Zoekresultaat: 40 artikelen

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Artikel

Access_open The Normative Framework of Labour Law

Tijdschrift Law and Method, september 2019
Trefwoorden labour law, normative framework, inequality, social justice
Auteurs Nuna Zekić
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article looks at how normative questions, i.e. ‘what should the law be?‘, are approached in modern labour law scholarship. A distinction is made between internal and external normative frameworks for analysis, whereby internal frameworks are made up of principles, values or standards that are part of the law and the external frameworks are made up of theories outside of law. As a functional legal field, labour law can also benefit to a great deal from empirical research. However, the article argues that empirical facts by themselves have a limited normative value and that we need a normative framework in order to answer normative and evaluative questions. Therefore, the aim of the article is to review, clarify and evaluate the internal normative framework of labour law.


Nuna Zekić
Associate Professor, Department of Labour Law and Social Policy, Tilburg University.

    In 2016 the Dutch Government Commission of Reassessment of Parenthood (GCRP) proposed a wide array of legal changes to Family Law, e.g. with regard to legal multi-parenthood and legal multiple parental responsibility. Although the commission researched these matters thoroughly in its quest towards proposing new directions in the field of Family Law, multi-parents themselves were not interviewed by the commission. Therefore, this article aims to explore a possible gap between the social experiences of parents and the recommendations of the GCRP. Data was drawn from in depth-interviews with a sample of 25 parents in plus-two-parent constellations living in Belgium and the Netherlands. For the most part the social experiences of parents aligned with the ways in which the GCRP plans to legally accommodate the former. However, my data tentatively suggests that other (legal) recommendations of the GCRP need to be explored more in depth.
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    In 2016 stelde de Nederlandse Staatscommissie Herijking ouderschap voor om een wettelijk kader te creëren voor meerouderschap en meeroudergezag. Ondanks de grondigheid van het gevoerde onderzoek ontbraken er gegevens omtrent de ervaringen van de meerouders zelf. Dit artikel levert een bijdrage in het vullen van deze leemte door inzage te geven in de (juridische) ervaringen van 25 ouders in meerouderschapsconstellaties in België en Nederland.


Nola Cammu MA
Nola Cammu is PhD Candidate at the Law Faculty of the University of Antwerp.
Article

Access_open Empirical Legal Research in Europe: Prevalence, Obstacles, and Interventions

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden empirical legal research, Europe, popularity, increase, journals
Auteurs Gijs van Dijck, Shahar Sverdlov en Gabriela Buck
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Empirical Legal research (ELR) has become well established in the United States, whereas its popularity in Europe is debatable. This article explores the popularity of ELR in Europe. The authors carried out an empirical analysis of 78 European-based law journals, encompassing issues from 2008-2017. The findings demonstrate that a supposed increase of ELR is questionable (at best).
    Moreover, additional findings highlight:

    • An increase for a few journals, with a small number of other journals showing a decrease over time;

    • A higher percentage of empirical articles for extra-legal journals than for legal journals (average proportion per journal is 4.6 percent for legal journals, 18.9 percent for extra-legal journals);

    • Criminal justice journals, environmental journals, and economically oriented journals being more likely to publish empirical articles than other journals;

    • More prestigious journals being more likely to publish empirical articles than less-prestigious journals;

    • Older journals being more likely to publish empirical work than younger journals, but not at an increasing rate;

    • Journals being legal/extra-legal, journals in a specific field, journal ranking, or the age of the journal not making it more (or less) likely that the journal will publish empirical articles at an increasing (or decreasing) rate.
      Considering the lack of convincing evidence indicating an increase of ELR, we identify reasons for why ELR is seemingly becoming more popular but not resulting in more empirical research in Europe. Additionally, we explore interventions for overcoming the obstacles ELR currently faces.


Gijs van Dijck
Professor of Private Law at Maastricht University, the Netherlands.

Shahar Sverdlov
Law student at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Gabriela Buck
Law student at Maastricht University, the Netherlands.
Artikel

Promoting Conciliation and Mediation in Collective Labour Conflicts in Europe

Celebrating 50 years of Federal Mediation Services in Belgium

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden Mediation, conciliation, collective labour conflict, strikes
Auteurs Ana Belén García, Erica Pender, Francisco J. Medina e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    On 23 April 2018, the Belgian Ministry of Labour, together with a consortium of 12 European research institutes, held a symposium on the current state of the art and best practices for conciliation and mediation in collective labour conflicts within the European Union, and particularly in Belgium. The symposium was organized for two occasions. First, the 50st anniversary of the Belgium law, providing mediation services by the Ministry of Labour to prevent and mediate in collective labour conflicts. Second, the presentation of the results of an EU (DG Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion) sponsored project in 12 EU member states.
    The management of collective labour conflicts is in all countries regulated differently. The study shows that also practices of third party intervention differ largely. Most countries differentiate conciliation (a relative informal process of facilitated negotiation), mediation (usually defined as a strong involvement of the third party, who gives recommendations to the parties), and arbitration. Mediators typically are not trained, certified or registered as mediators in most countries. In all countries there is a large potential for conciliation, particularly in early stages of conflict (preventive mediation), as well as in rebuilding of trust after conflict episodes. More details in open access book: Mediation in collective labor conflicts (Springer, 2018).


Ana Belén García
Ana Belén García is senior researcher at the University of Seville and KU Leuven, working in the departments of work and organizational psychology. She was coordinator of several EU funded research programs on social dialogue in organisations. The most recent project was on mediation in collective labor conflicts in 12 EU member states. Ana’s interest is on conflict management and mediation in organizations. She was editor of two handbooks in the Springer Series ‘Industrial relations and conflict management’. Ana holds a PhD in Psychology and HRM from the University of Seville and KU Leuven. She is also a registered mediator.

Erica Pender
Erica Pender is a mediator and senior researcher at the University of Seville and KU Leuven in the department of Work and Organizational Psychology. She holds a PhD in Psychology from the University of Seville and KU Leuven focusing on trust and trustworthiness in organizations. After studying psychology at the University of Seville, she obtained her MSc at Maastricht University. She has coordinated two large-scale projects for the European Commission, and was co-editor of two handbooks in the Springer Series ‘Industrial relations and conflict management’.

Francisco J. Medina
Fransisco J. Medina is professor in social and organizational psychology, and Dean of the Faculty of Psychology and Educational sciences, at the University of Seville, Spain. His interests are conflict management, mediation and organizational development. He is engaged for many years in the development of labor mediation in Spain, providing training for mediators. He is also an experienced consultant and mediator. Francisco published both internationally and in Spanish extensively on conflict management and mediation.

Martin Euwema
Martin Euwema is professor in organizational psychology, and chair of the research group Organizational and Occupational Psychology and Professional Learning at KU Leuven, Belgium. He is also co-director of the Leuven Center for Collaborative Management and visiting professor at University of Copenhagen, IESEG-Paris, Sevilla, and Tsinghua (Beijing). He has extensive experience as consultant and mediator for both profit and non-profit organizations. His fields of expertise are conflict management, mediation, leadership, and organizational and team development.
Annotatie

Administratief Tribunaal van de Internationale Arbeidsorganisatie dringt zorgplicht op aan Internationaal Strafhof: werkneemsters van het Strafhof mogen flexibel werken om borstvoeding te kunnen geven

ILOAT 28 juni 2017, nr. 3861 (A.L.G./International Criminal Court)

Tijdschrift Arbeidsrechtelijke Annotaties, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden Flexibele arbeidsomstandigheden, Borstvoeding, Internationaal Strafhof, Administratief Tribunaal van de Internationale Arbeidsorganisatie, Zorgplicht
Auteurs Prof. dr. P. Foubert en Drs. F. De Cock
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Het Administratief Tribunaal van de Internationale Arbeidsorganisatie buigt zich over geschillen met werknemers van internationale organisaties. Dit Tribunaal komt twee tot drie keer per jaar samen in Genève om deze geschillen te beslechten. Immers, internationale organisaties genieten verregaande immuniteiten en beschikken over een eigen juridisch kader om de arbeidsrelatie met hun werknemers te regelen. Deze werknemers kunnen niet terecht bij een nationale rechter.
    Het Tribunaal oordeelde dat wanneer een werkneemster tijdelijk flexibele arbeidsomstandigheden vraagt om haar baby borstvoeding te kunnen geven, de internationale organisatie dit niet zonder meer mag weigeren. Doet de internationale organisatie (het Internationaal Strafhof) dat wel, dan wordt het zorgplichtprincipe geschonden. Volgens dit principe moeten internationale organisaties hun werknemers met de nodige zorg en aandacht behandelen teneinde hen onnodig leed te besparen.


Prof. dr. P. Foubert
Prof. dr. P. Foubert studeerde rechten aan de universiteiten van Antwerpen (kandidaat 1991), Leuven (licentiaat 1994, doctor 2001) en Harvard (LL.M. 1999). Zij is hoogleraar aan de Universiteit Hasselt, waar zij ‘Beginselen van het recht’ en ‘Advanced Social Law’ doceert. In haar onderzoek heeft professor Foubert bijzondere aandacht voor de gelijke behandeling in de arbeidsrelatie. Naast haar academische loopbaan is zij eveneens werkzaam als advocaat aan de balie van Leuven.

Drs. F. De Cock
Drs. F. De Cock was de voorbije jaren werkstudent aan de faculteit Rechten van de UHasselt. In 2017 behaalde hij er zijn masterdiploma in de rechten (afstudeerrichting Rechtsbedeling). Sindsdien bereidt hij in de eenheid Sociaal recht een doctoraat voor in het domein van het ‘recht van internationale organisaties’. Bijzondere aandacht gaat hierbij uit naar de rechtspositie van werknemers die bij internationale organisaties zijn tewerkgesteld, meer bepaald vanuit sociaalrechtelijk perspectief. F. De Cock is vooral geïnteresseerd in de werking van internationale administratieve tribunalen, waaronder het Administratief Tribunaal van de Internationale Arbeidsorganisatie.
Article

Access_open The Questionable Legitimacy of the OECD/G20 BEPS Project

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden base erosion and profit shifting, OECD, G20, legitimacy, international tax reform
Auteurs Sissie Fung
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The global financial crisis of 2008 and the following public uproar over offshore tax evasion and corporate aggressive tax planning scandals gave rise to unprecedented international cooperation on tax information exchange and coordination on corporate tax reforms. At the behest of the G20, the OECD developed a comprehensive package of ‘consensus-based’ policy reform measures aimed to curb base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS) by multinationals and to restore fairness and coherence to the international tax system. The legitimacy of the OECD/G20 BEPS Project, however, has been widely challenged. This paper explores the validity of the legitimacy concerns raised by the various stakeholders regarding the OECD/G20 BEPS Project.


Sissie Fung
Ph.D. Candidate at the Erasmus University Rotterdam and independent tax policy consultant to international organisations, including the Asian Development Bank.
Article

Access_open The Peer Review Process of the Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes

A Critical Assessment on Authority and Legitimacy

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information, exercise of regulatory authority, due process requirements, peer review reports, legitimacy
Auteurs Leo E.C. Neve
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Global Forum on transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes has undertaken peer reviews on the implementation of the global standard of exchange of information on request, both from the perspective of formalities available and from the perspective of actual implementation. In the review reports Global Forum advises jurisdictions on required amendments of regulations and practices. With these advices, the Global Forum exercises regulatory authority. The article assesses the legitimacy of the exercise of such authority by the Global Forum and concludes that the exercise of such authority is not legitimate for the reason that the rule of law is abused by preventing jurisdictions to adhere to due process rules.


Leo E.C. Neve
Leo Neve is a doctoral student at the Erasmus School of Law, Rotterdam.
Artikel

Mannen met een hobby

Outlaw motorclubs, nieuwsmedia en imagopolitiek

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2017
Trefwoorden rhetoric, framing, OMG, ethos, news
Auteurs Dr. Willem Koetsenruijter en Dr. Peter Burger
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This study contains a qualitative framing analysis of outlaw motor clubs in Dutch newspaper articles. These clubs appear in the news as a source for positive framing to counterbalance the prevailing organized crime frame. The study shows with what rhetorical means club members are framed and how news media balance a criminal and a non-criminal image. In news articles club members refer to ethical norms and group values, and appear to employ mitigation strategies which take the hard edges off the frame and simultaneously increase their credibility.


Dr. Willem Koetsenruijter
Dr. A.W.M. Koetsenruijter is universitair docent bij de Faculteit der Geesteswetenschappen van de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Peter Burger
Dr. J.P. Burger is universitair docent bij de Faculteit der Geesteswetenschappen van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Mediation on trial: Dutch court judgments on mediation

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 4 2017
Trefwoorden Case law, The Netherlands, Voluntariness, Confidentiality
Auteurs Annie de Roo en Rob Jagtenberg
Auteursinformatie

Annie de Roo
Annie de Roo is associate professor of ADR and comparative law at Erasmus University Law School in Rotterdam, editor-in-chief of TMD, and vice chair of the exams committee of the Mediators Federation of the Netherlands MFN. She has published extensively on mediation and has inter alia been a Rapporteur three times for the European Commission on the use of mediation in employment disputes.

Rob Jagtenberg
Rob Jagtenberg is senior research fellow at Erasmus University and has published frequently on the relationship between public and private justice. He has been involved in research commissioned by the Worldbank, the Netherlands Council for the Judiciary, and various Dutch Ministries including the MoJ funded national project on court-connected mediation.

    It is often claimed in the media and in political and academic debates that more law nurtures more research, which in turn should generate more information. However, the question researchers are left with is: What does this mean for comparative law and its methods? This paper takes the context of European consumer sales law as an example of the web of rules applicable at both European and national level. In this context, the main idea behind this article is that looking at law and research as data to be built upon and used in further analysis can revolutionise the way in which legal research is understood. This is because current research methods in European consumer sales law fall short of systematically analysing the essential weaknesses of the current regulation system. In this contribution, I argue that the volume of regulation in European consumer law is large enough for it to be considered Big Data and analysed in a way that can harness its potential in this respect. I exemplify this claim with a case-study consisting in the setting up of a Convergence Index that maps the converging effect of harmonizing policies adopted by the European legislator in the field of


Catalina Goanta
Assistant Professor of Private Law, Maastricht Law School, Maastricht University, The Netherlands.
Artikel

Enforceability of mediation clauses in Belgium and the Netherlands

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden Enforceability, Mediation clauses, contracts
Auteurs Ellen van Beukering-Rosmuller en Patrick Van Leynseele
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article authors discuss (possible) legal means and methods aimed at making mediation clauses effective and/or enforceable. In particular Belgian and Dutch law are examined. In part attention is also paid to English, French and Italian law. Against the background of recent EU-legislation the validity of mediation clauses is discussed as well, with a focus on consumer related disputes. By reviewing US case law with regard to the duty to participate in good faith in the mediation process, the authors also outline the limits of this concept for the effectiveness of mediation clauses. The central theme of the enforceability of mediation clauses has been looked at both from a procedural as from a financial angle. Substantial differences can be noted between the Belgian and the Dutch approach towards what courts should do when dealing with a dispute in which parties have previously agreed to mediation. Belgian law provides in art. 1725 § 2 Judicial Code that the court, if so requested by the defendant, is in principle obliged to suspend the examination of the case until the mediation has taken place. According to current case law, the situation in the Netherlands is that mediation clauses are in principle not enforceable (Supreme Court 2006). Following the most recent legislative proposal regarding mediation (July 2016) the court should examine whether mediation can still have an added value in case one party refuses to take part in a mediation as provided for in a clause invoked by the other party, prior to (possibly) proposing mediation. Based on the plans repeatedly announced by the Belgian Minister of Justice, it is likely that there will soon be an amendment to the mediation provisions in the Judicial Code that will allow courts to ‘force’ mediation upon the parties, even in the absence of a mediation clause. If this becomes the rule, judges would be well advised to exercise this power with due care. In the authors’ opinion the Dutch approach (as suggested in the most recent legislative proposal) in connection with mediation clauses, consisting in having the court examine whether mediation may (still) have an added value for the parties, could serve as a good guideline for the Belgian judges to use.


Ellen van Beukering-Rosmuller
Ellen J.M. van Beukering-Rosmuller is Universitair Docent Burgerlijk Procesrecht, Universiteit Leiden, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid.

Patrick Van Leynseele
Patrick H. Van Leynseele is lid van de balies van Brussel en New York en partner in het Brussels advocatenkantoor DALDEWOLF, een referentie inzake ADR. Met als achtergrond het ondernemingsrecht werkt hij als litigator en arbiter in internationale zaken. Hij schreef verschillende artikels inzake mediation en Med-Arb in vooraanstaande juridische tijdschriften.
Artikel

Werkdruk en organisatieontwikkeling in de rechtspraak

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden Occupational stress, Dutch judicial organization, Organizational development and change, Judicial autonomy
Auteurs Ivo van Duijneveldt, Peter Wijga en Kirsten van Reisen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    What causes occupational stress in the Dutch judicial organization? And what can be done to moderate the effects? This article addresses these questions from an organizational perspective. The well-known job demand/job control-model (Karasek) and sociotechnical principles for organizational design are used as a theoretical framework. Increasing job demands (workload, complexity) combined with reduced opportunities for individual judicial professionals to control their work are considered root causes for organizational stress. In addition to these factors, the specific characteristics of the judicial organizational culture should also be acknowledged. This culture is based on a strong emphasis on individual professional performance and responsibility, making it a complex task to mitigate occupational stress from an organizational perspective. A short overview of recent developments to manage occupational stress in the Dutch judicial organization concludes the article.


Ivo van Duijneveldt
Ivo van Duijneveldt is als adviseur en onderzoeker verbonden aan organisatieadviesbureau Andersson Elffers Felix. In opdracht van de Raad voor de rechtspraak heeft hij in de periode oktober 2015 tot juni 2016 verdiepend onderzoek uitgevoerd naar verklarende factoren voor werkdruk in de rechtspraak. Dit onderzoek is verschenen onder de titel ‘Naar een vitale organisatie. Duurzaam omgaan met werkdruk binnen de rechtspraak’, in de reeks Research Memoranda van de Raad voor de rechtspraak.

Peter Wijga
Peter Wijga is als adviseur en onderzoeker verbonden aan organisatieadviesbureau Andersson Elffers Felix. In opdracht van de Raad voor de rechtspraak heeft hij in de periode oktober 2015 tot juni 2016 verdiepend onderzoek uitgevoerd naar verklarende factoren voor werkdruk in de rechtspraak. Dit onderzoek is gepubliceerd onder de titel ‘Naar een vitale organisatie. Duurzaam omgaan met werkdruk binnen de rechtspraak’, in de reeks Research Memoranda van de Raad voor de rechtspraak.

Kirsten van Reisen
Kirsten van Reisen is als adviseur en onderzoeker verbonden aan organisatieadviesbureau Andersson Elffers Felix. In opdracht van de Raad voor de rechtspraak heeft zij in de periode oktober 2015 tot juni 2016 verdiepend onderzoek uitgevoerd naar verklarende factoren voor werkdruk in de rechtspraak. Dit onderzoek is gepubliceerd onder de titel ‘Naar een vitale organisatie. Duurzaam omgaan met werkdruk binnen de rechtspraak’, in de reeks Research Memoranda van de Raad voor de rechtspraak.
Article

Access_open Keck in Capital? Redefining ‘Restrictions’ in the ‘Golden Shares’ Case Law

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden Keck, selling arrangements, market access, golden shares, capital
Auteurs Ilektra Antonaki
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The evolution of the case law in the field of free movement of goods has been marked by consecutive changes in the legal tests applied by the Court of Justice of the European Union for the determination of the existence of a trade restriction. Starting with the broad Dassonville and Cassis de Dijon definition of MEEQR (measures having equivalent effect to a quantitative restriction), the Court subsequently introduced the Keck-concept of ‘selling arrangements’, which allowed for more regulatory autonomy of the Member States, but proved insufficient to capture disguised trade restrictions. Ultimately, a refined ‘market access’ test was adopted, qualified by the requirement of a ‘substantial’ hindrance on inter-State trade. Contrary to the free movement of goods, the free movement of capital has not undergone the same evolutionary process. Focusing on the ‘golden shares’ case law, this article questions the broad interpretation of ‘capital restrictions’ and seeks to investigate whether the underlying rationale of striking down any special right that could have a potential deterrent effect on inter-State investment is compatible with the constitutional foundations of negative integration. So far the Court seems to promote a company law regime that endorses shareholders’ primacy, lacking, however, the constitutional and institutional legitimacy to decide on such a highly political question. It is thus suggested that a refined test should be adopted that would capture measures departing from ordinary company law and hindering market access of foreign investors, while at the same time allowing Member States to determine their corporate governance systems.


Ilektra Antonaki
Ilektra Antonaki, LL.M., is a PhD candidate at Leiden University, The Netherlands.

    A cassation court traditionally has two tasks: a unifying task and a corrective task. The unifying task consists of verifying the internal legality of a lower court’s decision (the correct application and interpretation of the law by the lower courts). The corrective task refers to verifying the external legality of the lower court’s decision. The cassation court must ensure that the decisions of the courts concerned are in conformity with the requirements of proper administration of justice. This article focuses on the following question: is it necessary that the Belgian Council of State, acting in the capacity of a cassation court, performs both traditional tasks (corrective and unifying)? This is by no means self-evident, given the specific judicial structure in which the Belgian Council of State operates.


Elsbeth Loncke
Ph.D. at Hasselt University, Belgium, and attorney at the bar of Limburg, Belgium.
Artikel

Understanding judges’ choices of sentence types as interpretative work: An explorative study in a Dutch police court

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden Judicial decision-making, sentencing type, (ir)redeemability, whole case approach
Auteurs Peter Mascini, Irene van Oorschot PhD, Assistant professor Don Weenink e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article critically evaluates the prevailing factor-oriented (e.g. a priori defined legal and extralegal characteristics of defendants) approach in analyses of judicial decision-making. Rather than assuming such factors, we aim to demonstrate how Dutch judges engage in interpretative work to arrive at various sentence types. In their interpretative work, judges attempt to weigh and compare various legal and extralegal features of defendants. Importantly, they do so in the context of the case as a whole, which means that these features do not have independent or fixed meanings. Judges select and weigh information to create an image of defendants’ redeemability. However, extralegal concerns other than redeemability also inform judges’ decisions. We argue that studying the naturally occurring interpretative work of judges results in a better understanding of judicial decision-making than outcome-oriented studies, which view criminal cases as collections of independent legal and extralegal factors.


Peter Mascini
Peter Mascini holds a chair in Empirical Legal Studies at the Erasmus School of Law of the Erasmus University Rotterdam, where he is also associate professor of sociology at the Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences. His research focuses on the legitimization, implementation, and enforcement of laws and policies.

Irene van Oorschot PhD
Irene van Oorschot is a PhD candidate at the Faculty of the Social Sciences at the Erasmus University Rotterdam and will soon start as a postdoctoral researcher at the Anthropology Department of the University of Amsterdam. Drawing on actor network theory and feminist studies of knowledge, her research focuses on legal and scientific modes of truth-production.

Assistant professor Don Weenink
Don Weenink is assistant professor of Sociology at the Department of Sociology at the University of Amsterdam. He has published work on, among other subjects, ethnic inequalities in judicial sentencing.

Gratiëlla Schippers
Gratiëlla Schippers has studied Sociology at the Erasmus University Rotterdam. For her master thesis she has done research about the understanding of judges’ choices of sentence types.
Artikel

Peer_reviewedAccess_open The way to mediation in Belgian administrative procedural law

Tijdschrift Netherlands Administrative Law Library, februari 2016
Auteurs Lise Vandenhende, Brecht Warnez en Prof.dr. Ludo Veny
Samenvatting

    Given the rise of mediation in other legal disciplines and the influence of the EU, the call for mediation is increasing in Belgian administrative practice. Several years ago, the legislature took the first steps towards mediation in the judicial administrative procedure. This contribution is a study of the existing forms of mediation with its limitations and possibilities. Taking these findings into account, a possible mediation framework, applicable in the Belgian legal system, is proposed.


Lise Vandenhende

Brecht Warnez

Prof.dr. Ludo Veny

    In this paper, an attempt is made to work out a methodology for comparative legal research, which goes beyond the ‘functional method’ or methodological scepticism.
    The starting point is the idea that we need a ‘toolbox’, not a fixed methodological road map, and that a lot of published, but largely unnoticed, research outside rule and case oriented comparative law offers varying approaches, which could usefully be applied in comparative research. Six methods have been identified: the functional method, the structural one, the analytical one, the law-in-context method, the historical method, and the common core method. Basically, it is the aim of the research and the research question that will determine which methods could be useful. Moreover, different methods may be combined, as they are complementary and not mutually exclusive.This paper focuses on scholarly comparative legal research, not on the use of foreign law by legislators or courts, but, of course, the methodological questions and answers will largely overlap.


Mark Van Hoecke
Professor of Comparative Law at Queen Mary University of London, and Professor of Legal Theory and Comparative Law at Ghent University
Artikel

The legacy and current relevance of Cappelletti and the Florence project on access to justice

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden definition and dimensions access to justice, recommendations, historic context access to justice, current context access to justice
Auteurs Bernard Hubeau
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution explains what access to justice can encompass and how the ideals about access to justice have developed in time. The way to do this is going back to the work of the famous scholars Cappelletti and Garth, who were responsible for a worldwide project on access to justice in the 1970s. Their main issue was to explain access to justice is more than the access to a judge and the organization of courts. Primarily, the system must be equally accessible to all, irrespective of social or economic status or other incapacity. But it also must lead to results that are individually and socially just and fair. Equal access and effective access are the central notions. Their work is put in perspective. The importance of their legacy and the question how we can get along with their work are stressed. Their definition is compared to a few other authoritative definitions. The waves in the history of access to justice are described and putting them in the current context illustrates why a fourth waved can be observed. The major question to be answered is how one can assess the challenges and obstacles of access to justice in the current context. Therefore, some recent dimensions and developments within access to justice are presented: the democratic dimension, the effectiveness of new social rights, the attention for poor and vulnerable people, further juridification, expanding frontiers of and monitoring access to justice, e-justice, and self-help. Finally, a few building blocks for reforms are presented.


Bernard Hubeau
Bernard Hubeau is a full-time Professor in Sociology and Sociology of Law at the Faculty of Law of the University of Antwerp. He also teaches at the Faculty of Social Sciences of the University of Antwerp and the Faculty of Law and Criminology of the University of Brussels. He is the former ombudsman of the city of Antwerp and of the Flemish Parliament.
Artikel

Merits testing in the English legal aid system: exploring its impact in asylum cases

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden access to justice, asylum seekers, merits testing, English legal aid system
Auteurs Tamara Butter
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In recent years, there has been much discussion on the legal aid cuts and reforms in England and Wales, and the possible consequences this would have on access to justice for vulnerable groups in society, including immigrants and asylum seekers. This contribution focuses on one element of the English legal aid system: merits testing by legal aid providers in asylum cases. It explores whether and, if so, how this aspect may affect the access to justice for asylum seekers lacking the financial means to pay privately for legal assistance and representation. The findings indicate that a merits test which makes access to legal aid on appeal conditional upon a case having at least 50% prospect of success and makes legal aid providers responsible for conducting this assessment may compromise asylum seekers’ ability to achieve justice both within and outside the existing body of law.


Tamara Butter
Tamara Butter is a PhD candidate at the Institute for Sociology of Law/Centre for Migration Law of the Radboud University of Nijmegen. Her research consists of a comparative case study into the professional decision making of asylum legal aid lawyers in the Netherlands and England.
Artikel

Access to justice in consumer law

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden consumer law, enforcement of consumer rights, costs of procedure, obstacles for enforcement
Auteurs Marco Loos
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In many areas of private law, mandatory substantive law protects consumers. In this contribution, I will argue that awarding consumer rights without properly regulating the consumer’s access to the court system renders these rights unenforceable through the ordinary courts. Several obstacles to the proper enforcement of consumer rights by individuals are identified, ranging from consumers’ lack of knowledge of their rights to the formalities of proceedings, the use of complex jargon and the costs involved in court procedures. It is argued that these obstacles produce such disincentives for consumers to maintain their rights that the result is that they do so in an insufficient manner, which leads to under-enforcement of consumer law.


Marco Loos
Marco Loos is Professor of Private Law, in particular of European consumer law, at the Centre for the Study of European Contract Law of the University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands and member of the Board of the Ius Commune Research School.
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