Zoekresultaat: 314 artikelen

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    De grote toestroom van migranten en asielzoekers in de EU houdt vandaag nog steeds verschillende regelgevers wakker. Niet alleen de nationale overheden, maar ook de EU-regelgevers zoeken naarstig naar oplossingen voor de problematiek. Daartoe trachten de EU-regelgevers het Gemeenschappelijk Europees Asielstelsel (GEAS) bij te werken.
    Binnen de groep migranten en asielzoekers bestaat een specifiek kwetsbaar individu: de niet-begeleide minderjarige vreemdeling (NBMV). Hij is zowel vreemdeling als kind en kreeg reeds ruime aandacht binnen de rechtsleer. Nochtans werd deze aandacht niet altijd weerspiegeld in de EU-wetgeving. Het lijkt alsof hij door de regelgevers af en toe uit het oog verloren werd.
    Uit het onderzoek blijkt dat de EU-regelgevers nog een zekere weg te gaan hebben. In de eerste plaats bestaat er wat betreft het geheel aan regels met betrekking tot de NBMV weinig coherentie. De EU-regelgevers zouden bijvoorbeeld meer duidelijkheid kunnen scheppen door een uniforme methode vast te leggen voor de bepaling van de leeftijd van de NBMV. Hetzelfde geldt voor een verduidelijking van de notie ‘het belang van het kind’ binnen asiel en migratie. Verder blijken de Dublinoverdrachten en de vrijheidsontneming van de NBMV nog steeds gevoelige pijnpunten. Hier en daar moet aan de hervorming van het asielstelsel nog wat gesleuteld worden, zodat de rechten van de NBMV optimaal beschermd kunnen worden.
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    Today, the large influx of migrants and asylum seekers into the European Union (EU) keeps several regulators awake. Not only national authorities, but EU regulators too are diligently searching for solutions to the problems. To this end, EU regulators are seeking to update the Common European Asylum System (CEAS).
    There is however a particularly vulnerable individual within the group of migrants and asylum seekers: the unaccompanied alien minor (UAM). These minors already received a great deal of attention within legal doctrine. However, this attention was not always reflected in EU legislation. It seems as if UAM are occasionally lost from sight by the regulators.
    This article shows that the EU regulators still have a certain way to go. First, there is little coherence in the set of rules relating to the UAM. The EU regulators could, for example, create more clarity by laying down a uniform method for determining the age of the UAM. The same applies to a clarification of the notion of 'best interests of the child' within the context of asylum and migration. Second, the proposal for a new Dublin Regulation and the proposal for a new Reception Conditions Directive still appear to be sensitive. Here and there, the reform of the asylum system still needs adjustments, so that the rights of UAM can be optimally protected."


Caranina Colpaert LLM
Caranina Colpaert is PhD researcher
Artikel

Access_open Liberal Democracy and the Judeo-Christian Tradition

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering Pre-publications 2020
Trefwoorden national identity, historical narratives, universal values, equal citizenship
Auteurs Tamar de Waal
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Increasingly often, it is stated that the universal values underpinning Western liberal democracies are a product of a ‘Judeo-Christian’ tradition. This article explores the legitimacy of this claim from the perspective of liberal-democratic theory. It argues that state-endorsed claims about the historical roots of liberal-democratic values are problematic (1) if they are promoted as though they are above democratic scrutiny and (2) if they insinuate that citizens who belong to a particular (majority) culture remain the ‘cultural owners’ of the core values underpinning the state. More pragmatically, the paper suggests that the claim carries the risk of failing to facilitate all citizens becoming or remaining committed to nurturing fundamental rights and a shared society based on norms of democratic equality.


Tamar de Waal
Tamar de Waal is Assistant Professor of Legal Philosophy at the Amsterdam Law School of the University of Amsterdam.

    This article relies on the premise that to understand the significance of Open Access Repositories (OARs) it is necessary to know the context of the debate. Therefore, it is necessary to trace the historical development of the concept of copyright as a property right. The continued relevance of the rationales for copyright interests, both philosophical and pragmatic, will be assessed against the contemporary times of digital publishing. It follows then discussion about the rise of Open Access (OA) practice and its impact on conventional publishing methods. The present article argues about the proper equilibrium between self-interest and social good. In other words, there is a need to find a tool in order to balance individuals’ interests and common will. Therefore, there is examination of the concept of property that interrelates justice (Plato), private ownership (Aristotle), labour (Locke), growth of personality (Hegel) and a bundle of rights that constitute legal relations (Hohfeld). This examination sets the context for the argument.


Nikos Koutras
Postdoctoral Researcher, Faculty of Law, University of Antwerp.
Artikel

Tussen wal en schip

Etnografische inzichten in lokale havenbeveiliging

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2019
Trefwoorden ethnography, ports of Rotterdam and Hamburg, security personnel, customs, global commerce
Auteurs Dr. Yarin Eski
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This ethnography of everyday policing realities in the European ports of Rotterdam and Hamburg presents an understanding of policing spaces where protecting and supporting global commerce dominate. In undertaking this research, the author participated in the daily activities of 85 participants in Rotterdam (N=52) and Hamburg (N=33), consisting of 30 operational port police officers, 31 security officers, 10 customs officers and 14 others involved in port security-related matters (e.g. shipping agents, port authorities, boatmen and maritime engineers). These participants were collectively responsible for protecting the vulnerability of the just-in-time logistics by becoming the intervention, through which they become the very local threat to global commerce itself. A struggle that reveals itself in their (narrated) policing struggles with management, colleagues and multi-agency partners, as well as with the maritime business community and dangerous others.


Dr. Yarin Eski
Dr. Y. Eski is als universitair docent verbonden aan de afdeling Bestuurswetenschap en Politicologie van de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Article

Access_open Impact of International Law on the EU Customs Union

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden European Union, customs union, international law, customs legislation, autonomous standards
Auteurs Achim Rogmann
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution examines the various international instruments, in both hard and soft law, that have been established by international organisations such as the WTO and WCO and scrutinises how they have been implemented into EU legislation governing the EU Customs Union, thus demonstrating the substantial influence of international instruments on the Customs Union. As the relevant international instruments affect not only the traditional elements of European customs law, but also the EU’s entire export control regime and the framework of the internal market, this contribution demonstrates, moreover, how the Customs Union functions in a globalised world.


Achim Rogmann
Achim Rogmann, LL.M is professor of law at the Brunswick European Law School at Ostfalia Hochschule fur angewandte Wissenschaften.
Boekbespreking

Marokkanenpaniek zoekt de nuance

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2019
Auteurs Dr. Willem Koetsenruijter
Auteursinformatie

Dr. Willem Koetsenruijter
Dr. A.W.M. Koetsenruijter is universitair docent aan de Universiteit Leiden bij de opleiding Journalistiek en Nieuwe Media.
Pending Cases

Case C-511/19, Age discrimination

AB – v – Olympiako Athlitiko Kentro Athinon – Spyros Louis, reference lodged by the Areios Pagos (Greece) on 4 July 2019

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden Age discrimination

    The European Commission recently conducted a public consultation on the measures that may be taken to ensure the full application of the principle of equal pay between women and men. Its evaluation report is expected before the end of this year. The new Swiss legislation on monitoring and disclosure of the gender pay gap may be inspiration for future EU initiatives in this area.


Sara Rousselle-Ruffieux
Sara Rousselle-Ruffieux is an attorney-at-law at Lenz & Staehelin, Geneva, Switzerland.
Case Reports

2019/43 Dismissal after childbirth-related leave (DK)

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden Gender discrimination
Auteurs Christian K. Clasen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Danish Western High Court has ruled that the dismissal of an employee shortly after returning from childbirth-related leave did not constitute discrimination within the meaning of the Danish Act on Equal Treatment of Men and Women.


Christian K. Clasen
Christian K. Clasen is a partner at Norrbom Vinding, Copenhagen.
Rulings

ECJ 5 November 2019, case C-192/18 (Commission – v – Poland), Gender Discrimination, Fair Trial

European Commission – v – Republic of Poland, EU Case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden Gender discrimination, Fair trial
Samenvatting

    The Court of Appeal (CA) has ruled that it was unlawful to discriminate against an employee because of a mistaken perception that she had a progressive condition which would make her unable to perform the full functions of the role in future.


Bethan Carney
Bethan Carney is a Managing Practice Development Lawyer at Lewis Silkin LLP.
Case Reports

2019/41 A question of age discrimination (NL)

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden Age discrimination
Auteurs Claire Huijts
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Supreme Court found that the Court of Appeal did not properly examine whether the difference of treatment of employees based on a social plan may be justified.


Claire Huijts
Claire Huijts is an attorney-at-law at Pels Rijcken, The Hague, The Netherlands.
Rulings

ECJ 7 October 2019, case C-171/18 (Safeway), Gender discrimination, Pension

Safeway Ltd – v – Andrew Richard Newton, Safeway Pension Trustees Ltd, UK case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden Gender discrimination, Pension
Samenvatting

    Relying on the prohibition of age discrimination stemming from Directive 2000/78, the Labour Tribunal of Leuven refused to apply a Collective Labour Agreement establishing the minimum monthly salary for employees depending on their work experience even if not relevant and the Royal Decree enforcing it. The jurisdiction grounded its decision on the fact that this gave a strong advantage to older employees without objective justification.


Gautier Busschaert
Gautier Busschaert is an attorney-at-law at Van Olmen & Wynant, Brussels, Belgium.
Pending Cases

Case C-644/19, Fixed-term work, Age discrimination

FT – v – Universitatea ‘Lucian Blaga’ Sibiu, GS and Others, and Ministerul Educației Naționale, reference lodged by the Curtea de Apel Alba Iulia (Romania) on 28 August 2019

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden Fixed-term work, Age discrimination
Article

Access_open The Foundations of the Internal Market: Free Trade Area and Customs Union under Articles 28-31 TFEU

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden free trade area, customs union, internal market, European Union, Brexit
Auteurs Stefan Enchelmaier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution places the provisions of the Treaty creating a free trade area and customs union between the Member States (Articles 28-31 TFEU) in their wider context. It then focuses on the interpretation of Article 30 in the jurisprudence of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU). Throughout, it casts sideways glances at corresponding provisions of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). As it turns out, the abolition of customs duties and charges having equivalent effect, and the establishment of a customs union between Member States, were important milestones in the development of European unification. They became overshadowed later by more spectacular developments in the case law on the free movement of goods, persons and services. As a consequence, the importance of the customs provisions is widely underrated. Brexit concentrates the minds in this respect, as an important economy is about to rearrange and even recreate the basic building blocks of its international trading relations.


Stefan Enchelmaier
Dr. iur. (Bonn) habil. (Munich), LLM (Edinburgh), MA (Oxon.), Professor of European and Comparative Law, University of Oxford, and Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford.
Artikel

Voorspellen met big-datamodellen

Over de valkuilen voor beleidsmakers

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden Big data, predictive analytics, challenges, data quality, interpretation
Auteurs Dr. Susan van den Braak en Dr. Sunil Choenni
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the field of policymaking, there is a growing need to take advantage of the opportunities that big data predictions offer. A strong point of big data is that the large amounts of data that are collected nowadays can be re-used to find new insights. However, for effective use in policymaking it is also important to take into account the relating limitations and challenges. For example, the quality of the data used can be a problem. Outdated data and data of which the semantics have changed, may result in predictions that are no longer correct. In addition, it is difficult to apply predictions to individual cases or people. In this article authors provide various practical recommendations for dealing with these problems. As long as people are aware of the limitations and handle the results with care, big data models can be a useful addition to traditional methods in the field of policymaking.


Dr. Susan van den Braak
Dr. S.W. van den Braak is als senioronderzoeker verbonden aan de afdeling Statistische Informatievoorziening en Beleidsanalyse (SIBa) van het WODC.

Dr. Sunil Choenni
Dr. S. Choenni is als hoofd van de afdeling Statistische Informatievoorziening en Beleidsanalyse (SIBa) werkzaam bij het WODC. Hij is tevens lector Future Information & Communication Technology aan de Hogeschool Rotterdam.
Case Reports

2019/26 List of discrimination criteria (PL)

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden Age discrimination
Auteurs Marcin Wujczyk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Polish Supreme Court has held that a criterion of discrimination may also be a relationship of a social or familial nature that exists in the workplace and whose existence or absence on the part of the employee results in different treatment by the employer.


Marcin Wujczyk
Marcin Wujczyk is an attorney at law at Wardyński & Partners, Poland (https://www.wardynski.com.pl).

    In two appeal cases considered jointly, the Court of Appeal (CA) has ruled that it is not direct or indirect sex discrimination, nor a breach of equal pay rights, to provide enhanced pay for maternity leave and statutory pay only for shared parental leave (SPL).


Richard Lister
Richard Lister is a Managing Practice Development Lawyer at Lewis Silkin LLP.
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