Zoekresultaat: 215 artikelen

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Artikel

Access_open Protestanten verenigd voor of door de staat?

Onderhandelingen over de afbakening van een erkende eredienst in België (1999-2002)

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden VPKB, ARPEE, Federale Synode, evangelische kerken, België
Auteurs Dr. Jelle Creemers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article aims to give insight in negotiations which took place from 1999 to 2002 between diverse Protestant parties in Belgium and which resulted in an enlargement of the recognized Protestant religion. This enlargement primarily served free Evangelical churches, as it allowed them to share in the benefits consequent to official recognition by the state. The article describes their strategic choices in view of full state recognition and highlights the active role played by the ‘neutral’ Belgian state in the negotiations that took place concerning this recognized religion.


Dr. Jelle Creemers
Dr. J. Creemers is universitair hoofddocent aan de Evangelische Theologische Faculteit te Leuven in de vakgroep Godsdienstwetenschappen en Missiologie. Als postdoctoraal onderzoeker van het Fonds voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek – Vlaanderen onderzoekt hij evangelische kerken in België en hun relatie tot de overheid.
Onderzoeksnotities

Wat ons gezegd wordt over kernenergie

Een analyse van de ideologische strategieën in het discours van de Belgische nucleaire lobby en regering

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden nuclear energy, ecological justice, discourse analysis, ideology, Lobbying
Auteurs Drs. Michelle Van Impe
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Nuclear energy is a controversial topic in Belgium and the government strives for a nuclear exit by 2025. However, there are few notable policy efforts which prepare the country for such a future. The framing of nuclear energy is crucial in the ongoing debate about its usage. In this article, the author analyses the discourse of the nuclear lobby and government through a green criminological lens. She compares the discourse with academic literature about nuclear energy and identifies ideological strategies via the analytical framework of Larrain (1983).


Drs. Michelle Van Impe
Drs. M. Van Impe is doctoraatsstudent bij het Instituut voor Sociaal Drugsonderzoek (ISD), Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht, van de Universiteit Gent.
Artikel

Daders van arbeidsuitbuiting

Over de vermeende rol van de georganiseerde misdaad

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden Arbeidsuitbuiting, Mensenhandel, georganiseerde criminaliteit, grensoverschrijdende criminaliteit
Auteurs Dr. Masja van Meeteren en Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Human traffickers are usually depicted in public discourse as evil villains: the crème de la crème of organized crime. Although this image has also been dominant among scholars for a long time, it has become increasingly controversial. On the one hand, this debate is fueled by discussions amongst criminologists on criminal networks, on the other hand by the expansion of the legal definition of the crime since 2005. Apart from exploitation in the prostitution sector, various other forms of human trafficking are distinguished now, including labor exploitation. This article explores the question of which organizational forms play a role in labor exploitation. Through a review of the empirical research literature on labor exploitation, the authors show that in the field of labor exploitation, there is probably less involvement in criminal syndicates or criminal networks that maintain contacts with other criminal networks. In many cases, labor exploitation is committed by individuals or family businesses, or smaller loosely organized networks that are not necessarily embedded in other criminal networks. For researchers and policy makers alike, it is therefore advisable not to approach labor exploitation exclusively from the perspective of transnational organized crime.


Dr. Masja van Meeteren
Dr. Masja van Meeteren is universitair hoofddocent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun
Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun is hoogleraar Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

De anomie van machtsillusies

Onbegrensde ambities in de ‘risk and win’-zakenwereld

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden anomie, illusion of control, corporate crime, competition, entitlement
Auteurs dr. Bas van Stokkom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Generally, large listed companies and banks immersed in a ‘risk and win’-culture do not have to deal with ‘deprivation of resources’ which may trigger violations of the law. The anomie-theory of Merton does not seem to fit in this context. It is more obvious that the pressure to realize lofty ambitions is the trigger for potential violations of the law. I therefore work out a ‘post-Mertonian’ anomie-concept using the ‘European Durkheim’ to examine some excessive tendencies of an originally American ‘risk and win’-culture. The aim is to work towards an anomie-theory of power illusions that makes sense in the context of corporate crime. The leading question is: which anomic attitudes prevail in an over-ambitious corporate culture and which aspirations and rationalizations can be distinguished? It is argued that an approach focused on CEO-personality traits is too limited and that the sociological approaches of Durkheim and Shover offer many points of departure to construct a plausible anomie-theory. The dimensions of that theory have been taken from studies which focus at two criminogenic norm-systems: an ‘ethos of winning at any price’ and an ‘ethos of entitlement’.


dr. Bas van Stokkom
Dr. Bas van Stokkom is verbonden aan de vaksectie Strafrecht & Criminologie, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. E-mail: b.vanstokkom@jur.ru.nl.

    This paper examines how the distribution of social goods within a political community relates to decisions on membership boundaries. The author challenges two renowned accounts of such a relation: firstly, Walzer’s account according to which decisions on membership boundaries necessarily precede decisions on distribution; secondly, Benhabib’s account, according to which membership boundaries can be called into question on the basis of universalist claims. Departing from both accounts, the author concludes that actual changes in the pool of participants in practices of creation and exchange of social goods pressure a political community to redefine its distributive patterns and, accordingly, the boundaries of its formal political membership. This claim will be supported by the analysis of threshold cases decided by the EU Court of Justice, in which EU citizenship is invoked with the atypical purpose of granting rights to a specific group of non-formal members.


Dr Chiara Raucea
Chiara Raucea is lecturer at Tilburg Law School. A longer version of her article is included in her doctoral dissertation Citizenship Inverted: From Rights To Status?, defended in December 2017 at Tilburg University.
Artikel

Access_open Crisis in the Courtroom

The Discursive Conditions of Possibility for Ruptures in Legal Discourse

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden crisis discourse, rupture, counterterrorism, precautionary logic, risk
Auteurs Laura M. Henderson LL.M
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article addresses the conditions of possibility for the precautionary turn in legal discourse. Although the precautionary turn itself has been well-detailed in both legal and political discourse, insufficient attention has been paid to what made this shift possible. This article remedies this, starting by showing how the events of 9/11 were unable to be incorporated within current discursive structures. As a result, these discursive structures were dislocated and a new ‘crisis discourse’ emerged that succeeded in attributing meaning to the events of 9/11. By focusing on three important cases from three different jurisdictions evidencing the precautionary turn in legal discourse, this article shows that crisis discourse is indeed employed by the judiciary and that its logic made this precautionary approach to counterterrorism in the law possible. These events, now some 16 years ago, hold relevance for today’s continuing presence of crisis and crisis discourse.


Laura M. Henderson LL.M
Laura M. Henderson is a researcher at UGlobe, the Utrecht Centre for Global Challenges, at Utrecht University. She wrote this article as a Ph.D. candidate at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Securitisering en seksualisering van migratie: het debat over oud en nieuw in Keulen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden Refugees, Gender debate, Sexual violence, Framing analysis
Auteurs Dr. Martina Althoff
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article examines the public debate about New Year’s Eve in Cologne in 2015. Theoretical starting point is the idea that public debates are forms of social communication in which reality is produced and social events become meaningful. On the basis of a framing analysis, it is investigated what significance New Year’s Eve in Cologne has as a medial event for society. The question here is how the event is described and explained, how it is mentioned and interpreted, what significance it collectively receives and how these insights can be theoretically interpreted. The analysis shows that different frames were possible, such as the problematization of the work of the police. Instead, the discourse focused on the sexual behaviour of refugees and securitization and sexualisation of migration takes place.


Dr. Martina Althoff
Dr. Martina Althoff is werkzaam als universitair hoofddocent criminologie aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid, Vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie. E-mail: m.althoff@rug.nl.
Artikel

Veilig uitgaan: tegenstrijdige gevoelens over inzet politie en andere maatregelen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2017
Trefwoorden tegenstrijdigheden, assemblage, angst voor criminaliteit, uitgaansgebieden, veiligheidsbeleving
Auteurs Jelle Brands en Irina van Aalst
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Urban nightlife areas are widely renowned for their emotionally charged nature, affording greater opportunities for transgressions of social norms compared to daytime contexts. Yet, the ways nightlife consumers experience safety in the public spaces of nightlife areas has received limited attention in the academic literatures. This article approaches experienced safety in the public spaces of nightlife areas as emerging from encounters between human and non-human (material, social, cultural) elements grounded in time and space. Such elements include the characteristics of the built environment, the design of public space, police presence, lighting and also first and secondhand experiences and popular media discourses more generally. We hypothesized that encounters between such elements necessarily renders some ambiguity in experienced safety, in the sense that the effect of a particular element on experienced safety is always coproduced in the unfolding encounter. By drawing on a series of interviews with Dutch students in Utrecht, various types of ambiguity are shown to exist depending on both the particularities of the situation at hand and based on differences between individual circumstance and life course. Ambiguity is also shown to exist in the sense that mentioned elements may both comfort and alarm participants at the same time. Our findings infer that we should implement ‘safer nightlife’ initiatives that are tailored to particular contexts, situations and publics. The results also suggest that current interventions seeking to stimulate safety in urban nightlife settings might not be as successful in reducing/enhancing (un)safety as (popular) policy and media discourses have suggested.


Jelle Brands
Jelle Brands is universitair docent aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Irina van Aalst
Irina van Aalst is universitair docent aan het departement Sociale Geografie en Planologie van de Faculteit Geowetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Mannen met een hobby

Outlaw motorclubs, nieuwsmedia en imagopolitiek

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2017
Trefwoorden rhetoric, framing, OMG, ethos, news
Auteurs Dr. Willem Koetsenruijter en Dr. Peter Burger
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This study contains a qualitative framing analysis of outlaw motor clubs in Dutch newspaper articles. These clubs appear in the news as a source for positive framing to counterbalance the prevailing organized crime frame. The study shows with what rhetorical means club members are framed and how news media balance a criminal and a non-criminal image. In news articles club members refer to ethical norms and group values, and appear to employ mitigation strategies which take the hard edges off the frame and simultaneously increase their credibility.


Dr. Willem Koetsenruijter
Dr. A.W.M. Koetsenruijter is universitair docent bij de Faculteit der Geesteswetenschappen van de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Peter Burger
Dr. J.P. Burger is universitair docent bij de Faculteit der Geesteswetenschappen van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Access_open Dworkin’s Rights Conception of the Rule of Law in Criminal Law

Should Criminal Law be Extensively Interpreted in Order to Protect Victims’ Rights?

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden Klaas Rozemond, Ronald M. Dworkin, Legality in criminal law, Rights conception of the rule of law, Legal certainty
Auteurs Briain Jansen LLM.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The extensive interpretation of criminal law to the detriment of the defendant in criminal law is often problematized in doctrinal theory. Extensive interpretation is then argued to be problematic in the light of important ideals such as democracy and legal certainty in criminal law. In the Dutch discussion of this issue, Klaas Rozemond has argued that sometimes extensive interpretation is mandated by the rule of law in order to protect the rights of victims. Rozemond grounds his argument on a reading of Dworkin’s distinction between the rule-book and the rights conception of the rule of law. In this article, I argue that Dworkin’s rights conception, properly considered, does not necessarily mandate the imposition of criminal law or its extensive interpretation in court in order to protect victims’ rights.


Briain Jansen LLM.
Briain Jansen is als promovendus rechtstheorie verbonden aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Vergeten religie in Nederland

De herontdekking van vergeten aspecten van religie in het maatschappelijke debat

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden joods-christelijk, Herinnering, Vergeten, Receptie
Auteurs Dr. Peter-Ben Smit
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Appeals to religion in the public domain, in particular by politicians, prove to be controversial. This is good news, given that the ensuing debate usually uncovers forgotten aspects of religious traditions. Using three cases from the Dutch political discourse, to wit: the appeal to ‘Jewish Christian’ tradition, the claim that Jewish Christian tradition has been of key emancipatory value, and the identification of immigrants as religious, and applying Aleida Assmann’s theory about the dynamics of forgetting (and remembrance), the paper demonstrates that in each of these cases, the public debates surrounding these instances of references to religion and their rhetorical use, were instrumental in uncovering ‘forgotten’ aspects of religion that had disappeared from the ‘memory’ of the political discourse.


Dr. Peter-Ben Smit
Dr. P.-B. Smit is hoogleraar Contextuele Bijbelinterpretatie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en bijzonder hoogleraar Oude katholieke kerkstructuren aan de Universiteit Utrecht; hij promoveerde in de Bijbelwetenschap (Bern) en de anglicaanse theologie (New York), en habiliteerde zich in de kerkgeschiedenis (Bern). Zijn onderzoek richt zich onder meer op het gebruik van Bijbelteksten voor de constructie van identiteit, in het bijzonder in relatie tot mannelijkheid. pst380@vu.nl
Artikel

Mediation case law in Germany – an overview

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 4 2017
Trefwoorden Case law, Germany, Voluntariness, Confidentiality, Neutrality
Auteurs Ulla Gläßer
Auteursinformatie

Ulla Gläßer
Prof. Dr. Ulla Gläßer, LL.M., holds a full professorship of mediation, conflict management and procedural theory at the European University Viadrina Frankfurt (Oder)/Germany. She is academic director of the Institute for Conflict Management and the postgraduate, interdisciplinary Master’s Program on Mediation at the European University. Ms Gläßer is teaching mediation, negotiation and conflict management skills at various universities and numerous other institutions in Germany and abroad. She has published broadly on mediation methodology, the legal framework of mediation, quality assurance of mediation and other ADR procedures and the establishment of mediation and ADR procedures in different realms of society. She also is editor of two Publication Series on Mediation and Conflict Management and a comprehensive commentary on the German Mediation Act and corresponding relevant regulation. As a practical mediator and facilitator, Ms Gläßer supports dispute resolution and decision making processes within or between organisations/corporations.

    This paper discusses three approaches that can be helpful in the area of comparative rights jurisprudence, oriented in reference to three different kinds of studies that are possible in that area. To a large extent the methods for a comparative legal research depend on the research question and the goal of the researcher. First, a comparative law study may focus on the sociocultural context that led to the elaboration of differences or similarities in the protection of rights. Second, a comparative law approach can be a normative enterprise. It can focus on engaging in a philosophical analysis enlightened by the differences or similarities in the regulation of rights, in order to propose concrete solutions for the regulation of a right. Third, a comparative law approach can combine both elements of the two previously mentioned approaches. The paper discusses the challenges that the researcher faces in her attempt to use these methodologies and how these challenges can be overcome. The law as a normative discipline has its own constraints of justifiability. If what motivates a comparative law study is the search for principles of justice the researcher needs to persuade that her methodological approach serves her aim.


Ioanna Tourkochoriti
School of Law, NUI Galway, Ireland.

    The nexus between religion and law is an important subject of comparative law. This paper, however, finds that the majority of comparative theorists rely on the immanent frame; that legal legitimacy can and should be separated from any objective truth or moral norm. But the fact of the matter is many constitutional systems were founded based on a complicated mixture between the transcendent and immanent frame. Whereas in the immanent frame, human actions are considered self-constituting, in the transcendent frame, human actions were judged in light of their correspondence to higher, divine laws and purposes.
    This article argues that it is not sufficient for comparative theorists to offer a perspective from the immanent frame. Comparative theorists in law and religion should understand at least basic religious doctrines and know how to systematize those doctrines. In other words, comparative theorist of law and religion should work within the transcendent frame. By using a transcendent frame, comparative theorists will be able to excavate the underlying structure of religion, and so they will understand better how theological ideas influence law. Furthermore, this paper will also present a thought experiment in applying the transcendent frame in comparative constitutional studies.


Stefanus Hendrianto
Stefanus Hendrianto is a scholar at Boston College, School of Theology and Ministry. In recent years, he has been a visiting professor at Santa Clara University School of Law (2013-2015) and a guest scholar at the Kellogg Institute for International Studies at the University of Notre Dame (2015-2016). He holds a Ph.D. degree from the School of Law, University of Washington, Seattle and LLM degree from Utrecht University, Netherlands, in addition to his LLB degree from Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia.

    Both H.L.A. Hart and John Searle repeatedly refer to games in their work on the concept of law and the construction of social reality respectively. We can argue that this is not a coincidence, Hart’s analysis of law as a system of primary and secondary rules bears close resemblances to Searle’s analysis of social reality as a system of regulative and constitutive rules and the comparison to games leads to interesting insights about the ontology of law and legal epistemology. The present article explores both the institutional theory of law that can be devised on the basis of the work of Hart and Searle, the method of analytical philosophy they employ and the particular consequences that can be deduced for legal research from the resulting legal theory.


Arie-Jan Kwak
Dr. A.J. Kwak, Faculty of Law, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands.

    The article discusses the contribution of comparative law to the study of federalism and decentralisation. In doing so, it stresses the relevance of the notion of federalising process, as elaborated by Carl J. Friedrich.


Giacomo Delledonne
Postdoctoral fellow in Constitutional Law, Scuola superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa, Italy. Email: giacomo. delledonne@gmail.com. Huge thanks go to Sofia Ranchordás and Irene Broekhuijse. I would also like to thank Paolo Carrozza, Paolo Addis, Ilaria Rivera and the anonymous reviewers for their precious suggestions and comments.

    The purpose of this article is to investigate whether the notion of an interest should be taken more seriously than the notion of a right. It will be argued that it should; and not only because it can be just as amenable to the institutional taxonomical structure often said to be at the basis of rights thinking in law but also because the notion of an interest has a more epistemologically convincing explanatory power with respect to reasoning in law and its relation to social facts. The article equally aims to highlight some of the important existing work on the notion of an interest in law.


Geoffrey Samuel
Professor of Law, Kent Law School, The University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, U.K. This article is a much re-orientated, and updated, adaption of a paper published a decade ago: Samuel 2004, at 263. The author would like to thank the anonymous referees for their very helpful criticisms and observations on an earlier version of the manuscript.
Article

Access_open The Integrity of the Tax System after BEPS: A Shared Responsibility

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden flawed legislation, tax privileges, tax planning, corporate social responsibility, tax professionals
Auteurs Hans Gribnau
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The international tax system is the result of the interaction of different actors who share the responsibility for its integrity. States and multinational corporations both enjoy to a certain extent freedom of choice with regard to their tax behaviour – which entails moral responsibility. Making, interpreting and using tax rules therefore is inevitably a matter of exercising responsibility. Both should abstain from viewing tax laws as a bunch of technical rules to be used as a tool without any intrinsic moral or legal value. States bear primary responsibility for the integrity of the international tax system. They should become more reticent in their use of tax as regulatory instrument – competing with one another for multinationals’ investment. They should also act more responsibly by cooperating to make better rules to prevent aggressive tax planning, which entails a shift in tax payments from very expert taxpayers to other taxpayers. Here, the distributive justice of the tax system and a level playing field should be guaranteed. Multinationals should abstain from putting pressure on states and lobbying for favourable tax rules that disproportionally affect other taxpayers – SMEs and individual taxpayers alike. Multinationals and their tax advisers should avoid irresponsible conduct by not aiming to pay a minimalist amount of (corporate income) taxes – merely staying within the boundaries of the letter of the law. Especially CSR-corporations should assume the responsibility for the integrity of the tax system.


Hans Gribnau
Professor of Tax Law, Fiscal Institute and the Center for Company Law, Tilburg University; Professor of Tax Law, Leiden University, The Netherlands.
Artikel

Drie visies op traditie en de relatie tussen recht en religie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden recht en religie, Traditie, Tijdsbegrip, Intertekstualiteit
Auteurs Mr. dr. Carinne Elion-Valter
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article explores three perspectives of tradition and their consequences for the relationship between law and religion. A religious tradition can be seen either as a remnant of the past, separate from modern law, or as an authoritative source of moral prescriptions. The analysis of a literary tradition demonstrates that traditions influence each other and develop in a cyclical way. Tradition comes about as a construction by the present of the past. This third perspective shows the importance of the acknowledgment of law as an open platform for deliberation and recognition of religious values.


Mr. dr. Carinne Elion-Valter
Mr. dr. C. Elion-Valter is docent, onderzoeker en raadslid. Zij promoveerde bij prof. dr. W.J. Witteveen (†), prof. dr. L.H.J. Adams en mevr. mr. dr. M.G. IJzermans op het onderwerp recht & literatuur met het proefschrift De burger als ongelovige Thomas, geloofwaardigheid, legitimiteit en dialoog. Ze droeg onder andere bij aan de bundel Fundamentele verhalen, over recht, literatuur en film (Claudia Bouteligier & Afshin Ellian (red.), Boom uitgevers 2014) met een bijdrage over Victor Hugo’s roman Quatrevingt-treize.
Artikel

Access_open Pursuing Legal Research

Tijdschrift Law and Method, juni 2017
Auteurs Synne Sæther Mæhle
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    By conducting methodological assessments, legal researchers decide which lines of inquiry are worth pursuing. Two aspects of such assessments are highlighted in this article. The first aspect is to construct promising lines of inquiry. The second aspect is to clarify provisionally the potential of various promising lines of inquiry. Clarifying and calibrating such potential through discourse with fellow researchers are essential. Increased awareness of how legal researchers decide which lines of inquiry are worth pursuing is vital to contemporary discourse about legal methodology.


Synne Sæther Mæhle
Associate professor, Faculty of Law, University of Bergen, Norway
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