Zoekresultaat: 171 artikelen

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    A number of collective labour agreements unjustifiably have excluded allowances from holiday pay. Recently, social partners have had difficulties in repairing these flaws. Two recent cases demonstrate this, both similar claims but with different outcomes. This leaves social partners with the problem of how to proceed.


Jan-Pieter Vos
Jan-Pieter Vos is a lecturer of Labour Law at the Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands and editor of EELC.

    The Luxembourg Court of Appeal (Cour d’appel de Luxembourg) confirmed that an employee dismissed with notice and exempted from performing their work during the notice period is no longer bound by the non-competition duties arising from their loyalty obligation and can therefore engage in an employment contract with a direct competitor of their former employer during that exempted notice period. However, the Court of Appeal decided that, even if the former employee is in principle entitled to use the know-how and knowledge they acquired with their former employer, the poaching of clients during the notice period must, due to the facts and circumstances and in the light of the rules applicable in the financial sector, be considered as an unfair competition act and therefore constitutes serious misconduct justifying the termination of the employment contract with immediate effect.


Michel Molitor
Michel Molitor is the managing partner of MOLITOR Avocats à la Cour SARL in Luxembourg, www.molitorlegal.lu.

Régis Muller
Régis Muller is partner within the Employment, Pension & Immigration department of MOLITOR Avocats à la Cour SARL in Luxembourg, www.molitorlegal.lu.

    Both the French Supreme Court and the Versailles Court of Appeal held that an employer, who must ensure that liberties and fundamental rights of each employee are respected in the working community, may lawfully prohibit the wearing of any visible sign of political, philosophical or religious beliefs in the workplace, provided that the rule contained in the company rules and regulations applies without distinction to employees in direct contact with the customers of the company only. But in the absence of such rules, sanctioning an employee who refuses to remove her Islamic veil based on the wish of a customer, which does not qualify as a genuine and determining occupational requirement, amounts to an unlawful direct discrimination and should consequently be held null and void.


Claire Toumieux
Claire Toumieux is partner and Thomas Robert is an attorney at Allen & Overy LLP in Paris, France.

Thomas Robert
Article

Access_open The Singapore International Commercial Court: The Future of Litigation?

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden international commercial court, Singapore, dispute resolution, litigation
Auteurs Man Yip
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Singapore International Commercial Court (‘SICC’) was launched on 5 January 2015, at the Opening of Legal Year held at the Singapore Supreme Court. What prompted the creation of SICC? How is the SICC model of litigation different from litigation in the Singapore High Court? What is the SICC’s track record and what does it tell us about its future? This article seeks to answer these questions at greater depth than existing literature. Importantly, it examines these questions from the angle of reimagining access of justice for litigants embroiled in international commercial disputes. It argues that the SICC’s enduring contribution to improving access to justice is that it helps to change our frame of reference for international commercial litigation. Hybridisation, internationalisation, and party autonomy, the underpinning values of the SICC, are likely to be the values of the future of dispute resolution. International commercial dispute resolution frameworks – typically litigation frameworks – that unduly emphasise national boundaries and formalities need not and should not be the norm. Crucially, the SICC co-opts a refreshing public-private perspective to the resolution of international commercial disputes. It illuminates on the public interest element of the resolution of such disputes which have for some time fallen into the domain of international commercial arbitration; at the same time, it introduces greater scope for self-determination in international commercial litigation.


Man Yip
BCL (Oxon).

    The German Federal Labour Court (Bundesarbeitsgericht, the ‘BAG’) has held that pre-employment as a freelancer must be taken into account in relation to the number of years having been with a firm as a freelancer when assessing the legality of a fixed-term contract due to the character of the specific deployment.


Sean Illing
Sean Illing is an Associate Solicitor at Lewis Silkin LLP.
Pending Cases

Case C-223/19, Social Insurance, Gender Discrimination, Pension

YS – v – NK, reference lodged by the Landesgericht Wiener Neustadt (Austria) on 13 March 2019

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2019
Artikel

A Look Back at Courage and a Look Forward to the Future of Non-Contractual Liability of Individuals for Breaches of EU Law

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Vermogensrecht, Aflevering 7-8 2019
Trefwoorden non-contractual liability, compensation, direct horizontal effect, effectiveness, effective judicial protection
Auteurs F. Bassi LL.M.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Courage ruling establishes that private parties are liable to compensate other private parties for the harm caused by a breach of Art. 101(1) TFEU. This article discusses whether a breach by private parties of other provisions of the TFEU with ‘direct horizontal effect’ also gives rise to non-contractual liability and what are the conditions for such liability to arise.


F. Bassi LL.M.
F. Bassi LL.M. is a PhD Candidate at Radboud University Nijmegen and at KU Leuven.
Artikel

Grondrechten, gamechangers

Over recente ontwikkelingen op het gebied van de doorwerking van de Europese grondrechten in het vermogensrecht

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Vermogensrecht, Aflevering 7-8 2019
Trefwoorden EVRM, EU-handvest, onrechtmatige daad, schadevergoeding
Auteurs Mr. dr. J.M. Emaus
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    De auteur gaat in op de doorwerking van Europese grondrechten in het verbintenissenrecht, en bespreekt hierbij zowel het EVRM als EU-handvest. Zij concludeert dat Europese grondrechten gamechangers kunnen zijn, onder meer omdat zij aanleiding kunnen geven tot een vorm van genoegdoening, óók of juist als de nationale rechter oordeelt dat op grond van het nationale recht geen recht op schadevergoeding bestaat


Mr. dr. J.M. Emaus
Mr. J.M. Emaus is als universitair docent werkzaam bij het Molengraaff Instituut voor Privaatrecht van de Universiteit Utrecht en is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Utrecht Centre for Accountability and Liability Law (Ucall) en het Studie- en Informatiecentrum Mensenrechten (SIM).
Artikel

De beslispraktijk van het Schadefonds Geweldsmisdrijven: een kwalitatieve studie naar de beoordeling van verzoeken tot tegemoetkoming

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden slachtoffers, geweldscriminaliteit, schade, tegemoetkoming, beslispraktijk
Auteurs Mara Huibers MSc., Prof. dr. mr. Maarten Kunst en Dr. mr. Sigrid van Wingerden
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Victims who suffer severe damages due to the act of a violent crime can request state compensation from the Dutch Violent Offences Compensation Fund (VOCF). VOCF workers who decide on these requests use their discretionary powers to translate the VOCF’s rules and policy into concrete actions. This study investigated (1) to what extent these VOCF workers match Lipsky’s definition of street-level bureaucrats and (2) what routines and heuristics they use to deal with time and information constraints. On the basis of document analysis and interviews, we found that the decision makers of the VOCF can to a certain extent be seen as street-level bureaucrats. To make decisions timely, some of them use routines such as the ‘downstream orientation’. This means that they award requests for compensation if they think that the applicant would be able to successfully contest a rejecting decision. To deal with a lack of information, they sometimes include a review clause in the text of a rejection decision. The use of heuristics was not found among the lawyers who decide in first instance, but in case of appeal hearings heuristics such as the affect and representativeness heuristic seem to play a role in the decision-making process. Future research should investigate whether these routines and heuristics lead to disparities in outcomes.


Mara Huibers MSc.
Mara Huibers is docent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Prof. dr. mr. Maarten Kunst
Maarten Kunst is hoogleraar criminologie aan Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. mr. Sigrid van Wingerden
Sigrid van Wingerden is universitair hoofddocent criminologie aan Universiteit Leiden.
Impressies

Nederlandse Wet op de reisovereenkomst: (on)werkbaarheid in de praktijk

Tijdschrift Contracteren, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden Reisovereenkomst, Gekoppeld reisarrangement, Richtlijn pakketreizen, Reiziger, Handelaar
Auteurs Mr. N.A. de Leeuw en Mr. drs. J.A. Tersteeg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    De nieuwe wet op de reisovereenkomst (titel 7A van Boek 7 BW) welke wet op 1 juli 2018 in werking is getreden, is eigenlijk een vrijwel letterlijke vertaling van de Richtlijn Pakketreizen en Gekoppelde Reisarrangementen van 25 november 2015. Hoewel de doelstelling van de Richtlijn, te weten meer bescherming voor de reiziger en maximum harmonisatie tussen de lidstaten een mooi streven was, blinkt de Richtlijn niet uit in duidelijkheid en zijn er voorafgaand aan de totstandkoming ervan vele ontwerpen de revue gepasseerd die de eindstreep van het wetgevingsproces niet hebben gehaald. Desondanks heeft de Nederlandse wetgever deze moeilijke wetgeving uit Brussel redelijk leesbaar geïmplementeerd in de Nederlandse wet. Onzes inziens is de Richtlijn, en daarmee dus ook de Nederlandse wet, op een aantal vlakken niet duidelijk en lastig uit te leggen aan zowel de ondernemers in de reisbranche als aan de reiziger. Ook zijn er enkele onvolkomenheden in de wet geslopen, mede veroorzaakt door een slordige vertaling van de Richtlijn in het Nederlands, waar de Nederlandse wetgever overigens geen invloed op had. In dit artikel willen we met name stilstaan bij een aantal van deze onduidelijkheden en moeilijkheden. Zo zijn de definitiebepalingen bijvoorbeeld vrij ingewikkeld en roept de afbakening tussen een pakketreis en het nieuwe fenomeen van het gekoppeld reisarrangement vragen op. Ook zetten wij vraagtekens bij de vergaande informatieverplichtingen, de positie van de zakenreiziger en de wijze waarop de garantieverplichtingen in Nederland zijn geïmplementeerd. Hoe werkzaam de wet zal zijn in de praktijk van alle dag, zal de komende jaren dus nog moeten blijken.


Mr. N.A. de Leeuw
Mr. N.A. de Leeuw is advocaat bij La Gro Geelkerken Advocaten.

Mr. drs. J.A. Tersteeg
Mr. drs. J.A. Tersteeg is avocaat bij EMR Advocaten.

    The Iasi Court of Appeal has held that a request for resignation completed and signed after various forms of pressure from the employee’s superiors does not represent a termination of an individual labour agreement on the initiative of the employee, but a constructive dismissal.


Andreea Suciu
Andreea Suciu is the managing partner at Suciu | The Employment Law Firm.
Law Review

2019/1 EELC’s review of the year 2018

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 1 2019
Auteurs Ruben Houweling, Catherine Barnard, Filip Dorssemont e.a.
Samenvatting

    For the second time, various of our academic board analysed employment law cases from last year. However, first, we start with some general remarks.


Ruben Houweling

Catherine Barnard

Filip Dorssemont

Jean-Philippe Lhernould

Francesca Maffei

Niklas Bruun

Anthony Kerr

Jan-Pieter Vos

Luca Ratti

Daiva Petrylaite

Andrej Poruban

Stein Evju
Artikel

The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in Practice

A Comparative Analysis of the Role of Courts

Tijdschrift Handicap & Recht, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden CRPD, disabilities, discrimination, court, human rights
Auteurs Prof. Dr. L.B. Waddington en Dr. A.C. Broderick
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    On the 25th and 26th October 2018, the Faculty of Law of Maastricht University hosted a conference on The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in Practice: A Comparative Analysis of the Role of Courts. This article presents some of the key findings of the conference and summarises several of the speakers’ contributions to the conference.


Prof. Dr. L.B. Waddington
Prof. Dr. L.B. (Lisa) Waddington is European Disability Forum Chair in European Disability Law, Maastricht University.

Dr. A.C. Broderick
Dr. A.C. (Andrea) Broderick is Assistant Professor at Maastricht University.

    The Czech Supreme Court has ruled that the concept of good moral conduct must be taken into account when assessing whether an employee has breached his or her non-compete obligation and thus whether it is fair to demand that the employee pay a contractual penalty for the breach. The Court annulled the penalty.


Anna Diblíková
Anna Diblíková is an attorney at Noerr in Prague, www.noerr.com.

    The Finnish Supreme Court has held that an employer discriminated against an employee by not renewing his employment at the end of a fixed-term contract because he was overweight.


Janne Nurminen
Janne Nurminen is a Senior Associate with Roschier, Attorneys Ltd in Helsinki, www.roschier.com.

    The Court of Appeal has confirmed that an expectation that a disabled employee would work long hours was a ‘provision, criterion or practice’ in a disability discrimination claim regarding reasonable adjustments. It also held that, on the facts, the employer’s conduct had caused the employee to resign and this entitled him to claim constructive unfair dismissal.


Tom McEvoy
Tom McEvoy is an Associate Solicitor at Lewis Silkin LLP.
Artikel

Een transitievergoeding bij overlijden?

Een snelle tegemoetkoming aan nabestaanden voor kosten als gevolg van het overlijden van een naaste?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Vergoeding Personenschade, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden overlijdensschade, schadevergoeding, transitievergoeding, nabestaanden, begrafeniskosten
Auteurs Mr. drs. I. van der Zalm
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In Denemarken hebben nabestaanden recht op een zogenaamde transitievergoeding (‘overgangsbeløb’). Deze eenmalige gestandaardiseerde vergoeding is bedoeld om kort na het ongeval te voorzien in dekking van diverse uitgaven die het gevolg zijn van het overlijden. In dit artikel zal worden ingegaan op deze transitievergoeding en zal worden onderzocht of een dergelijke figuur ook van betekenis zou kunnen zijn voor het Nederlandse stelsel, nu artikel 6:108 BW niet voorziet in een dergelijke figuur.


Mr. drs. I. van der Zalm
Mw. mr. drs. I. van der Zalm is wetenschappelijk docent en onderzoeker aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Access_open ‘God’s Friend, the Whole World’s Enemy’

Reconsidering the role of piracy in the development of universal jurisdiction.

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden Cicero, Augustine, Bartolus, piracy, universal jurisdiction
Auteurs Louis Sicking
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Piracy holds a special place within the field of international law because of the universal jurisdiction that applies. This article reconsiders the role of piracy in the development of universal jurisdiction. While usually a connection is established between Cicero’s ‘enemy of all’ and modern conceptions of pirates, it is argued that ‘enemy of the human species’ or ‘enemy of humanity’ is a medieval creation, used by Bartolus, which must be understood in the wake of the Renaissance of the twelfth century and the increased interest for the study of Roman Law. The criminalization of the pirate in the late Middle Ages must be understood not only as a consequence of royal power claiming a monopoly of violence at sea. Both the Italian city-states and the Hanse may have preceded royal power in criminalizing pirates. All the while, political motives in doing so were never absent.


Louis Sicking
Louis Sicking is Aemilius Papinianus Professor of History of Public International Law at Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and lecturer in medieval and early modern history at Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Interventions in High-conflict Divorce Cases: The Parenting Examination

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden Parenting examination, high-conflict divorce, child custody, child access, forensic expert
Auteurs Esther Kluwer en Cees van Leuven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Parenting examination (in Dutch: ouderschapsonderzoek) is a method that is used in high-conflict divorces in the Netherlands since 2008, whereby the court appoints a forensic expert who uses mediation and coaching techniques to support the parents to find a solution for their dispute. When parents fail to reach agreement, the forensic expert reports to the judge who can use this information to make a decision. This article discusses the results of two studies that have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the Parenting examination in practice.


Esther Kluwer
Esther Kluwer is professor of Sustainable Relationships and Wellbeing at Radboud University (Nijmegen) and associate professor at the Department of Social Health & Organisational Psychology at Utrecht University.

Cees van Leuven
Cees van Leuven is a judge at the Court of Appeal (‘s-Hertogenbosch) and a lecturer at the Netherlands Training and Study Centre for the Judiciary. He recently published the book ‘Rechter worden, rechter zijn’ (Becoming a judge, being a judge), January 2019.
Article

Access_open The Conduit between Technological Change and Regulation

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden technology, socio-technological change, money, windmill, data
Auteurs Marta Katarzyna Kołacz en Alberto Quintavalla
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article discusses how the law has approached disparate socio-technological innovations over the centuries. Precisely, the primary concern of this paper is to investigate the timing of regulatory intervention. To do so, the article makes a selection of particular innovations connected with money, windmills and data storage devices, and analyses them from a historical perspective. The individual insights from the selected innovations should yield a more systematic view on regulation and technological innovations. The result is that technological changes may be less momentous, from a regulatory standpoint, than social changes.


Marta Katarzyna Kołacz
Marta Katarzyna Kołacz, Ph.D. Candidate in the Department of Private Law, Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Alberto Quintavalla
Alberto Quintavalla, LL.M., Ph.D. Candidate in the Rotterdam Institute of Law and Economics, Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
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