Zoekresultaat: 208 artikelen

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Article

Access_open Invisible before the law

The legal position of persons with intellectual disabilities under the Dutch Care and Compulsion Act (Wzd) in light of Article 12 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD)

Tijdschrift Family & Law, juni 2021
Trefwoorden dicrimination, guardianship, incapacitated adults, legal (in)capacity
Auteurs F. Schuthof LLM
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands, the use of involuntary treatment in the mental health care sector is governed by the Dutch Care and Compulsion Act (Wzd). This study examines the legal position of persons with intellectual disabilities under this Act. The Wzd is analyzed in light of the human rights standards of Article 12 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). The findings of this study show that the Wzd does not meet the standards of Article 12 in several cases. The Wzd does not recognize the legal capacity of persons with intellectual disabilities, it continues to allow for substituted decision-making and support measures are not complemented by adequate safeguards. From a theoretical point of view, an imbalance between the protection of and the respect for the autonomy of persons with intellectual disabilities can be observed. This article formulates several recommendations in order to restore this balance.
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    De Nederlandse Wet zorg en dwang (Wzd) ziet toe op de rechten van mensen met een verstandelijke beperking bij onvrijwillige zorg of onvrijwillige opname. Dit artikel onderzoekt de juridische positie van mensen met een verstandelijke beperking ten aanzien van deze wet. De Wzd wordt geanalyseerd in relatie tot artikel 12 van het Verdrag inzake de Rechten van Personen met een Handicap (VRPH). De bevindingen van dit onderzoek laten zien dat de Wzd in verschillende gevallen niet voldoet aan de normen van artikel 12 VRPH. Zo wordt onder andere de handelingsbekwaamheid, ofwel ‘legal capacity’, van mensen met een verstandelijke beperking niet erkend en blijft plaatsvervangende besluitvorming mogelijk. Vanuit theoretisch oogpunt is er sprake van een disbalans tussen de bescherming van en het respect voor de autonomie van mensen met een verstandelijke beperking. Dit artikel doet daarom meerdere aanbevelingen om dit evenwicht te herstellen.


F. Schuthof LLM
Fiore Schuthof conducts research into better empowerment and protection of the elderly as a PhD student at Utrecht University (UU).
Artikel

Access_open De ontwikkeling en implicaties van kinder- en mensenrechten op het gebied van klimaatverandering

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Jeugdrecht, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Klimaat, Kinderrechten/IVRK, Jeugdrecht, Mensenrechten, VN-Kinderrechtencomité
Auteurs Dr. M.J. Wewerinke-Singh, Mr. J.A.M. Stein MSc en Prof. mr. J.E. Doek
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Hoewel kinderen disproportioneel geraakt worden door klimaatverandering, is er tot op heden nog relatief weinig aandacht besteed aan de juridische kant hiervan. Dit artikel tracht bij te dragen door antwoord te geven op de vraag in hoeverre kinderen ‘klimaatrechten’ hebben op mensen- en kinderrechtelijk vlak. In dit kader worden de ontwikkelingen op het terrein van mensenrechten geschetst. Ook wordt ingegaan op de belangrijkste juridische implicaties van kinderrechten zoals neergelegd in het IVRK. Hiervoor zijn ook alle Concluding Observations uit 2019 op dit onderwerp bestudeerd. Bovendien wordt het analytisch rapport van de OHCHR over klimaat en kinderrechten besproken. Tot slot wordt ingegaan op de klimaatklacht die momenteel voorligt bij het VN-Kinderrechtencomité en de mogelijkheden van kinderen in Nederland voor de effectuering van hun rechten op dit vlak.


Dr. M.J. Wewerinke-Singh
Dr. M.J. Wewerinke-Singh is als universitair docent verbonden aan het Grotius Centre for International Legal Studies in Leiden.

Mr. J.A.M. Stein MSc
Mr. J.A.M. Stein is lid van de werkgroep Jeugd- en Gezondheidsrecht van het Nederlands Juristen Comité voor de Mensenrechten (NJCM). Dit artikel vloeit voort uit de door het NJCM georganiseerde seminar ‘Kinderrechten & klimaat’ gehouden in februari 2020 te Den Haag.

Prof. mr. J.E. Doek
Prof. mr. J.E. Doek is Emeritus hoogleraar familie en jeugdrecht bij de VU Amsterdam en gastmedewerker bij de afdeling jeugdrecht van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Access_open Dismissal protection in Germany

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Ontslagrecht, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Statutory and judge-made dismissal protrection in germany, Dismissal protection and constitutional law, The importance of the case law, Legal principles, Payments during sickness
Auteurs dr. Bernd Waas
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article provides overview of the main elements of protection against dismissal in germany. In particular, the possible reasons for dismissal and the substantive requirements are discussed. The procedural aspects and remedies are also dealt with. Finally, it is explained, how the payment during sickness is organized.


dr. Bernd Waas
Bernd Waas is Chair of Labour Law and Civil Law under consideration of European and International Labour Law at Goethe-Universität.

    In 2014, the ECJ was presented with a preliminary reference from the District Court in Kolding on the matter of whether EU law provides protection against discrimination on grounds of obesity with regard to employment and occupation. Following the ECJ’s ruling, first the District Court and later the High Court found that an employee’s obesity as such did not constitute a disability within the meaning of Directive 2000/78/EC establishing a general framework for equal treatment in employment and occupation since his obesity had not constituted a limitation or inconvenience in the performance of his job.


Christian K. Clasen
Christian K. Clasen is a partner at Norrbom Vinding.

    On 16 December 2020, the Supreme Court of Lithuania (Cassation Court) delivered a ruling in a case where an employee claimed that the employer, JSC ‘Lithuanian Railways’, did not apply the regulations of the company’s employer-level collective agreement and did not pay a special bonus – an anniversary benefit (i.e. a benefit paid to employees on reaching a certain age) – because the employee was not a member of the trade union which had signed the collective agreement. According to the employee, she was discriminated against because of her membership of another trade union, i.e membership of the ‘wrong’ trade union.
    The Supreme Court held that combatting discrimination under certain grounds falls within the competence and scope of EU law, but that discrimination on the grounds of trade union membership is not distinguished as a form of discrimination. Also, the Court ruled that in this case (contrary to what the employee claimed in her cassation appeal) Article 157 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) is not applicable because it regulates the prohibition of discrimination on other (sex) grounds. Moreover, the Court found that there was no legal basis for relying on the relevant case law of the ECJ which provides clarification on other forms of discrimination, but not on discrimination based on trade union membership.


Vida Petrylaitė
Vida Petrylaitė is an associate professor at Vilnius university.
Case Law

Access_open 2021/1 EELC’s review of the year 2020

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 1 2021
Auteurs Ruben Houweling, Daiva Petrylaitė, Marianne Hrdlicka e.a.
Samenvatting

    Various of our academic board analysed employment law cases from last year. However, first, we start with some general remarks.


Ruben Houweling

Daiva Petrylaitė

Marianne Hrdlicka

Attila Kun

Luca Calcaterra

Francesca Maffei

Jean-Philippe Lhernould

Niklas Bruun

Jan-Pieter Vos

Luca Ratti

Andrej Poruban

Anthony Kerr

Filip Dorssemont
Pending Cases

Case C-625/20, Social Insurance, Gender Discrimination

KM – v – Instituto Nacional de la Seguridad Social (INSS), reference lodged by the Juzgado de lo Social n.º 26 de Barcelona (Spain) on 19 November 2020

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden Social Insurance, Gender Discrimination
Rulings

ECJ 26 January 2021, Case C-16/19 (Szpital Kliniczny im. dra J. Babińskiego Samodzielny Publiczny Zakład Opieki Zdrowotnej w Krakowie), Disability Discrimination, General Discrimination

VL – v – Szpital Kliniczny im. dra J. Babińskiego Samodzielny Publiczny Zakład Opieki Zdrowotnej w Krakowie, Polish Case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden Disability Discrimination, General Discrimination
Samenvatting

    Payment of an allowance only to workers with disabilities who have submitted disability certificates after a date chosen by that employer may constitute direct or indirect discrimination on the grounds of disability.

    Following ECJ case law, the Supreme Court of the Republic of Slovenia has ruled that a worker is entitled to compensation for unused annual leave in the event that the termination of employment has occurred 15 months after the end of the transfer period (i.e. the period for the transfer of the right to use annual leave) provided for in national legislation. The relevant transposition period is therefore three months longer than the transposition period set out in the Slovenian law.


Petra Smolnikar
Petra Smolnikar is the founder and manager at PETRA SMOLNIKAR LAW.

Tjaša Marinček
Tjaša Marinček is a student assistant at PETRA SMOLNIKAR LAW.
Article

Access_open Big Data Ethics: A Life Cycle Perspective

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden big data, big data analysis, data life cycle, ethics, AI
Auteurs Simon Vydra, Andrei Poama, Sarah Giest e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The adoption of big data analysis in the legal domain is a recent but growing trend that highlights ethical concerns not just with big data analysis, as such, but also with its deployment in the legal domain. This article systematically analyses five big data use cases from the legal domain utilising a pluralistic and pragmatic mode of ethical reasoning. In each case we analyse what happens with data from its creation to its eventual archival or deletion, for which we utilise the concept of ‘data life cycle’. Despite the exploratory nature of this article and some limitations of our approach, the systematic summary we deliver depicts the five cases in detail, reinforces the idea that ethically significant issues exist across the entire big data life cycle, and facilitates understanding of how various ethical considerations interact with one another throughout the big data life cycle. Furthermore, owing to its pragmatic and pluralist nature, the approach is potentially useful for practitioners aiming to interrogate big data use cases.


Simon Vydra
Simon Vydra is a Researcher at the Institute for Public Administration, Leiden University, the Netherlands.

Andrei Poama
Andrei Poama is Assistant Professor at the Institute for Public Administration, Leiden University, the Netherlands.

Sarah Giest
Sarah Giest is Assistant Professor at the Institute for Public Administration, Leiden University, the Netherlands.

Alex Ingrams
Alex Ingrams is Assistant Professor at the Institute for Public Administration, Leiden University, the Netherlands.

Bram Klievink
Bram Klievink is Professor of Digitization and Public Policy at the Institute for Public Administration, Leiden University, the Netherlands.
Artikel

Access_open Addressing Problems Instead of Diagnoses

Reimagining Liberalism Regarding Disability and Public Health

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden Vulerability Theory, Liberalism, Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), Public Health, Capabilities Approach
Auteurs Erwin Dijkstra
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The public health systems of liberal states systematically fail to meet the goals and obligations of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, which aims to facilitate full societal participation and independent life choices by all impaired persons, as well as the unburdening of their private caretakers. This failure does not stem from a lack of money or effort by governments and other societal institutions, but flaws in the anatomy of these systems. As these systems confine institutional assistance to the needs of persons with certain delineated disabilities, they neglect the needs of other persons, whose disabilities do not fit this mould. The responsibility for the latter group thus falls to their immediate social circle. These private caretakers are in turn seldom supported. To remedy this situation, I will present the alternative paradigm of vulnerability theory as the possible foundation for a more inclusive approach to public health.


Erwin Dijkstra
Erwin Dijkstra LLM MA is lecturer and researcher at the Department of Jurisprudence of the Leiden Law School of Leiden University.
Artikel

Access_open Theme: introduction to the Dutch system of dismissal and its constituents

The editorial board

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Ontslagrecht, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden Ontslagrecht, Rechtsvergelijking, Dismissal law
Samenvatting

Werk in uitvoering

Herstelrecht op het terrein van verkeersongevallen.

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden restorative justice, motor vehicle accidents, victimology, personal injury settlement
Auteurs Iris Becx MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Those involved in a motor vehicle accident often have emotional needs that are not being met within the current framework of personal injury settlement. These needs include sharing one’s (side of the) story, getting in touch with the other person(s) involved and offering or receiving apologies. Following Nils Christie’s theory of ‘stolen’ conflicts, the fact that the people involved are often represented by lawyers or insurance companies is problematic because it alienates them from each other and it thwarts proper recovery. Incorporating restorative justice could offer a solution to this ‘theft’ of conflict, as it focuses on bringing all involved together to restore any of the harm done by concentrating on their needs. The central question to this dissertation is: how can restorative justice play a role in the sustainable resolution of conflicts after motor vehicle accidents so that the current insurance and liability system can better meet the immaterial needs of victims and perpetrators? Via several projects, the role of lawyers and insurance companies is studied. How beneficial or adversarial are their influences on victims and offenders? And can they incorporate restorative justice in their practice? The first publication is expected at the end of this year.


Iris Becx MSc
Iris Becx is victimoloog en is promovenda aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (VU) en het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR). Ze volgde de masterstudie Victimology and Criminal Justice aan Tilburg University.
Vrij verkeer

De Europese Toegankelijkheidsrichtlijn voor mensen met een handicap: grondrechtenbevordering binnen de Europese interne markt

Tijdschrift Nederlands tijdschrift voor Europees recht, Aflevering 5-6 2020
Trefwoorden toegankelijkheid, interne markt, personen met een beperking, grondrechten, VN-verdrag handicap
Auteurs Prof. mr. dr. S. de Vries en Mr. T. de Sterke
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Met de in april 2019 aangenomen Europese Toegankelijkheidsrichtlijn wordt gepoogd de toegankelijkheid van producten en diensten voor personen met een beperking te verbeteren. De richtlijn geeft hiermee uitvoering aan het VN-verdrag inzake de rechten van personen met een handicap. Dit artikel beschrijft de totstandkomingsgeschiedenis van de richtlijn, de belangrijkste kenmerken ervan en wat de te verwachten toegevoegde waarde van de richtlijn zal zijn.
    Richtlijn (EU) 2019/882 van het Europees Parlement en de Raad van 17 april 2019 betreffende de toegankelijkheidsvoorschriften voor producten en diensten, PbEU 2019, L 151/70.


Prof. mr. dr. S. de Vries
Prof. mr. dr. S.A. (Sybe) de Vries is hoogleraar EU internemarktrecht en grondrechten aan de Universiteit Utrecht en Jean Monnet leerstoelhouder.

Mr. T. de Sterke
Mr. T. (Thijs) de Sterke is recent afgestudeerd van de masteropleiding Europees Recht aan de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Wanneer je leven bepaald wordt door de wet

– over handicap, regelgeving en identiteit

Tijdschrift Handicap & Recht, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden Wet maatschappelijke ondersteuning (Wmo), Participatiewet (Pw), VN-verdrag Handicap, sociale zekerheid, rechtstheorie
Auteurs Mr. drs. E. Dijkstra
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Voor veel mensen met een functiebeperking geldt dat zij op wettelijk geregelde voorzieningen moeten vertrouwen voor hun basale levensbehoeften. De aannames van de wetgever betreffende welke noden van deze groep tot de verantwoordelijkheid van de maatschappij behoren, bepalen dus de mate waarin zij in deze behoeften kunnen voorzien en hoe zij – en hun omgeving – hun leven kunnen inrichten. In dit artikel wordt onderbouwd waarom de huidige aannames van de wetgever een grote groep mensen met een functiebeperking in de steek laten. In de participatiemaatschappij staan deelname aan de reguliere arbeidsmarkt en vertrouwen op het eigen netwerk namelijk centraal. Dientengevolge schiet de huidige sociale zekerheid voor mensen die niet of niet gedeeltelijk kunnen werken en geen daadkrachtig netwerk te hebben, veelal tekort. Een begin van de oplossing van dit probleem, zo wordt voorgesteld, is het opnieuw waarderen van bijdragen buiten de reguliere arbeidsmarkt en het uitbreiden en bestendigen van de voorzieningen voor mensen met een functiebeperking.


Mr. drs. E. Dijkstra
Mr. drs. E. (Erwin) Dijkstra is als docent/onderzoeker verbonden aan het Instituut Metajuridica van de Rechtswetenschap van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden.
Pending Cases

Case C-485/20, Disability Discrimination

X – v – HR Rail, SA de droit public, reference lodged by Conseil d’État (Belgium) on 29 September 2020

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden Disability Discrimination
Article

Access_open Positive State Obligations under European Law: A Tool for Achieving Substantive Equality for Sexual Minorities in Europe

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden Positive obligations, sexual minorities, sexual orientation, European law, human rights
Auteurs Alina Tryfonidou
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article seeks to examine the development of positive obligations under European law in the specific context of the rights of sexual minorities. It is clear that the law should respect and protect all sexualities and diverse intimate relationships without discrimination, and for this purpose it needs to ensure that sexual minorities can not only be free from state interference when expressing their sexuality in private, but that they should be given the right to express their sexuality in public and to have their intimate relationships legally recognised. In addition, sexual minorities should be protected from the actions of other individuals, when these violate their legal and fundamental human rights. Accordingly, in addition to negative obligations, European law must impose positive obligations towards sexual minorities in order to achieve substantive equality for them. The article explains that, to date, European law has imposed a number of such positive obligations; nonetheless, there is definitely scope for more. It is suggested that European law should not wait for hearts and minds to change before imposing additional positive obligations, especially since this gives the impression that the EU and the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) are condoning or disregarding persistent discrimination against sexual minorities.


Alina Tryfonidou
Alina Tryfonidou is Professor of Law, University of Reading.
Article

Access_open How Far Should the State Go to Counter Prejudice?

A Positive State Obligation to Counter Dehumanisation

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden prejudice, soft paternalism, empathy, liberalism, employment discrimination, access to goods and services
Auteurs Ioanna Tourkochoriti
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article argues that it is legitimate for the state to practice soft paternalism towards changing hearts and minds in order to prevent behaviour that is discriminatory. Liberals accept that it is not legitimate for the state to intervene in order to change how people think because ideas and beliefs are wrong in themselves. It is legitimate for the state to intervene with the actions of a person only when there is a risk of harm to others and when there is a threat to social coexistence. Preventive action of the state is legitimate if we consider the immaterial and material harm that discrimination causes. It causes harm to the social standing of the person, psychological harm, economic and existential harm. All these harms threaten peaceful social coexistence. This article traces a theory of permissible government action. Research in the areas of behavioural psychology, neuroscience and social psychology indicates that it is possible to bring about a change in hearts and minds. Encouraging a person to adopt the perspective of the person who has experienced discrimination can lead to empathetic understanding. This, can lead a person to critically evaluate her prejudice. The paper argues that soft paternalism towards changing hearts and minds is legitimate in order to prevent harm to others. It attempts to legitimise state coercion in order to eliminate prejudice and broader social patterns of inequality and marginalisation. And it distinguishes between appropriate and non-appropriate avenues the state could pursue in order to eliminate prejudice. Policies towards eliminating prejudice should address the rational and the emotional faculties of a person. They should aim at using methods and techniques that focus on persuasion and reduce coercion. They should raise awareness of what prejudice is and how it works in order to facilitate well-informed voluntary decisions. The version of soft paternalism towards changing minds and attitudes defended in this article makes it consistent with liberalism.


Ioanna Tourkochoriti
Ioanna Tourkochoriti is Lecturer Above the Bar, NUI Galway School of Law.
Article

Access_open The Potential of Positive Obligations Against Romaphobic Attitudes and in the Development of ‘Roma Pride’

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden Roma, Travellers, positive obligations, segregation, culturally adequate accommodation
Auteurs Lilla Farkas en Theodoros Alexandridis
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article analyses the jurisprudence of international tribunals on the education and housing of Roma and Travellers to understand whether positive obligations can change the hearts and minds of the majority and promote minority identities. Case law on education deals with integration rather than cultural specificities, while in the context of housing it accommodates minority needs. Positive obligations have achieved a higher level of compliance in the latter context by requiring majorities to tolerate the minority way of life in overwhelmingly segregated settings. Conversely, little seems to have changed in education, where legal and institutional reform, as well as a shift in both majority and minority attitudes, would be necessary to dismantle social distance and generate mutual trust. The interlocking factors of accessibility, judicial activism, European politics, expectations of political allegiance and community resources explain jurisprudential developments. The weak justiciability of minority rights, the lack of resources internal to the community and dual identities among the Eastern Roma impede legal claims for culture-specific accommodation in education. Conversely, the protection of minority identity and community ties is of paramount importance in the housing context, subsumed under the right to private and family life.


Lilla Farkas
Lilla Farkas is a practising lawyer in Hungary and recently earned a PhD from the European University Institute entitled ‘Mobilising for racial equality in Europe: Roma rights and transnational justice’. She is the race ground coordinator of the European Union’s Network of Legal Experts in Gender Equality and Non-discrimination.

Theodoros Alexandridis
Theodoros Alexandridis is a practicing lawyer in Greece.
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