Zoekresultaat: 41 artikelen

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Jurisprudentie

Kroniek ondernemingsstrafrecht

Tweede helft 2020

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Bijzonder Strafrecht & Handhaving, Aflevering 1 2021
Auteurs Prof. mr. H.J.B. Sackers (red.), mr. J. Boonstra, mr. dr. S.S. Buisman e.a.

Prof. mr. H.J.B. Sackers (red.)

mr. J. Boonstra

mr. dr. S.S. Buisman

mr. A.A. Feenstra

mr. K.M.T. Helwegen

mr. A.C.M. Klaasse

mr. dr. I. Koopmans

mr. V.S.Y. Liem

prof. mr. M. Nelemans

mr. dr. J.S. Nan

mr. dr. E. Sikkema

mr. dr. drs. B. van de Vorm

mr. dr. W.S. de Zanger
Artikel

In(ternet)filtratie: een roep om meer waarborgen?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Bijzonder Strafrecht & Handhaving, Aflevering 5 2020
Trefwoorden digitale infiltratie, infiltratie(bevoegdheid), Lijst Ia Opiumwet, Operatie Bayonet, Hansa Market
Auteurs Mr. S.B.H. van Overveld, Mr. I.C. Smits en Mr. C.M. Taylor Parkins-Ozephius
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Door middel van een grootschalige digitale infiltratieoperatie werd de dark market ‘Hansa’ in 2017 door de Nederlandse politie en het Openbaar Ministerie opgerold. De politie maakte gebruik van de bevoegdheid die haar op grond van artikel 126h Sv toekomt: de ‘klassieke’ infiltratiebevoegdheid. Kan deze infiltratiebevoegdheid zonder meer worden aangewend in een digitale context, of klinkt in dat geval een roep om meer waarborgen?


Mr. S.B.H. van Overveld
Mr. S.B.H. (Sophie) van Overveld is als docent Straf(proces)recht verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht.

Mr. I.C. Smits
Mr. I.C. (Isabel) Smits is als docent Straf(proces)recht verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht.

Mr. C.M. Taylor Parkins-Ozephius
Mr. C.M. (Celine) Taylor Parkins-Ozephius is als docent Straf(proces)recht verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Article

Access_open Basel IV Postponed: A Chance to Regulate Shadow Banking?

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden Basel Accords, EU Law, shadow banking, financial stability, prudential regulation
Auteurs Katarzyna Parchimowicz en Ross Spence
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the aftermath of the 2007 global financial crisis, regulators have agreed a substantial tightening of prudential regulation for banks operating in the traditional banking sector (TBS). The TBS is stringently regulated under the Basel Accords to moderate financial stability and to minimise risk to government and taxpayers. While prudential regulation is important from a financial stability perspective, the flipside is that the Basel Accords only apply to the TBS, they do not regulate the shadow banking sector (SBS). While it is not disputed that the SBS provides numerous benefits given the net credit growth of the economy since the global financial crisis has come from the SBS rather than traditional banking channels, the SBS also poses many risks. Therefore, the fact that the SBS is not subject to prudential regulation is a cause of serious systemic concern. The introduction of Basel IV, which compliments Basel III, seeks to complete the Basel framework on prudential banking regulation. On the example of this set of standards and its potential negative consequences for the TBS, this paper aims to visualise the incentives for TBS institutions to move some of their activities into the SBS, and thus stress the need for more comprehensive regulation of the SBS. Current coronavirus crisis forced Basel Committee to postpone implementation of the Basel IV rules – this could be perceived as a chance to complete the financial regulatory framework and address the SBS as well.


Katarzyna Parchimowicz
Katarzyna Parchimowicz, LLM. Finance (Frankfurt), is PhD candidate at the University of Wrocław, Poland, and Young Researcher at the European Banking Institute, Frankfurt, Germany.

Ross Spence
Ross Spence, EURO-CEFG, is PhD Fellow at Leiden University Law School, and Young Researcher at the European Banking Institute and Research Associate at the Amsterdam Centre for Law and Economics.
Jurisprudentie

Kroniek ondernemingsstrafrecht

Eerste helft 2020

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Bijzonder Strafrecht & Handhaving, Aflevering 4 2020
Auteurs Prof. mr. H.J.B. Sackers (red.), Mr. J. Boonstra-Verhaert, Mr. dr. S.S. Buisman e.a.

Prof. mr. H.J.B. Sackers (red.)

Mr. J. Boonstra-Verhaert

Mr. dr. S.S. Buisman

Mr. A.A. Feenstra

Mr. K.M.T. Helwegen

Mr. dr. I. Koopmans

Mr. V.S.Y. Liem

Prof. mr. M. Nelemans

Mr. dr. J.S. Nan

Mr. dr. E. Sikkema

Mr. dr. drs. B. van de Vorm

Mr. dr. W.S. de Zanger

    In this article, the authors draw on a netnographic study conducted between May and July 2019 on phishing on Telegram Messenger. The results indicate that Telegram, just like cryptomarkets and online forums, seems to function as a criminal marketplace. In the groups analyzed the authors see users who both offer and are looking for specific goods and services related to the crime script of phishing. Furthermore, the information on Telegram contains specific modi operandi that are offering comprehensive and step-by-step guides to successfully complete specific financial cybercrimes. Therefore, based on this explorative study the authors argue that Telegram can be seen as a digital offender convergence setting.


Dr. Robby Roks
Dr. R.A. Roks is als universitair docent verbonden aan de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Nahom Monshouwer MSc
R.N. Monshouwer MSc is CCD Analist bij Rabobank.

    This article relies on the premise that to understand the significance of Open Access Repositories (OARs) it is necessary to know the context of the debate. Therefore, it is necessary to trace the historical development of the concept of copyright as a property right. The continued relevance of the rationales for copyright interests, both philosophical and pragmatic, will be assessed against the contemporary times of digital publishing. It follows then discussion about the rise of Open Access (OA) practice and its impact on conventional publishing methods. The present article argues about the proper equilibrium between self-interest and social good. In other words, there is a need to find a tool in order to balance individuals’ interests and common will. Therefore, there is examination of the concept of property that interrelates justice (Plato), private ownership (Aristotle), labour (Locke), growth of personality (Hegel) and a bundle of rights that constitute legal relations (Hohfeld). This examination sets the context for the argument.


Nikos Koutras
Postdoctoral Researcher, Faculty of Law, University of Antwerp.
Article

Access_open The New Dutch Model Investment Agreement: On the Road to Sustainability or Keeping up Appearances?

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden Dutch model BIT, foreign direct investment, bilateral investment treaties, investor-to-state dispute settlement, sustainable development goals
Auteurs Alessandra Arcuri en Bart-Jaap Verbeek
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2019, the Dutch government presented a New Model Investment Agreement that seeks to contribute to the sustainability and inclusivity of future Dutch trade and investment policy. This article offers a critical analysis of the most relevant parts of the revised model text in order to appraise to what extent it could promote sustainability and inclusivity. It starts by providing an overview of the Dutch BIT (Bilateral Investment Treaty) programme, where the role of the Netherlands as a favourite conduit country for global FDI is highlighted. In the article, we identify the reasons why the Netherlands became a preferred jurisdiction for foreign investors and the negative implications for governments and their policy space to advance sustainable development. The 2019 model text is expressly set out to achieve a fairer system and to protect ‘sustainable investment in the interest of development’. While displaying a welcome engagement with key values of sustainable development, this article identifies a number of weaknesses of the 2019 model text. Some of the most criticised substantive and procedural provisions are being reproduced in the model text, including the reiteration of investors’ legitimate expectation as an enforceable right, the inclusion of an umbrella clause, and the unaltered broad coverage of investments. Most notably, the model text continues to marginalise the interests of investment-affected communities and stakeholders, while bestowing exclusive rights and privileges on foreign investors. The article concludes by hinting at possible reforms to better align existing and future Dutch investment treaties with the sustainable development goals.


Alessandra Arcuri
Alessandra Arcuri is Professor of Inclusive Global Law and Governance, Erasmus School of Law (ESL), Erasmus Initiative Dynamics of Inclusive Prosperity, Erasmus University Rotterdam, arcuri@law.eur.nl.

Bart-Jaap Verbeek
Bart-Jaap Verbeek is Researcher at Stichting Onderzoek Multinationale Ondernemingen (SOMO) and PhD Candidate Political Science at the Radboud University.
Artikel

Beschouwing rapport Commissie-Koops: strafvordering in het digitale tijdperk

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift Modernisering Strafvordering, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden digitale opsporing, openbronnenonderzoek, beslag, data-analyse, big data
Auteurs Mr. dr. J.J. Oerlemans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    De Commissie-Koops heeft onderzocht of het conceptwetsvoorstel Boek 2 voldoende rekening houdt met het digitale tijdperk anno 2018 en in de nabije toekomst. Dit artikel is een beschouwing op het rapport van de Commissie, waarbij de aanbevelingen met betrekking tot openbronnenonderzoek en het beslag op gegevensdragers uitgebreid besproken worden. Daarnaast wordt ingegaan op het fenomenen van de ‘dataficering’ van het opsporingsproces. In het artikel wordt antwoord gegeven op de vraag welke bijdrage het rapport heeft geleverd aan de modernisering van het Wetboek van Strafvordering.


Mr. dr. J.J. Oerlemans
Mr. dr. J.J. Oerlemans is als onderzoeker verbonden aan eLaw, het Centrum voor Recht en Technologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

De ‘non-human (f)actor’ in cybercrime

Cybercriminele netwerken beschouwd vanuit het ‘cyborg crime’-perspectief

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2018
Trefwoorden cyborg crime, cybercrime, cybercriminal networks, botnet, actor-network theory
Auteurs Dr. Wytske van der Wagen en Frank Bernaards LLM
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Botnets, banking malware and other high-tech crimes are increasingly analyzed by criminological scholars. Their distributed and automated nature poses however various theoretical challenges. This article presents an alternative approach, denoted as the ‘cyborg crime’ perspective, which adopts a more hybrid view of networks and also assigns an active role to technology. The value of this approach is demonstrated by reflecting on findings from earlier empirical work that analyzes conversations between cybercriminals involved in botnets and related activities. The research shows that technological nodes can take an important position in the organizational structure of cybercriminal networks and do not merely have a functional role. Viewing technology as an actor within a criminal network might offer new criminological insights in both the composition of these networks and how to disrupt them.


Dr. Wytske van der Wagen
Dr. W. van der Wagen is als universitair docent verbonden aan de Erasmus School of Law (sectie Criminologie). In juni 2018 promoveerde zij aan de Rijkuniversiteit Groningen op het proefschrift From cybercrime to cyborg crime: An exploration of high-tech cybercrime, offenders and victims through the lens of actor-network theory.

Frank Bernaards LLM
F. Bernaards LLM is werkzaam als operationeel specialist bij Team High Tech Crime van de Dienst Landelijke Recherche.
Artikel

Nieuwe online opsporingsbevoegdheden en het recht op privacy

Een analyse van de Wet computercriminaliteit III

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2018
Trefwoorden cybercrime, Dutch Cybercrime Act, hacking, investigative powers, privacy
Auteurs Mr. dr. ir. Bart Custers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2018 the Dutch parliament accepted new cybercrime legislation (the Cybercrime III Act) that creates several new online criminal offences and gives law enforcement agencies new investigative powers on the Internet. This article describes the background of Dutch cybercrime legislation and the contents of the Cybercrime III Act. The newly introduced cybercrimes are discussed as well as the new investigative competences. Particularly the legitimacy and the necessity of the investigative power of the police to hack computer systems of suspects may significantly interfere with the right to privacy.


Mr. dr. ir. Bart Custers
Mr. dr. ir. B.H.M. Custers is associate professor en onderzoeksdirecteur bij eLaw, het Centrum voor Recht en Digitale Technologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Redactioneel

Inleiding

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2018
Auteurs Edwin Kruisbergen
Auteursinformatie

Edwin Kruisbergen
Gastredacteur dr. E.W. Kruisbergen is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het ministerie van Justitie en Veiligheid.
Artikel

Uit de schaduw

Perspectieven voor wetenschappelijk onderzoek naar dark markets

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2018
Trefwoorden Dark markets, Hansa, Silk Road, Bayonet, scientific research
Auteurs Thijmen Verburgh MSc, Eefje Smits MSc en Rolf van Wegberg MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the authors present the lessons learned from previous research efforts into dark markets. First the important features of dark markets are discussed, i.e. anonymity and trust, as well as the question how data on dark markets can be collected. Next, the authors illustrate how this data can be used to study the phenomenon of dark markets itself as well as the impact of police interventions on dark markets.


Thijmen Verburgh MSc
T. Verburgh MSc is als onderzoeker verbonden aan TNO.

Eefje Smits MSc
E. Smits MSc is werkzaam als onderzoeker bij TNO.

Rolf van Wegberg MSc
R. van Wegberg MSc is als onderzoeker verbonden aan TNO en de Technische Universiteit Delft.
Artikel

Daders van arbeidsuitbuiting

Over de vermeende rol van de georganiseerde misdaad

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden Arbeidsuitbuiting, Mensenhandel, georganiseerde criminaliteit, grensoverschrijdende criminaliteit
Auteurs Dr. Masja van Meeteren en Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Human traffickers are usually depicted in public discourse as evil villains: the crème de la crème of organized crime. Although this image has also been dominant among scholars for a long time, it has become increasingly controversial. On the one hand, this debate is fueled by discussions amongst criminologists on criminal networks, on the other hand by the expansion of the legal definition of the crime since 2005. Apart from exploitation in the prostitution sector, various other forms of human trafficking are distinguished now, including labor exploitation. This article explores the question of which organizational forms play a role in labor exploitation. Through a review of the empirical research literature on labor exploitation, the authors show that in the field of labor exploitation, there is probably less involvement in criminal syndicates or criminal networks that maintain contacts with other criminal networks. In many cases, labor exploitation is committed by individuals or family businesses, or smaller loosely organized networks that are not necessarily embedded in other criminal networks. For researchers and policy makers alike, it is therefore advisable not to approach labor exploitation exclusively from the perspective of transnational organized crime.


Dr. Masja van Meeteren
Dr. Masja van Meeteren is universitair hoofddocent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun
Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun is hoogleraar Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

De anomie van machtsillusies

Onbegrensde ambities in de ‘risk and win’-zakenwereld

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden anomie, illusion of control, corporate crime, competition, entitlement
Auteurs dr. Bas van Stokkom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Generally, large listed companies and banks immersed in a ‘risk and win’-culture do not have to deal with ‘deprivation of resources’ which may trigger violations of the law. The anomie-theory of Merton does not seem to fit in this context. It is more obvious that the pressure to realize lofty ambitions is the trigger for potential violations of the law. I therefore work out a ‘post-Mertonian’ anomie-concept using the ‘European Durkheim’ to examine some excessive tendencies of an originally American ‘risk and win’-culture. The aim is to work towards an anomie-theory of power illusions that makes sense in the context of corporate crime. The leading question is: which anomic attitudes prevail in an over-ambitious corporate culture and which aspirations and rationalizations can be distinguished? It is argued that an approach focused on CEO-personality traits is too limited and that the sociological approaches of Durkheim and Shover offer many points of departure to construct a plausible anomie-theory. The dimensions of that theory have been taken from studies which focus at two criminogenic norm-systems: an ‘ethos of winning at any price’ and an ‘ethos of entitlement’.


dr. Bas van Stokkom
Dr. Bas van Stokkom is verbonden aan de vaksectie Strafrecht & Criminologie, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. E-mail: b.vanstokkom@jur.ru.nl.
Jurisprudentie

Access_open Kroniek ondernemingsstrafrecht

Tweede helft 2017

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Bijzonder Strafrecht & Handhaving, Aflevering 1 2018
Auteurs Prof. mr. H.J.B. Sackers (red.), mr. A.A. Feenstra, prof. dr. R.C.P. Haentjens e.a.

Prof. mr. H.J.B. Sackers (red.)

mr. A.A. Feenstra

prof. dr. R.C.P. Haentjens

mr. dr. I. Koopmans

mr. J. Boonstra-Verhaert

mr. dr. E. Sikkema

mr. A. Verbruggen

mr. dr. drs. B. van de Vorm

mr. dr. J.S. Nan

    Bitcoin is mede vanwege zijn anonieme karakter een populair betaalmiddel van criminelen geworden. In opsporingsonderzoeken van de FIOD en de politie komen de aan bitcoin gerelateerde fenomenen ‘de bitcoinhandelaar’ en ‘de bitcoinmixer’ in relatie met witwassen voor. Deze fenomenen worden uitgelegd in dit artikel. Het artikel eindigt met de drie nieuwe, door de FIU gevalideerde witwastypologieën over de aan- en verkoop van virtuele betaalmiddelen.


Mr. S. Visser
Mr. S. Visser is accountmanager en projectleider witwasbestrijding bij het Anti Money Laundering Centre (AMLC) in De Bilt.
Redactioneel

Criminele groepen: een inleiding

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2017
Trefwoorden Criminal groups, Gangs, Youth groups, Hybrid groups, Online offline
Auteurs Dr. Robby Roks, Prof. dr. Arjan Blokland en Prof. dr. Frank Weerman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Criminal groups have traditionally been the focus of criminological research because of the collective dimension of many criminal activities or deviance. However, what constitutes a ‘criminal group’ or how specific criminal groups, like gangs, should be defined, remains open for discussion in the scientific literature. This introductory article highlights a number of recent developments illustrating the blurring boundaries between various criminal groups as defined by both insiders and outsiders. In addition, it suggests that the rise of social media and smartphones is changing the structure and dynamics of criminal groups. Future research should focus on how these (new) criminal groups originate, develop and function, but should also address the role of the group in criminal activities.


Dr. Robby Roks
Dr. R.A. Roks is universitair docent bij de sectie criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Prof. dr. Arjan Blokland
Prof. dr. A.A.J. Blokland is bijzonder hoogleraar Criminology & Criminal Justice aan de Universiteit Leiden en senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Prof. dr. Frank Weerman
Prof. dr. F.M. Weerman is bijzonder hoogleraar jeugdcriminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).
Praktijk

De menselijke factor in cybercrime

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden Cybercriminaliteit, Cybercrime, Cybercriminele netwerken, Kroniek
Auteurs Dr. Rutger Leukfeldt en Marleen Weulen Kranenbarg MSc
Auteursinformatie

Dr. Rutger Leukfeldt
Dr. E. R. Leukfeldt is postdoconderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) in Amsterdam en lector Cybersecurity en MKB aan de Haagse Hogeschool.

Marleen Weulen Kranenbarg MSc
M. Weulen Kranenbarg, MSc is promovendus bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) in Amsterdam.
Artikel

Kartels ontsluierd: heimelijkheid, vertrouwen en sociale inbedding

Hoe kartels erin slagen verborgen te blijven

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden social embeddedness of crime, corporate crime, white-collar crime, illegal networks, business cartels
Auteurs Jelle David Jaspers MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article notions from literature on covert and illegal networks are applied to business cartels. Comparable to most criminal networks, cartel participants need to communicate in order to coordinate their activities, whilst under the risk of getting caught. Previous studies however show cartels can remain hidden from outsiders for long periods of time. Based on an analysis of fourteen Dutch cartel cases, this article addresses the question how cartels can remain hidden from outsiders for long periods of time. The analysis shows cartel participants communicate predominantly centralized and frequent. Moreover, the results show that not concealment but social embeddedness provides a strong explanation for the longevity of secrecy regarding cartels.


Jelle David Jaspers MSc
J.D. Jaspers, MSc is promovendus bij de Erasmus School of Law van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Article

Access_open The Integrity of the Tax System after BEPS: A Shared Responsibility

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden flawed legislation, tax privileges, tax planning, corporate social responsibility, tax professionals
Auteurs Hans Gribnau
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The international tax system is the result of the interaction of different actors who share the responsibility for its integrity. States and multinational corporations both enjoy to a certain extent freedom of choice with regard to their tax behaviour – which entails moral responsibility. Making, interpreting and using tax rules therefore is inevitably a matter of exercising responsibility. Both should abstain from viewing tax laws as a bunch of technical rules to be used as a tool without any intrinsic moral or legal value. States bear primary responsibility for the integrity of the international tax system. They should become more reticent in their use of tax as regulatory instrument – competing with one another for multinationals’ investment. They should also act more responsibly by cooperating to make better rules to prevent aggressive tax planning, which entails a shift in tax payments from very expert taxpayers to other taxpayers. Here, the distributive justice of the tax system and a level playing field should be guaranteed. Multinationals should abstain from putting pressure on states and lobbying for favourable tax rules that disproportionally affect other taxpayers – SMEs and individual taxpayers alike. Multinationals and their tax advisers should avoid irresponsible conduct by not aiming to pay a minimalist amount of (corporate income) taxes – merely staying within the boundaries of the letter of the law. Especially CSR-corporations should assume the responsibility for the integrity of the tax system.


Hans Gribnau
Professor of Tax Law, Fiscal Institute and the Center for Company Law, Tilburg University; Professor of Tax Law, Leiden University, The Netherlands.
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