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Artikel

Access_open Pleidooi voor de terugdringing van de korte gevangenisstraf

Tijdschrift Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Strafrecht, Aflevering 3 2021
Trefwoorden korte gevangenisstraf, (herstelgerichte) taakstraf, (herstelgerichte) thuisdetentie, elektronische detentie, herstelrecht
Auteurs Prof. mr. J.A.A.C. (Jacques) Claessen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Dit artikel bevat een pleidooi voor de terugdringing van de korte gevangenisstraf. De positieve effecten van deze straf wegen namelijk niet op tegen de negatieve effecten ervan. Daarom wordt gepleit voor een ruimere inzet van de herstelgerichte taakstraf en de invoering van herstelgerichte thuisdetentie. Uit onderzoek blijkt dat de recidive na een taakstraf of thuisdetentie significant lager ligt dan na een korte gevangenisstraf. Bovendien dient vanuit herstelrechtelijk perspectief de nadruk te liggen op actieve verantwoordelijkheid en omgekeerde vergelding: de dader dient iets goed te maken richting slachtoffer en gemeenschap en dat doet hij niet door in de cel te zitten.


Prof. mr. J.A.A.C. (Jacques) Claessen
Prof. mr. J.A.A.C. Claessen is bijzonder hoogleraar herstelrecht en universitair hoofddocent strafrecht aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Maastricht. Daarnaast is hij rechter-plaatsvervanger bij de rechtbank Limburg.
Artikel

Kleine kroniek van het VN-verdrag Handicap in de rechtspraak van het EHRM

Tijdschrift Handicap & Recht, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden VN-Verdrag Handicap, EHRM, EVRM, doorwerking, mensenrechten
Auteurs Mr. G.J. Pulles
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Het Europese Hof voor de Rechten van de Mens (EHRM) past regelmatig het VN-verdrag Handicap toe in zaken waarin de rechten van personen met een handicap in het geding zijn. Dit artikel geeft een overzicht van de uitspraken waarin het Verdrag een rol heeft gespeeld. Het inventariseert de rechtspraak waarin het Verdrag expliciet in de rechtsoverwegingen is aangehaald. Het komt tot de conclusie dat het gebruik van het Verdrag door het EHRM enerzijds een inconsistente indruk maakt. Het is niet gemakkelijk te achterhalen waarom het in sommige zaken een duidelijke rol speelt en in veel belangrijke andere zaken niet. Anderzijds blijkt uit de onderzochte rechtspraak dat het EHRM het Verdrag in toenemende mate gebruikt voor het aanscherpen van de normatieve inhoud van het EVRM en voor het invullen van een aantal belangrijke thema’s uit het internationale recht inzake personen met een handicap.


Mr. G.J. Pulles
Mr. G.J. (Gerrit Jan) Pulles is advocaat in Amsterdam en docent aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam.

    In 2014, the ECJ was presented with a preliminary reference from the District Court in Kolding on the matter of whether EU law provides protection against discrimination on grounds of obesity with regard to employment and occupation. Following the ECJ’s ruling, first the District Court and later the High Court found that an employee’s obesity as such did not constitute a disability within the meaning of Directive 2000/78/EC establishing a general framework for equal treatment in employment and occupation since his obesity had not constituted a limitation or inconvenience in the performance of his job.


Christian K. Clasen
Christian K. Clasen is a partner at Norrbom Vinding.

    On 16 December 2020, the Supreme Court of Lithuania (Cassation Court) delivered a ruling in a case where an employee claimed that the employer, JSC ‘Lithuanian Railways’, did not apply the regulations of the company’s employer-level collective agreement and did not pay a special bonus – an anniversary benefit (i.e. a benefit paid to employees on reaching a certain age) – because the employee was not a member of the trade union which had signed the collective agreement. According to the employee, she was discriminated against because of her membership of another trade union, i.e membership of the ‘wrong’ trade union.
    The Supreme Court held that combatting discrimination under certain grounds falls within the competence and scope of EU law, but that discrimination on the grounds of trade union membership is not distinguished as a form of discrimination. Also, the Court ruled that in this case (contrary to what the employee claimed in her cassation appeal) Article 157 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) is not applicable because it regulates the prohibition of discrimination on other (sex) grounds. Moreover, the Court found that there was no legal basis for relying on the relevant case law of the ECJ which provides clarification on other forms of discrimination, but not on discrimination based on trade union membership.


Vida Petrylaitė
Vida Petrylaitė is an associate professor at Vilnius university.
Artikel

Access_open Innoveren door te reguleren: een bespreking van het rapport inzake de regulering van AI

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Ondernemingsrecht, Aflevering 1-2 2021
Trefwoorden artificial intelligence, kunstmatige intelligentie, machine learning, toezicht, verordening
Auteurs Mr. S.W. van de Ven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Recentelijk heeft het Europees Parlement een voorstel voor een verordening gepubliceerd ten aanzien van de regulering van artificial intelligence (AI). Dit artikel bespreekt de bepalingen en implicaties van het voorstel en geeft daarmee een inkijk in Europese AI-regelgeving die in het verschiet ligt.


Mr. S.W. van de Ven
Mr. S.W. van de Ven is advocaat bij Linklaters te Amsterdam.
Uit het veld

Fiscaal toezicht in tijden van crisis

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Toezicht, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden COVID-19, Belastingdienst, fiscaal toezicht, toezichtstrategie, crisis
Auteurs Lisette van der Hel-van Dijk en Sjoerd Goslinga
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Deze bijdrage verkent de consequenties van de COVID-19-crisis voor het fiscale toezicht door de Belastingdienst. De crisis en de lockdownmaatregelen hebben korte- en langetermijngevolgen voor burgers en bedrijven en consequenties voor het werk van de Belastingdienst als uitvoerder en toezichthouder. De psychologische en economische impact van de crisis en de gewijzigde werkwijze van de Belastingdienst kunnen van invloed zijn op de mogelijkheden en motivatie om belastingverplichtingen na te komen. Dit zal verschillen in de opeenvolgende fasen van de crisis. Onze belangrijkste conclusie is dat de Belastingdienst in de verschillende fasen sterk rekening zal moeten houden met de veranderingen in de context van burgers en bedrijven en meer dan voor de crisis zal moeten handelen vanuit zijn maatschappelijke rol.


Lisette van der Hel-van Dijk
Prof. dr. mr. E.C.J.M. van der Hel-van Dijk RA is als hoogleraar effectiviteit van overheidstoezicht verbonden aan Nyenrode Business University (Toezicht Academie).

Sjoerd Goslinga
Dr. S. Goslinga is werkzaam bij de Belastingdienst en is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Article

Access_open The Role of the Vienna Rules in the Interpretation of the ECHR A Normative Basis or a Source of Inspiration?

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden European Convention on Human Rights, European Court of Human Rights, techniques of interpretation, the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties
Auteurs Eszter Polgári
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The interpretive techniques applied by the European Court of Human Rights are instrumental in filling the vaguely formulated rights-provisions with progressive content, and their use provoked widespread criticism. The article argues that despite the scarcity of explicit references to the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, all the ECtHR’s methods and doctrines of interpretation have basis in the VCLT, and the ECtHR has not developed a competing framework. The Vienna rules are flexible enough to accommodate the interpretive rules developed in the ECHR jurisprudence, although effectiveness and evolutive interpretation is favoured – due to the unique nature of Convention – over the more traditional means of interpretation, such as textualism. Applying the VCLT as a normative framework offers unique ways of reconceptualising some of the much-contested means of interpretation in order to increase the legitimacy of the ECtHR.


Eszter Polgári
Eszter Polgári, PhD, is assistant professor at the Department of Legal Studies of the Central European University in Austria.
Artikel

Access_open Eigen koers richting kalifaat, een beeld van Hizb ut-Tahrir in Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden Hizb ut-Tahrir, democratie, Nederland, kalifaat, jihad
Auteurs Peter Grol en Daan Weggemans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Political parties in the Netherlands have been calling for a ban on Hizb ut-Tahrir for years. But what do we actually know about this movement, its supporters and how they relate to Dutch society? This article is one of the first attempts to paint a more complete picture. It shows that the movement and its supporters adhere strictly to the course of the (re) establishment of the caliphate that was mapped out by founder Taqiuddin al-Nabhani in the 1950s. However, the assumption that the movement would advocate or encourage the use of violence requires nuance. These insights are not ‘static’ or ‘comprehensive’ and should be seen as a contribution to the discussion of the nature of the movement. The question of how the course – ideas and activities – of Hizb ut-Tahrir relates to democratic society will be addressed in a subsequent article.


Peter Grol
P.R. Grol verricht ruim tien jaar onderzoek naar het islamisme, salafisme en jihadisme in de Nederlandse context. Sinds 2019 is hij daarnaast werkzaam als Rijksambtenaar.

Daan Weggemans
D.J. Weggemans is programmadirecteur van de BSc Security Studies en onderzoeker aan het Institute for Security and Global Affairs, Universiteit Leiden.


Andreea Suciu
Andreea Suciu is Managing Partner at Suciu | The Employment Law Firm in Bucharest, Romania.

Teodora Manaila
Teodora Manaila is a Senior Associate at Suciu | The Employment Law Firm in Bucharest, Romania.

    The Danish Supreme Court recently held that an employer had discharged the reversed burden of proof in a case concerning a physiotherapist who was dismissed shortly after her return from maternity leave.


Christian K. Clasen
Christian K. Clasen is a partner at Norrbom Vinding, Copenhagen.
Article

Access_open Exoneration in Sweden

Is It Not about Time to Reform the Swedish Model?

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden wrongful convictions, extraordinary legal remedy, exoneration, exoneration in Sweden
Auteurs Dennis Martinsson
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article reviews exoneration in Sweden, with a focus on the procedure of applying for exoneration. First, it highlights some core features of Swedish criminal procedural law, necessary to understand exoneration in the Swedish context. Secondly, it outlines the possibilities in Swedish law to apply for exoneration, both in favour of a convicted person and to the disadvantage of a previously acquitted defendant. Thirdly, it identifies some challenges with the current Swedish model of administering applications for exoneration. Fourthly, it argues that the current system should be reformed by introducing into Swedish law a review committee that administers applications for exoneration.


Dennis Martinsson
Dennis Martinsson is Assistant Professor in the Department of Law of Stockholm University in Sweden.
Article

Access_open Positive State Obligations under European Law: A Tool for Achieving Substantive Equality for Sexual Minorities in Europe

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden Positive obligations, sexual minorities, sexual orientation, European law, human rights
Auteurs Alina Tryfonidou
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article seeks to examine the development of positive obligations under European law in the specific context of the rights of sexual minorities. It is clear that the law should respect and protect all sexualities and diverse intimate relationships without discrimination, and for this purpose it needs to ensure that sexual minorities can not only be free from state interference when expressing their sexuality in private, but that they should be given the right to express their sexuality in public and to have their intimate relationships legally recognised. In addition, sexual minorities should be protected from the actions of other individuals, when these violate their legal and fundamental human rights. Accordingly, in addition to negative obligations, European law must impose positive obligations towards sexual minorities in order to achieve substantive equality for them. The article explains that, to date, European law has imposed a number of such positive obligations; nonetheless, there is definitely scope for more. It is suggested that European law should not wait for hearts and minds to change before imposing additional positive obligations, especially since this gives the impression that the EU and the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) are condoning or disregarding persistent discrimination against sexual minorities.


Alina Tryfonidou
Alina Tryfonidou is Professor of Law, University of Reading.
Article

Access_open A Positive State Obligation to Counter Dehumanisation under International Human Rights Law

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden Dehumanisation, International Human Rights Law, Positive State obligations, Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, International Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Racial Discrimination
Auteurs Stephanie Eleanor Berry
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    International human rights law (IHRL) was established in the aftermath of the Second World War to prevent a reoccurrence of the atrocities committed in the name of fascism. Central to this aim was the recognition that out-groups are particularly vulnerable to rights violations committed by the in-group. Yet, it is increasingly apparent that out-groups are still subject to a wide range of rights violations, including those associated with mass atrocities. These rights violations are facilitated by the dehumanisation of the out-group by the in-group. Consequently, this article argues that the creation of IHRL treaties and corresponding monitoring mechanisms should be viewed as the first step towards protecting out-groups from human rights violations. By adopting the lens of dehumanisation, this article demonstrates that if IHRL is to achieve its purpose, IHRL monitoring mechanisms must recognise the connection between dehumanisation and rights violations and develop a positive State obligation to counter dehumanisation. The four treaties explored in this article, the European Convention on Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities and the International Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Racial Discrimination, all establish positive State obligations to prevent hate speech and to foster tolerant societies. These obligations should, in theory, allow IHRL monitoring mechanisms to address dehumanisation. However, their interpretation of the positive State obligation to foster tolerant societies does not go far enough to counter unconscious dehumanisation and requires more detailed elaboration.


Stephanie Eleanor Berry
Stephanie Eleanor Berry is Senior Lecturer in International Human Rights Law, University of Sussex.
Article

Access_open State Obligations to Counter Islamophobia: Comparing Fault Lines in the International Supervisory Practice of the HRC/ICCPR, the ECtHR and the AC/FCNM

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden Human rights, positive state obligations, islamophobia, international supervisory mechanisms
Auteurs Kristin Henrard
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Islamophobia, like xenophobia, points to deep-seated, ingrained discrimination against a particular group, whose effective enjoyment of fundamental rights is impaired. This in turn triggers the human rights obligations of liberal democratic states, more particularly states’ positive obligations (informed by reasonability considerations) to ensure that fundamental rights are effectively enjoyed, and thus also respected in interpersonal relationships. This article identifies and compares the fault lines in the practice of three international human rights supervisory mechanisms in relation to Islamophobia, namely the Human Rights Committee (International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights), the European Court of Human Rights (European Convention on Human Rights) and the Advisory Committee of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities. The supervisory practice is analysed in two steps: The analysis of each international supervisory mechanism’s jurisprudence, in itself, is followed by the comparison of the fault lines. The latter comparison is structured around the two main strands of strategies that states could adopt in order to counter intolerance: On the one hand, the active promotion of tolerance, inter alia through education, awareness-raising campaigns and the stimulation of intercultural dialogue; on the other, countering acts informed by intolerance, in terms of the prohibition of discrimination (and/or the effective enjoyment of substantive fundamental rights). Having regard to the respective strengths and weaknesses of the supervisory practice of these three international supervisory mechanisms, the article concludes with some overarching recommendations.


Kristin Henrard
Kristin Henrard is Professor International Human Rights and Minorities, Erasmus School of Law, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
Case Reports

2020/14 Sickness absence related to employee’s disability (DK)

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden Disability Discrimination, Unfair Dismissal
Auteurs Christian K. Clasen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Recently, the Danish Eastern High Court found that an employee’s sickness absence was a result of the employer’s failure to comply with its obligation to offer reasonable accommodation for the employee’s disability. For that reason the employee, who was dismissed in pursuance of the Danish ‘120-day rule’, was entitled to compensation for unfair dismissal under the Danish Anti-Discrimination Act.


Christian K. Clasen
Christian K. Clasen is a partner at Norrbom Vinding, Copenhagen.

    The Belgian Court of Cassation (Supreme Court), in a decision of 20 January 2020, has ruled that the prohibition for an employer to terminate the employment relationship of a worker for reasons related to a complaint for acts of violence and/or moral and/or sexual harassment at work does not, however, preclude the dismissal from being justified by motives inferred from the facts set out in the complaint.


Gautier Busschaert
Gautier Busschaert is an attorney-at-law at Van Olmen & Wynant, Brussels.

    The Danish Western High Court recently found that an employee who had entered into a severance agreement – and who was represented by her professional organisation during this process – was barred from claiming compensation under the Danish Anti-Discrimination Act, implementing Directive 2000/78.


Christian K. Clasen
Christian K. Clasen is a partner at Norrbom Vinding, Copenhagen.

    The recent spread of the Covid-19 pandemic has shown how economic vulnerability varies considerably across European Member States (MSs), and so does social protection in the European Union (EU). The social and economic consequences of the pandemic have impacted asymmetrically national labour markets and exacerbated existing disparities and contradictions. A measure that most governments have introduced in the immediate aftermath has been that of making financial support available to those self-employed workers who lost fully or in part their income. Most MSs have employed quantitative thresholds to identify those self-employed more in need of public subsidies and have proportioned them according to the pre-pandemic levels of income, on the condition that they have been officially recorded as taxable revenues.
    Despite their heterogeneity, we can reasonably affirm that the self-employed have been one of the most exposed clusters of the labour market to in-work poverty and economic uncertainty, which proved to be particularly problematic in periods of unforeseeable crisis, such as that of 2008 and even more so that of 2020. This article explores the range of EU-level measures designed for the self-employed and questions their potential impact on MSs’ legislation.


Luca Ratti
Luca Ratti is a professor at the University of Luxembourg.

    The Brussels Labour Court of Appeal, in a judgment of 10 September 2019, has ruled that the notion of ‘maternity’ contained in the Belgian Gender Act does not go as far as protecting mothers against discrimination with regards to childcare, since this would confirm a patriarchal role pattern. However, a recent legislative change introducing ‘paternity’ as a protected ground might cast doubt on the relevance of this ruling for the future.


Gautier Busschaert
Gautier Busschaert is an attorney-at-law at Van Olmen & Wynant, Brussels.
Artikel

Access_open De OESO, BEPS en de impact voor het fiscale stelsel van Curaçao

Tijdschrift Caribisch Juristenblad, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden belastingherziening, belastingfaciliteiten, territorialiteitsregime, substance, BEPS
Auteurs Mr. G.D. Rekwest en Prof dr. P. Kavelaars
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Ongeveer een decennium geleden is door de OESO en de EU een aanvang gemaakt met de strijd tegen het ontwijken van belastingen door met name internationaal opererende ondernemingen. Deze operatie staat bekend onder de naam BEPS: de strijd tegen Base Erosion and Profit Shifting. De bedoeling is dat uiteindelijk alle landen hun fiscale wetgeving zodanig vormgeven dat belastingontwijking niet meer aan de orde kan zijn op straffe van plaatsing op een zwarte lijst. Dat is een omvangrijk operatie die ook voor het Caribisch Koninkrijk gevolgen heeft gehad, met name voor Aruba en Curaçao. In dit artikel bespreken de auteurs de consequenties voor het fiscale stelsel van Curaçao zoals dat uiteindelijk na diverse stappen per 1 januari 2020 is aangepast; daarmee is Curaçao BEPS-proof.


Mr. G.D. Rekwest
Mr. G.D. Rekwest is promovenda aan de University of Curaçao en de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Prof dr. P. Kavelaars
Prof. dr. P. Kavelaars is hoogleraar Fiscale Economie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
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