme gezien vanuit de Dialogical Self Theory

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden Extremism, zelf, Democratie, Dialog, Diversiteit
Auteurs Prof. dr. Frans Wijsen en em. prof. dr. Hubert Hermans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Extremism is a phenomenon that bothers various EU member states. It is difficult to define, and difficult to study. In this contribution we look at extremism from the perspective of the Dialogical Self Theory (DST). This theory is well-known in personality psychology. Recently is has got a development that could make it relevant for understanding, predicting and preventing extremism. The issue at stake is the relation between diversity, dialogue and democracy.


Prof. dr. Frans Wijsen
Prof. dr. F.J.S. Wijsen is hoogleraar Religie- en missiewetenschap, en decaan van de faculteit Theologie aan de Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen. Hij redigeerde onder andere (met Kocku von Stuckrad) Making Religion. Theory and Practice of Discursive Study of Religion (Brill, 2016).

em. prof. dr. Hubert Hermans
Dr. H.J.M. Hermans is emeritus hoogleraar Psychologie aan de Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen. Hij is de grondlegger van de Dialogical Self Theory en president van de International Society for Dialogical Science. Hij is auteur van Society in the Self: A theory of identity in democracy (Oxford University Press 2018). hhermans@psych.ru.nl

    The Supreme Court has ruled that a baker’s refusal to provide a cake with a slogan supporting gay marriage was not sexual orientation discrimination, nor discrimination on grounds of political belief. The Northern Ireland bakery was owned by Christians who had religious objections to gay marriage (they thought Christian doctrine holds that marriage can only take place between a man and a woman). Gay marriage is not legal in Northern Ireland, although it is in the rest of the United Kingdom. Gay couples can enter into a ‘civil partnership’ in Northern Ireland, which formalises the relationship and provides it with legal recognition in a similar way to marriage.


Soren Kristophersen
Soren Kristophersen is a Legal Assistant at Lewis Silkin LLP.
Case Reports

2019/5 For how long may data of a job applicant be stored? (AT)

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden Privacy, Discrimination, General
Auteurs Sophie Mantler en Andreas Tinhofer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A provision of Dutch law, according to which employees who lose their jobs upon retirement are excluded from the right to statutory severance compensation, is not in breach of the Framework Directive.


Sophie Mantler
Sophie Mantler is a senior associate and

Andreas Tinhofer
Andreas Tinhofer is a partner at MOSATI Rechtsanwälte in Vienna (www.mosati.at).

    The Employment Appeal Tribunal (EAT) has clarified the grounds on which bad faith can be alleged in a victimisation claim under the Equality Act 2010 (‘EqA’). The EAT held that although motive in alleging victimisation could be relevant, the primary question is whether the employee acted honestly in giving the evidence or information, or in making the allegation. The concept of ‘bad faith’ is thus different in victimisation claims than whistleblowing claims.


Soyoung Lee
Soyoung Lee is an Associate at Lewis Silkin LLP.
Rulings

ECJ 14 February 2019, case C-154/18 (Horgan), Age discrimination

Tomás Horgan, Claire Keegan – v – Minister for Education & Skills, Minister for Finance, Minister for Public Expenditure & Reform, Ireland, Attorney General, Irish case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden Age discrimination
Samenvatting

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