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Artikel

Propaganda en paramilitairen

De normalisatie van geweld in het Servië van de jaren negentig

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden state crime, Serbia, propaganda, paramilitary units, Arkan
Auteurs MSc Maartje Weerdesteijn en Prof. dr. Alette Smeulers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    During the 1990s the Serbian government entered into a symbiotic relationship with criminals and paramilitary units which led to a normalization of crime and violence. While society usually inhibits people from criminal behavior, in Serbia this process was reversed. Propaganda contained the neutralization techniques that allowed people to condone and even approve of violent and criminal behavior. The reversal of the moral order became part of Serbia’s popular culture in which criminals who had committed many atrocities during the war, like Arkan, were honored. In this way, Arkan served not only a military and strategic purpose but also a political one, by generating support for the war.


MSc Maartje Weerdesteijn
Drs. M. Weerdesteijn, MSc is docent binnen de master International Crimes and Criminology aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en junior onderzoeker voor het Amsterdam centre of the interdisciplinary research on international crimes and security (ACIC), m.weerdesteijn@vu.nl.

Prof. dr. Alette Smeulers
Prof. dr. A.L. Smeulers heeft de onderzoekslijn criminologie van de internationale misdrijven aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam opgezet en is sinds 1 september 2011 tevens hoogleraar internationale criminologie aan de Universiteit van Tilburg, a.l.smeulers@tilburguniversity.edu.

    The upsurge in the use of economic sanctions in the post-Cold War era has prompted much scholarly and policy debate over their effectiveness and humanitarian consequences. Remarkably little attention, however, has been devoted to their criminalizing consequences and legacy for the post-sanctions period. In this article, the author develops an analytical framework identifying and categorizing the potential criminalizing effects of sanctions across place (within and around the targeted country) and time (during and after the sanctions period). This framework is applied and evaluated through an in-depth examination of the case of Yugoslavia. For comparative leverage and to assess the applicability of the argument beyond the Yugoslavia case, the analysis is briefly extended to Croatia. The article suggests that sanctions can unintentionally contribute to the criminalization of the state, economy, and civil society of both the targeted country and its immediate neighbors, fostering a symbiosis between political leaders, organized crime, and transnational smuggling networks. This symbiosis, in turn, can persist beyond the lifting of sanctions, contributing to corruption and crime and undermining the rule of law.


Peter Andreas
Prof. Peter Andreas is als assistent-hoogleraar Internationale Betrekkingen verbonden aan de Brown University, Rhode Island, Providence, USA.
Artikel

André Cools en Agusta

Een Belgische affaire

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2009
Auteurs M. Cools
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article describes the relation between the murder on the Walloon social-democratic politician André Cools on 18th July 1991 at Liege and the corruption case Agusta - dealing with the purchase of army helicopters - in order to reflect on typical Belgian criminological issues in this political organized crime topic. The murder committed by Tunisian hit-men was ordered through the influence of the personal cabinet of Van der Biest, a former minister. During the murder investigation a link with the Agusta corruption case was discovered and would tear down several ministers as well as the former NATO Secretary-General Willy Claes. Due to the existence of especially journalistic sources and a lack of scientific criminological material, the conclusions of this article are strictly personal. The murder and the corruption prove the fact that political organized crime was a reality in Belgium. This case can stand as a scholarly example in the study of political organized crime in Belgium.


M. Cools
Dr. Marc Cools is hoofddocent aan de vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Gent en docent aan de vakgroep Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
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