Zoekresultaat: 15 artikelen

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Artikel

Access_open Enemy of All Humanity

The Dehumanizing Effects of a Dangerous Concept

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden enemy of all humanity, hostis humani generis, piracy, international criminal law, Luban
Auteurs Marc de Wilde
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In his contribution to this special issue, David Luban proposes to revive the age-old concept of ‘the enemy of all humanity.’ On his view, this concept supports the aims of international criminal justice by emphasizing that atrocity and persecution crimes are ‘radically evil’ and therefore ‘everyone’s business.’ Criticizing Luban’s proposal, this paper shows that in the past, the ‘enemy of all humanity’ concept has often served to establish parallel systems of justice, depriving these ‘enemies’ of their rights as suspects under criminal law and as lawful combatants under the laws of war. Thus, even if the ‘enemy of all humanity’ concept is used with the intention to bring today’s perpetrators of ‘radical evil’ to justice, it risks undermining, rather than protecting, the rule of law.


Marc de Wilde
Marc de Wilde is Professor of Jurisprudence at the University of Amsterdam.
Artikel

Access_open ‘God’s Friend, the Whole World’s Enemy’

Reconsidering the role of piracy in the development of universal jurisdiction.

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden Cicero, Augustine, Bartolus, piracy, universal jurisdiction
Auteurs Louis Sicking
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Piracy holds a special place within the field of international law because of the universal jurisdiction that applies. This article reconsiders the role of piracy in the development of universal jurisdiction. While usually a connection is established between Cicero’s ‘enemy of all’ and modern conceptions of pirates, it is argued that ‘enemy of the human species’ or ‘enemy of humanity’ is a medieval creation, used by Bartolus, which must be understood in the wake of the Renaissance of the twelfth century and the increased interest for the study of Roman Law. The criminalization of the pirate in the late Middle Ages must be understood not only as a consequence of royal power claiming a monopoly of violence at sea. Both the Italian city-states and the Hanse may have preceded royal power in criminalizing pirates. All the while, political motives in doing so were never absent.


Louis Sicking
Louis Sicking is Aemilius Papinianus Professor of History of Public International Law at Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and lecturer in medieval and early modern history at Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Verbanning en uitzetting in Noordwest-Europa sinds de vroegmoderne periode

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden banishment, expulsion, history, early modern period, Northwest Europe
Auteurs Dr. Margo De Koster
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    To supplement recent debates concerning the expulsion of criminal foreigners and the repelling of poor refugees with longer-term insights, this contribution examines banishment practices in early modern and modern Northwest Europe. It argues that banishment, a sanction involving a person’s geographical and social exclusion, served both to punish deviants and to monitor mobile newcomers. Expulsion practices were shaped mainly by concerns about the regulation of access to the labor market and poor relief. The profile of the expellee displays remarkable continuity across time: the poor unwanted stranger, lacking social bonds and, in the case of female migrants, perceived as being prone to prostitution. Albeit banishment often proved only temporary and thus not effective, authorities continued to rely on it because of its symbolic function, displaying their diligence in purifying and protecting local society. This was much to the detriment of the expellees, who were driven into marginality and illegality.


Dr. Margo De Koster
Dr. Margo De Koster is als universitair docent Historische Criminologie verbonden aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en de Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
Artikel

#HOUHETSTRAAT: straatcultuur op social media?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden street culture, Identity, social media, Performance
Auteurs Dr. Robby Roks en Jeroen van den Broek MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Research on street culture in the Netherlands constitutes an area of relative paucity. Moreover, even less is known about the virtualisation of street culture. In this article, we draw on the social media accounts of a network of delinquent youngsters from Spangen, a neighbourhood in the Dutch city of Rotterdam. Analyzing tweets and images on social media, we found Goffmans (1959) notion of the ‘front’ in three main themes: the importance of the negative image of the locality, the communication of criminality, and emphasizing an oppositional relationship with the police. We argue that these results illustrate the performance of a street identity on social media.


Dr. Robby Roks
Dr. R.A. Roks is als universitair docent verbonden aan de sectie criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. E-mail: roks@law.eur.nl.

Jeroen van den Broek MSc
J.B.A. van den Broek, MSc, is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Lectoraat Aanpak Jeugdcriminaliteit van Hogeschool Leiden en daarnaast als zelfstandig criminoloog actief vanuit Partner in Crime. E-mail: jbavandenbroek@gmail.com.
Artikel

‘Dat het uwe Majesteit moge behagen de innigste wensch van een uwer onderdanen te vervullen’

Gratieverzoeken van vrouwen in de Rijkswerkinrichting 1886-1907

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden female vagrants, Beggars, Reprieve, State Labor Institution
Auteurs Drs. Marian Weevers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The files of the women in the State Labor Institution who submitted a request for reprieve showed that they were well aware of the prevailing discourses. They referred for example to their indispensability at home as mother and spouse. In case they were in the Institution for the first time and had no ‘unfavorable’ reputation they mainly succeeded. The main consideration to grant a pardon was the prospect of maintenance to prevent recurrence and consequently nuisance for society. Those who were seriously ill were pardoned because they could not work, the youngest residents to save them from the bad influence of their older inmates. Nevertheless many returned in the State Labor Institution.


Drs. Marian Weevers
Drs. M.H.A.C. Weevers is promovendus aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Praktijk

Migranten en minderheden in het vizier van staat en politie

Een langetermijnperspectief

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2015
Auteurs Prof. dr. Margo De Koster
Auteursinformatie

Prof. dr. Margo De Koster
Prof. dr. M. De Koster is universitair docent historische criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en de Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
Artikel

Vagebonden in woorden en daden, én in beelden

Van deerniswekkende drommel via vrijheidslievende romanticus tot zorgwekkende zorgmijder

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden Beggars, Tramps, Vagrancy, Vagabonds, visual arts
Auteurs prof. dr. Frans Koenraadt
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Vagabonds, mainly relating to beggars and vagrants, have occupied the Western European social and criminal landscape by the ages. In this contribution some long term patterns – from the Middle Ages onwards – are investigated. The central questions are a) What is the place vagabonds occupied in society? and b) How was dealt with them in the past centuries? In order to answer these questions the perception of and the distinction between true and false beggars and vagrants are included. In addition to penal and criminological sources also those from the visual arts (history) are applied. Answering these questions shows a process of increasing institutionalization seeing a pattern of social exclusion to institutional confinement. An important role in the institutionalization is reserved for the interference of criminal law.


prof. dr. Frans Koenraadt
Prof. dr. Frans Koenraadt is hoogleraar forensische psychiatrie en psychologie aan de Universiteit Utrecht. Hij is als wetenschappelijk adviseur werkzaam in het Pieter Baan Centrum (NIFP) te Utrecht en bij de Forensisch Psychiatrische Kliniek te Assen, Drenthe. Hij is tevens zelfstandig gevestigd in zijn eigen praktijk voor forensische psychologie in Amsterdam. Hij is hoofdopleider van de profielopleiding Forensische psychologie van de RINO Noord Holland te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Kiezen voor stadsrepublieken? Over administratieve afhandeling van overlast in de steden

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden social disorder, incivility, governance, communal sanctions, Mayor
Auteurs Elke Devroe
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The theme of governing anti-social behaviour and incivilities in the public space became more important on the policy and research agenda over the last twenty years. This article describes the law on incivilities in Belgium, namely the ‘administrative communal sanctions’ (GAS). This law is studied in a broader context of contemporary crime control and its organizing patterns. The development of the politics of behaviour can be explained by different characteristics of the period referred to as the late modernity. In the dissertation ‘A culture of control?’ (Devroe 2012) we studied the application and the concrete strategies behind the governance of incivilities on a national and on a city level. The incivility law broadened the competences of the Mayor and the city council especially in the completion of anti social behaviour and public disorder problems in his/her municipality. Instead of being dealt with on a traditional judicial way by the police magistrate, the Mayor can, by this law; himself lay on fines until maximum 250 euro. We mention ‘city republics’ as this punitive sanction became a locally assigned matter, which means that one municipality differs from another in their ‘incivility policy’. Due to the split up of competences of the Belgian state arrangements of 1988, each municipality finds itself framed in different political and organisational executive realities. In this view, Mayors can be called ‘presidents’ of their own municipality, keeping and controlling the process of tackling incivilities as their main responsibility and determining what behaviour had to be controlled and punished and what behaviour can be considered as normal decent behaviour in the public space. Problems of creating a ‘culture of control’, creating inequality for the poor, the beggars and the socially ‘unwanted’ can arise, especially in big cities.


Elke Devroe
Dr. Elke Devroe is Universitair Hoofddocent Criminologie bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie, Universiteit Leiden. E-mail: e.devroe@law.leidenuniv.nl
Artikel

One size does not fit all

Maatwerk voor opsporingsonderzoeken in CSV-beschrijvingen

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 3 2013
Trefwoorden OCG-mapping, organized crime, qualitative research, Organizational Network Analysis
Auteurs Alexandra Jones
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Current mapping of organized crime groups (OCG’s) serves two opposing needs simultaneously: firstly, researching OCG’s should be done as judiciously as possible, due to the consequential nature of ensuing police investigations. Secondly, police analysts experience severe constraints on their OCG-reports, because of the demand by police management for ‘objectified’ reports, describing crime groups as briefly as possible in terms which allow for comparison of groups. This drive towards streamlining OCG-mapping comes at a cost: not all groups fit into the prescribed formats. We need to re-think the way in which we map OCG’s so as to better support police investigations.


Alexandra Jones
Alexandra Jones is taalkundige en als strategisch analist werkzaam bij de politie, Bureau Regionale Informatie van de Eenheid Den Haag. alexandra.jones@haaglanden.politie.nl.
Artikel

‘Levenslang’: schadebeperking door levenslange gevangenisstraffen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden life imprisonment United States, prison culture, benefits of prison life, sociolinguistics, protection of society
Auteurs M.S. Fleisher
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This essay examines imprisoned felons’ perspectives and interpretations of ‘doing life’. Prisoners’ and ex-prisoners’ perspectives on the pros and cons of life imprisonment were documented over four decades of ethnographic research in prisons and on urban streets. The author’s research was conducted as a participant observer of street criminals and observing participant in federal prisons. Interviews with violent convicted felons in state and federal prisons and persistent criminals with histories of imprisonment reveal what it means to ‘do time’. Prisoners’ enculturation accommodates their adjustment to prison life and ability to negotiate daily prison life, but prison culture’s and prison programs’ inability to alter the nature of violent criminals pose a continuous threat to the population at large. Life imprisonment benefits prisoners’ physical and social health and protects communities by keeping violent criminals imprisoned.


M.S. Fleisher
Dr. Mark Fleisher is als research professor verbonden aan het Begun Center for Violence Prevention Research and Education van de Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio.
Diversen

Access_open Elusive normativity

Stefano Bertea, The Normative Claim of Law

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2011
Auteurs Jaap Hage
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Book review of Stefano Bertea, The Normative Claim of Law


Jaap Hage
Jaap Hage holds the Chair of Jurisprudence at Maastricht University.
Artikel

‘Uitgediende hetaeren, verjaagde concubines en in den steek gelatenen’

De opsluiting van vrouwelijke bedelaars eind negentiende eeuw

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden Gender, Geschiedenis, Vrouwelijke bedelaars, Rijkswerkinrichting
Auteurs Drs. Marian Weevers en Prof. dr. mr. Catrien Bijleveld
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The backgrounds of the female vagabonds and beggars at the end of the 19th century show that contrary to their male counterparts, these females originated almost exclusively from the lower echelons of society. Their professions and those of their parents and husbands were low and ill-paid. Disease was prevalent, mortality was high and many of them had physical or psychological problems. Most of them were single and 25 percent had children out of wedlock. 20 Percent was convicted for mostly minor crimes. Because of their behaviour it is likely that they were not accepted by their family and received no support from the church or other institutions for relief of the poor. To beg and get convicted to RWI-placement may have been their only remaining survival strategy once they were old and ill.


Drs. Marian Weevers
Drs. M.H.A.C. Weevers is historica, mhac.weevers@planet.nl.

Prof. dr. mr. Catrien Bijleveld
Prof. dr. mr. C.C.J.H. Bijleveld is senior onderzoeker aan het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving en hoogleraar aan de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam, cbijleveld@nscr.nl.

    In the nineteenth century in the Netherlands, tramps and beggars were sent to Veenhuizen to work there as a form of punishment and rehabilitation. To investigate the background of these banished men, the authors drew a systematic 5% sample out of 6.000 men who were banished between 1896-1901. Using information from the so-called ‘signalements’-cards that were compiled, the authors found that the Veenhuizen men were not uneducated, unskilled workers, but on the contrary, often had some kind of (semi-)skilled profession. Many did not have a permanent abode, and only a few had (ever) been married. At on average 45 years of age, the Veenhuizen convicts were old for the era they lived in. As such these men lacked and had probably at some point in their lives lost societal as well as social ties, and had gone adrift.
    Recidivism was high. While the Veenhuizen measure may have been effective in delivering society from the blemishes that these men represented, but in general it didn't turn these men into fully participating citizens.


M. Weevers
Drs. Marian Weevers is historica en is werkzaam als beleidsadviseur bij de afdeling sociaal en economisch beleid van de gemeente Leiden.

C. Bijleveld
Prof. dr. mr. Catrien Bijleveld is hoogleraar Methoden en Technieken van Criminologisch Onderzoek aan de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam en senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving in Leiden.
Artikel

‘Thans zal met kracht het breien van kousen worden voortgezet’

Vrouwelijke bedelaars en landlopers in de RWI te Leiden 1886-1907

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2010
Auteurs M. Weevers en C.C.J.H. Bijleveld
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article is based on research in the archives of the Rijkswerkinrichting in Leiden, the Netherlands, which served as a penitentiary for female vagabonds and beggars between 1886 and 1907. At an average 48 years of age, women were old; about four in ten were confined more than once. Contrary to males in similar institutions, females were almost exclusively from the lower echelons of society, and very few had ever been married. While material conditions in confinement compared positively to the living conditions before confinement, mortality was high. Women, like female detainees these days, mostly performed menial work that offers little prospect for successful reintegration. Most had probably led rough lives, with alcohol abuse, poverty and familial strife. The confinement of these women probably served more as a temporary respite than as a solution for these women's problems.


M. Weevers
Drs. Marian Weevers is historica en is werkzaam als beleidsadviseur bij de afdeling sociaal en economisch beleid van de gemeente Leiden.

C.C.J.H. Bijleveld
Prof. dr. mr. Catrien Bijleveld is hoogleraar Methoden en Technieken van Criminologisch Onderzoek aan de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam en senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving in Leiden. De auteurs danken Frans van Poppel voor zijn hulp bij berekeningen en het afzetten van cijfers tegen populatiewaarden, en G.L. en L.G. van Eendenburg voor het beschikbaar stellen van hun elektronische database. Wij danken Margot De Koster voor haar nuttige commentaar en suggesties op een eerdere versie van dit stuk, en Eric Nollkaemper voor zijn assistentie bij de analyse van het voedselpatroon.
Artikel

Access_open The Legal and Moral Dimensions of Solidarity

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2006
Trefwoorden claim, model, baby, carry, gedogen, identiteit, interest, kind, mededinging, service
Auteurs A. Zijderveld

A. Zijderveld
Interface Showing Amount
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