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Zoekresultaat: 1009 artikelen


Dismissal protection in Denmark

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Ontslagrecht, Aflevering 4 2021
Trefwoorden protection against dismissal, flexicurity, industrial relations, social security, dynamic and adjustable labour market
Auteurs mr. dr. Natalie Munkholm

    The article gives an overview of the protection against dismissal according to Danish statutory acts and collective agreements.

mr. dr. Natalie Munkholm
Natalie Munkholm is werkzaam als associate professor Labour Law aan de Aarhus Universiteit, Denemarken.

Access_open Hardship and Force Majeure as Grounds for Adaptation and Renegotiation of Investment Contracts

What Is the Extent of the Powers of Arbitral Tribunals?

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden contract adaptation, hardship, force majeure, investment contracts, arbitration
Auteurs Agata Zwolankiewicz

    The change of circumstances impacting the performance of the contracts has been a widely commented issue. However, there seems to be a gap in legal jurisprudence with regard to resorting to such a remedy in the investment contracts setting, especially from the procedural perspective. It has not been finally settled whether arbitral tribunals are empowered to adapt investment contracts should circumstances change and, if they were, what the grounds for such a remedy would be. In this article, the author presents the current debates regarding this issue, potential grounds for application of such a measure and several proposals which would facilitate resolution of this procedural uncertainty.

Agata Zwolankiewicz
Agata Zwolankiewicz is an advocate trainee, graduated from the University of Silesia in Katowice (M.A. in law), and the University of Ottawa (LL.M. with concentration in international trade and foreign investment).

Access_open The Common Law Remedy of Habeas Corpus Through the Prism of a Twelve-Point Construct

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Habeas corpus, common law, detainee, consitution, liberty
Auteurs Chuks Okpaluba en Anthony Nwafor

    Long before the coming of the Bill of Rights in written Constitutions, the common law has had the greatest regard for the personal liberty of the individual. In order to safeguard that liberty, the remedy of habeas corpus was always available to persons deprived of their liberty unlawfully. This ancient writ has been incorporated into the modern Constitution as a fundamental right and enforceable as other rights protected by virtue of their entrenchment in those Constitutions. This article aims to bring together the various understanding of habeas corpus at common law and the principles governing the writ in common law jurisdictions. The discussion is approached through a twelve-point construct thus providing a brief conspectus of the subject matter, such that one could have a better understanding of the subject as applied in most common law jurisdictions.

Chuks Okpaluba
Chuks Okpaluba, LLB LLM (London), PhD (West Indies), is a Research Fellow at the Free State Centre for Human Rights, University of the Free State, South Africa. Email:

Anthony Nwafor
Anthony O. Nwafor, LLB, LLM, (Nigeria), PhD (UniJos), BL, is Professor at the School of Law, University of Venda, South Africa. Email:

Access_open The Role of the Vienna Rules in the Interpretation of the ECHR

A Normative Basis or a Source of Inspiration?

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden European Convention on Human Rights, European Court of Human Rights, techniques of interpretation, the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties
Auteurs Eszter Polgári

    The interpretive techniques applied by the European Court of Human Rights are instrumental in filling the vaguely formulated rights-provisions with progressive content, and their use provoked widespread criticism. The article argues that despite the scarcity of explicit references to the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, all the ECtHR’s methods and doctrines of interpretation have basis in the VCLT, and the ECtHR has not developed a competing framework. The Vienna rules are flexible enough to accommodate the interpretive rules developed in the ECHR jurisprudence, although effectiveness and evolutive interpretation is favoured – due to the unique nature of Convention – over the more traditional means of interpretation, such as textualism. Applying the VCLT as a normative framework offers unique ways of reconceptualising some of the much-contested means of interpretation in order to increase the legitimacy of the ECtHR.

Eszter Polgári
Eszter Polgári, PhD, is assistant professor at the Department of Legal Studies of the Central European University in Austria.

Pragmatische vreemdelingenrechters

Over rolverschuiving van vreemdelingenrechters als gevolg van de coronamaatregelen

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Judiciary, COVID-19, Online hearing, Fair trial
Auteurs Karen Geertsema, Yasemin Glasgow, Ashley Terlouw e.a.

    In this contribution we investigated:

    1. What changes in the handling of immigration law suits has the corona pandemic led to?

    2. What influence have these changes had on the role of first-line migra­tion judges?

      1. Has their working method been adjusted as a result of the corona measures? If so, does this still fit in their view and that of the parties to the proceedings within the requirements of a fair trial and the professional standards that apply to judges?

      2. Do the changes in working ­methods require different skills from migration judges?

      3. Are the changes in the handling of cases and the way of working, temporary or permanent?

Karen Geertsema
Karen Geertsema is docent migratierecht, afdeling rechtssociologie en migratierecht, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, onderzoeker in het project ‘gevolgen van de coronacrisis voor de rechtspraak en positie van kwetsbare rechtzoekenden’.

Yasemin Glasgow
Yasemin Glasgow is junior onderzoeker (met een mastertitel in jeugdrecht aan de Universiteit Leiden), afdeling rechtssociologie en migratierecht, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, junior onderzoeker in het project ‘gevolgen van de coronacrisis voor de rechtspraak en positie van kwetsbare rechtzoekenden’.

Ashley Terlouw
Ashley Terlouw is hoogleraar rechtssociologie, vaksectievoorzitter CMR/rechtssociologie en voorzitter van het onderzoekscentrum voor Staat en Recht (SteR). Tevens is zij onderzoeker in het project ‘gevolgen van de coronacrisis voor de rechtspraak en positie van kwetsbare rechtzoekenden’.

Marijke ter Voert
Marijke ter Voert is hoogleraar Empirical Legal Studies, Radboud universiteit Nijmegen. Tevens is zij projectleider van het project ‘gevolgen van de coronacrisis voor de rechtspraak en positie van kwetsbare rechtzoekenden’.

Tussen partijautonomie en ­ongelijkheidscompensatie: hoe kantonrechters omgaan met niet-vertegenwoordigde partijen

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Self-representation, Party autonomy, Equality of arms, Judging, Civil procedure
Auteurs Jos Hoevenaars

    This article focuses on the impact of the (increasing) possibility for parties in Dutch civil cases to litigate without the guidance of a legal aid provider on Dutch civil procedure. It analyses the extent to which such self-representation influences the role of the judge in the context of Dutch subdistrict court procedures, where representation is not mandatory. Through empirical data, collected through semi-structured interviews with 26 subdistrict judges, more insight is gained into the dilemmas that the lack of representation of parties presents to judges, and the ways in which they deal with these dilemmas. The interviews show how judges seek a balance between their role as neutral arbitrator in a dispute and a more active role necessitated by parties not being represented by a legal aid provider. In doing so, they navigate between process and content. Within this dynamic, judges must constantly balance the trade-off between acting more actively to gather sufficient information for a substantive handling and assessment of the case, on the one hand, and safeguarding the limits of party autonomy and their own (perceived) neutrality, on the other. Full party autonomy is viewed by judges as unrealistic and, moreover, contrary to truth-finding.

Jos Hoevenaars
Jos Hoevenaars is postdoctoraal onderzoeker aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Dit onderzoek maakt deel uit van het ERC consolidator project ‘Building EU Civil Justice: challenges of procedural innovations – bridging access to justice’ (Grant Agreement No.726032),

Papa krijgt straf

Aandacht voor vaderschap in Nederlandse strafvonnissen

Tijdschrift Boom Strafblad, Aflevering 5 2021
Trefwoorden Straftoemeting, Vaderschap, Rechtspraakanalyse, Ouderschap, Kinderen van gedetineerden
Auteurs Dr. J. (Joni) Reef en mr. M.R. (Rachèl) Jansen-de Wilde MSc

    Wanneer een vader een vrijheidsstraf krijgt heeft dit veelal grote impact op betrokken vaderschap. De Raad van Europa vroeg in 2018 aandacht voor het thema omdat bewustwording van vaderschap in de strafrechtsketen leed en risico kan voorkomen in gezinnen van gedetineerden. Wij onderzochten in hoeverre er in Nederland gezinsgericht gewerkt wordt in de straftoemeting met betrekking tot verdachte mannen. We concluderen dat in zittingen meer aandacht besteed moet worden aan de rol van de verdachte man binnen zijn gezin.

Dr. J. (Joni) Reef
Joni Reef is universitair docent criminologie bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

mr. M.R. (Rachèl) Jansen-de Wilde MSc
Rachèl Jansen-de Wilde is Beleidsmedewerker Kwaliteit & Onderzoek bij het Landelijk Parket van het Openbaar Ministerie.

    Op 29 juni 2021 veroordeelde de rechtbank Den Haag een Nederlandse vrouw, die vanuit Nederland op sociale media materiaal van IS had gedeeld en uit Syrië afkomstige video’s waarop schendingen van het humanitair oorlogsrecht te zien waren had becommentarieerd, voor onder meer deelname aan een criminele organisatie en het oorlogsmisdrijf van aanranding van de persoonlijke waardigheid. Dit artikel gaat in op de voornoemde aspecten van de uitspraak en bespreekt de interactie tussen het humanitair oorlogsrecht en het strafrecht, specifiek ten aanzien van het geografische, temporele en persoonlijke toepassingsbereik van het humanitair oorlogsrecht.

Prof. mr. dr. M.C. (Marten) Zwanenburg
Prof. mr. dr. M.C. Zwanenburg is hoogleraar militair recht aan de Faculteit Militaire Wetenschappen van de Nederlandse Defensie Academie.

Mr. R.J. (Rogier) Bartels
Mr. R.J. Bartels is legal officer in de Chambers van het Internationaal Strafhof en tijdelijk verbonden aan de Nederlandse Defensie Academie als universitair docent.

Digital investigation powers and privacy

Recent ECtHR case law and implications for the modernisation of the Code of Criminal Procedure

Tijdschrift Boom Strafblad, Aflevering 4 2021
Trefwoorden Right to respect for private life, European Court of Human Rights, Digital investigation powers, Modernisation of the Code of Criminal Procedure, Regulation
Auteurs Prof. mr. M.F.H. (Marianne) Hirsch Ballin en Dr. mr. M. (Maša) Galič

    With the Modernisation of the Code of Criminal Procedure, certain digital investigation powers will for the first time be given a specific statutory basis, such as the search of data carriers, open-source investigation and network searches. Nevertheless, considering the high degree of intrusiveness of such techniques, particularly with the right to privacy, it remains important to take note of the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights, which continues to set minimum safeguards for the interference with private life. In this paper, we therefore conduct a brief overview of recent ECtHR case law concerning five types of digital investigation powers. We then consider the implications of this case law for the regulation of such powers in the draft Code of Criminal Procedure and for the Modernisation process more broadly.

Prof. mr. M.F.H. (Marianne) Hirsch Ballin
Marianne Hirsch Ballin is professor of Criminal Law and Criminal Procedure at Vrije Univeristeit Amsterdam and member of the editorial board of this journal.

Dr. mr. M. (Maša) Galič
Maša Galič is assistant professor Criminal Law and Criminal Procedure at Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Access_open Een probleem rondom het nemo tenetur-beginsel?

Tijdschrift Boom Strafblad, Aflevering 4 2021
Trefwoorden nemo tenetur-beginsel, zwijgrecht, zelfincriminatie, strafprocesrecht, eerlijk proces
Auteurs Mr. dr. J.S. (Joost) Nan

    Het recht van een verdachte om niet mee te hoeven werken aan zijn eigen veroordeling (het nemo tenetur-beginsel), is samen met het zwijgrecht een hoeksteen in ons strafprocesrecht. Voor het positieve recht is het echter nog steeds geen uitgemaakte zaak wat de inhoud van het beginsel precies is. Toch kan men daarover duidelijk een divergentie waarnemen tussen de opvatting van de Nederlandse (hoogste) rechters en het EHRM.

Mr. dr. J.S. (Joost) Nan
Joost Nan is universitair hoofddocent straf(proces)recht bij EUR en (cassatie)advocaat bij Wladimiroff Advocaten.

De Digital Markets Act als instrument voor het mededingingsbeleid in perspectief

Tijdschrift Markt & Mededinging, Aflevering 4-5 2021
Trefwoorden Digital Markets Act, regulering, mededingingsbeleid, online platforms, type I-fouten
Auteurs Ben Schroeter en Anne-Claire Hoyng

    In dit artikel hebben wij betoogd dat het DMA-voorstel van de Commissie te veelomvattend en te rigide is. Dit zal waarschijnlijk resulteren in hoge kosten in verband met type I-fouten. Wij geloven echter dat deze tekortkoming met een paar gerichte wijzigingen kan worden verholpen. Met name moet in de DMA-aanwijzingscriteria afhankelijkheid als kernvoorwaarde worden vermeld en moet multi-homing als kwalitatief criterium worden toegevoegd. Bovendien dienen de verplichtingen meer op maat worden toegepast met een afzonderlijke zwarte en grijze lijst, zoals oorspronkelijk de bedoeling was. Met deze wijzigingen zijn wij ervan overtuigd dat de DMA een waardevolle bijdrage zal leveren aan het mededingingsbeleid en een einde zal maken aan een periode van structurele onderhandhaving.

Ben Schroeter
B. Schroeter MSc is Director Public Affairs & Strategic Engagement van

Anne-Claire Hoyng
A.C. Hoyng PhD was ten tijde van het schrijven van dit artikel Director Global Competition and Consumer Law van

Evaluatie pilot geïntegreerde aanpak huiselijk geweld

Lessons to be learned?

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 5 2021
Trefwoorden huiselijk geweld, pilot Rotterdam, maatschappelijk effectieve rechtspraak, integrale aanpak
Auteurs Mariëlle Bruning, Wendy Buysse en Nynke Piepers

    In the Netherlands, domestic violence cases are often heard in criminal court by a single judge. In these cases usually the family is usually confronted with multiple problems related to divorce or separation, child protection issues, financial problems, psychological problems or addiction and aggression problems that can lead to various legal proceedings with different judges. The District Court of Rotterdam has started a pilot ‘integrated approach to domestic violence’. In this paper results of the pilot evaluation are presented in relation to recent developments of the judiciary to focus on effective problem solving courts.

Mariëlle Bruning
Prof. mr. drs. M.R. Bruning is hoogleraar Jeugdrecht aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Wendy Buysse
Dr. W.H. Buysse is onderzoeker bij DSP-groep.

Nynke Piepers
N. Piepers is onderzoeker bij DSP-groep.

Access_open Text-mining for Lawyers: How Machine Learning Techniques Can Advance our Understanding of Legal Discourse

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden text mining, machine learning, law, natural language processing
Auteurs Arthur Dyevre

    Many questions facing legal scholars and practitioners can be answered only by analysing and interrogating large collections of legal documents: statutes, treaties, judicial decisions and law review articles. I survey a range of novel techniques in machine learning and natural language processing – including topic modelling, word embeddings and transfer learning – that can be applied to the large-scale investigation of legal texts

Arthur Dyevre
Arthur Dyevre is Professor at the KU Leuven Centre for Empirical Jurisprudence, Leuven, Belgium.

Access_open Big Data Ethics: A Life Cycle Perspective

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden big data, big data analysis, data life cycle, ethics, AI
Auteurs Simon Vydra, Andrei Poama, Sarah Giest e.a.

    The adoption of big data analysis in the legal domain is a recent but growing trend that highlights ethical concerns not just with big data analysis, as such, but also with its deployment in the legal domain. This article systematically analyses five big data use cases from the legal domain utilising a pluralistic and pragmatic mode of ethical reasoning. In each case we analyse what happens with data from its creation to its eventual archival or deletion, for which we utilise the concept of ‘data life cycle’. Despite the exploratory nature of this article and some limitations of our approach, the systematic summary we deliver depicts the five cases in detail, reinforces the idea that ethically significant issues exist across the entire big data life cycle, and facilitates understanding of how various ethical considerations interact with one another throughout the big data life cycle. Furthermore, owing to its pragmatic and pluralist nature, the approach is potentially useful for practitioners aiming to interrogate big data use cases.

Simon Vydra
Simon Vydra is a Researcher at the Institute for Public Administration, Leiden University, the Netherlands.

Andrei Poama
Andrei Poama is Assistant Professor at the Institute for Public Administration, Leiden University, the Netherlands.

Sarah Giest
Sarah Giest is Assistant Professor at the Institute for Public Administration, Leiden University, the Netherlands.

Alex Ingrams
Alex Ingrams is Assistant Professor at the Institute for Public Administration, Leiden University, the Netherlands.

Bram Klievink
Bram Klievink is Professor of Digitization and Public Policy at the Institute for Public Administration, Leiden University, the Netherlands.

Annie de Roo
Dr. Annie de Roo is als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan Erasmus University Law School Rotterdam. Zij is hoofdredacteur van TMD en vicevoorzitter van SKM Examencommissie Mediatorsfederatie Nederland. Haar aandachtsgebied in onderwijs en onderzoek is rechtsvergelijking, met accent op geschiloplossing in vergelijkend perspectief.

Access_open The Child’s Contact with Grandparents

Tijdschrift Family & Law, september 2021
Trefwoorden Family life, Best interest of the child, Contact rights, Grandchildren, Grandparents
Auteurs prof. M. Holdgaard

    Grandparents hand down their experiences, knowledge, traditions and values to their grandchildren. As a high level of grandparental involvement may play an important role in a child’s well-being, legal protection of that family relation may be in the best interest of a given child. There is a continuing interaction between family law, cultural and social norms of what constitutes a family and how family life should be, and actual family practices and structures. Due to changing family patterns combined with an increasing number of divorces and cohabiting couples with children splitting up grandparents now play an increasing role in their grandchildren’s lives. Children become members within other types of family structures, e.g. single parents (raising half-siblings), families with yours and/or mine (and joint) children etc. When a child’s family includes a step-parent with children and step-grandparents – as well as the biological parents and grandparents – a potential risk of conflict among the family members is high. Grandparents, therefore, risk losing contact or having less contact than they had previously. At first glance, there might appear to be little reason for society to regulate the practices of grandparents as providers of non-formalized childcare or to protect the rights of children in these relationships. However, due to the changing family practices and social norms, one could argue that the legal protection of contact between grandparents and grandchildren is an important legal topic in domestic law and in academic discussions in the coming years. This article articulates these issues by framing three articles that together create a thematic map in this journal on Spanish and Catalan law, and Scandinavian law as well as the grandparents’ right to maintain contact with their grandchildren under the European Convention on Human Rights seen in a context of the best interest of the child.

prof. M. Holdgaard
Marianne Holdgaard is Professor in family and inheritance law at the School of Law, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Aalborg

Access_open Enhanced Contact Rights for Grandparents? A Critical View from Spanish and Catalan Laws

Tijdschrift Family & Law, september 2021
Trefwoorden Contact with grandchildren, Best interest of the child, Parental responsibilities
Auteurs prof. dr. J. Ribot Igualada

    This article examines how Spanish and Catalan laws deal with claims of grandparents who seek contact with their grandchildren against the will of one or both parents, and the scope given to their rights. It starts by explaining the content and the goals of the legal reforms enacted in Spain at the beginning of the 21st century to promote grandparents’ interests. Then, it presents the case law developed in the interpretation of the relevant legal rules. The resulting state of the law is assessed, taking into account the interests of all the parties involved (parents, grandparents, and grandchildren). The experience of more than twenty years of application of the specific provisions concerning grandparents’ contact rights sheds light on the impact of giving grandparents stronger legal rights. However, it also prompts the question of whether this legislative choice might have brought about useless and potentially harmful litigation.

prof. dr. J. Ribot Igualada
Jordi Ribot Igualada is Professor of Civil Law at the Institute of European and Comparative Law and Director of the Institute of European and Comparative Private Law (University of Girona).

Access_open Grandparents’ and grandchildren's right to contact under the European Convention on Human Rights

Tijdschrift Family & Law, september 2021
Trefwoorden Grandparents, Grandchildren, Family life, Contact, Best interests of the child, Child's views
Auteurs Prof. K. Sandberg

    The article explores the extent of the right to family life under Article 8 ECHR with regard to contact between grandparents and grandchildren. An analysis of decisions from the European Court of Human Rights shows that although such a right may exist, it is not strong and depends heavily on the circumstances of the specific case. The article points to what seems to be an inconsistency in the Courts approach to these cases and questions the position of the children and their views and best interests.

Prof. K. Sandberg
Kirsten Sandberg is Professor of Law at the University of Oslo Faculty of Law.

Kroniek ondernemingsstrafrecht

Eerste helft 2021

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Bijzonder Strafrecht & Handhaving, Aflevering 4 2021
Auteurs Prof. mr. H.J.B. Sackers (red.), mr. J.S. Boeser, mr. J. Boonstra e.a.

Prof. mr. H.J.B. Sackers (red.)

mr. J.S. Boeser

mr. J. Boonstra

mr. dr. S.S. Buisman

mr. A.A. Feenstra

mr. K.M.T. Helwegen

mr. A.C.M. Klaasse

mr. dr. I. Koopmans

mr. V.S.Y. Liem

prof. mr. M. Nelemans

mr. dr. J.S. Nan

mr. dr. drs. B. van de Vorm

mr. dr. W.S. de Zanger

Access_open Computational Methods for Legal Analysis

The Way Forward?

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden computational legal analysis, empirical legal studies, natural language processing, machine learning
Auteurs Elena Kantorowicz-Reznichenko

    Computational analysis can be seen as the most recent innovation in the field of Empirical Legal Studies (ELS). It concerns the use of computer science and big data tools to collect, analyse and understand the large and unstructured data, such as for instance (legal) text. Given that the text is now the object of analysis, but the methods are (largely) quantitative, it lies in the intersection between doctrinal analysis and ELS. It brings with it not only a great potential to scale up research and answer old research questions, but also to reveal uncovered patterns and address new questions. Despite a slowly growing number of legal scholars who are already applying such methods, it is underutilised in the field of law. Furthermore, given that this method comes from social and computer sciences, many legal scholars are not even aware of its existence and potential. Therefore, the purpose of this special issue is not only to introduce these methods to lawyers and discuss possibilities of their application, but also to pay special attention to the challenges, with a specific emphasis on the ethical issues arising from using ‘big data’ and the challenge of building capacity to use such methods in law schools. This editorial briefly explains some of the methods which belong to the new movement of Computational Legal Analysis and provides examples of their application. It then introduces those articles included in this special issue. Finally, it provides a personal note on the way forward for lawyers within the movement of Computational Legal Analysis

Elena Kantorowicz-Reznichenko
Elena Kantorowicz-Reznichenko is Professor of Quantitative Empirical Legal Studies at the Rotterdam Institute of Law and Economics, Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus University, Rotterdam.
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