Zoekresultaat: 28 artikelen

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Article

Access_open Can Non-discrimination Law Change Hearts and Minds?

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden law and society, social change, discrimination, non-discrimination law, positive action
Auteurs Anita Böcker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A question that has preoccupied sociolegal scholars for ages is whether law can change ‘hearts and minds’. This article explores whether non-discrimination law can create social change, and, more particularly, whether it can change attitudes and beliefs as well as external behaviour. The first part examines how sociolegal scholars have theorised about the possibility and desirability of using law as an instrument of social change. The second part discusses the findings of empirical research on the social working of various types of non-discrimination law. What conclusions can be drawn about the ability of non-discrimination law to create social change? What factors influence this ability? And can non-discrimination law change people’s hearts and minds as well as their behaviour? The research literature does not provide an unequivocal answer to the latter question. However, the overall picture emerging from the sociolegal literature is that law is generally more likely to bring about changes in external behaviour and that it can influence attitudes and beliefs only indirectly, by altering the situations in which attitudes and opinions are formed.


Anita Böcker
Anita Böcker is associate professor of Sociology of Law at Radboud University, Nijmegen.
Institutioneel recht

Anomalie of de aankondiging van een omwenteling?

Het EU-stelsel van rechtsbescherming na Rimšēvičs

Tijdschrift Nederlands tijdschrift voor Europees recht, Aflevering 7-8 2019
Trefwoorden EMU, onafhankelijkheid, rechterlijke bevoegdheden, rechtsstaat, direct beroep
Auteurs Mr. dr. A. van den Brink
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In de zaak Rimšēvičs vernietigde het Hof van Justitie voor het eerst een besluit van een nationaal overheidsorgaan. Het ging om het ontslag van de president van de Letse centrale bank. De vernietiging doorbreekt de klassieke bevoegdheidsverdeling tussen het Hof van Justitie en nationale rechters, maar is gebaseerd op een bijzondere bepaling uit het EMU-recht. Betreft het om die reden een geïsoleerd geval, of kan de uitspraak bredere implicaties krijgen?
    HvJ 26 februari 2019, gevoegde zaken C-202/18 (Rimšēvičs/Letland) en C-238/18 (ECB/Letland), ECLI:EU:C:2019:139.


Mr. dr. A. van den Brink
Mr. dr. A. (Ton) van den Brink is Jean Monnet professor EU-wetgevingsleer en is als universitair hoofddocent Europees recht verbonden aan het Utrecht Centre for Shared Regulation and Enforcement in Europe – RENFORCE van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Article

Access_open Mercosur: Limits of Regional Integration

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden Mercosur, European Union, regionalism, integration, international organisation
Auteurs Ricardo Caichiolo
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This study is focused on the evaluation of successes and failures of the Common Market of the South (Mercosur). This analysis of Mercosur’s integration seeks to identify the reasons why the bloc has stagnated in an incomplete customs union condition, although it was originally created to achieve a common market status. To understand the evolution of Mercosur, the study offers some thoughts about the role of the European Union (EU) as a model for regional integration. Although an EU-style integration has served as a model, it does not necessarily set the standards by which integration can be measured as we analyse other integration efforts. However, the case of Mercosur is emblematic: during its initial years, Mercosur specifically received EU technical assistance to promote integration according to EU-style integration. Its main original goal was to become a common market, but so far, almost thirty years after its creation, it remains an imperfect customs union.
    The article demonstrates the extent to which almost thirty years of integration in South America could be considered a failure, which would be one more in a list of previous attempts of integration in Latin America, since the 1960s. Whether it is a failure or not, it is impossible to envisage EU-style economic and political integration in South America in the foreseeable future. So far, member states, including Brazil, which could supposedly become the engine of economic and political integration in South America, have remained sceptical about the possibility of integrating further politically and economically. As member states suffer political and economic turmoil, they have concentrated on domestic recovery before being able to dedicate sufficient time and energy to being at the forefront of integration.


Ricardo Caichiolo
Ricardo Caichiolo, PhD (Université catholique de Louvain, Belgium) is legal and legislative adviser to the Brazilian Senate and professor and coordinator of the post graduate programs on Public Policy, Government Relations and Law at Ibmec (Instituto Brasileiro de Mercado de Capitais, Brazil).
Artikel

Empiricism as an ethical enterprise. On the work of Erhard Blankenburg

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Empiricism, Erhard Blankenburg, mobilization of law, legal instruments, problems and disputes
Auteurs Prof. dr. Pieter Ippel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article gives an interpretation of the empirical work of the well-known sociologist of law Erhard Blankenburg, who passed away in the Spring of 2018. He conducted interesting and intelligent research on the process of ‘mobilization of law’. The thesis of this article is that Blankenburg’s empirical approach is actually guided and stimulated by normative considerations. A complete and coherent picture of the concrete utilization of legal instruments shows that ‘alternative’ ways of dealing with problems and disputes are often morally preferable as they are inspired by a realistic assessment of persons-in-a-social-context.


Prof. dr. Pieter Ippel
Pieter Ippel is professor of law at University College Roosevelt (Middelburg) and Utrecht University. He studied philosophy, criminology and Dutch Law. From 1981-1987 he worked as an assistant with Erhard Blankenburg and finished his PhD in 1989. From 1989-1995 he worked as a civil servant in The Hague and from 1995-2005 he was professor of jurisprudence in Utrecht.

    It is often claimed in the media and in political and academic debates that more law nurtures more research, which in turn should generate more information. However, the question researchers are left with is: What does this mean for comparative law and its methods? This paper takes the context of European consumer sales law as an example of the web of rules applicable at both European and national level. In this context, the main idea behind this article is that looking at law and research as data to be built upon and used in further analysis can revolutionise the way in which legal research is understood. This is because current research methods in European consumer sales law fall short of systematically analysing the essential weaknesses of the current regulation system. In this contribution, I argue that the volume of regulation in European consumer law is large enough for it to be considered Big Data and analysed in a way that can harness its potential in this respect. I exemplify this claim with a case-study consisting in the setting up of a Convergence Index that maps the converging effect of harmonizing policies adopted by the European legislator in the field of


Catalina Goanta
Assistant Professor of Private Law, Maastricht Law School, Maastricht University, The Netherlands.
Artikel

Eerste uitspraak over de rolverdeling tussen de Europese Centrale Bank en nationale toezichthouders binnen het Single Supervisory Mechanism

Tijdschrift Nederlands tijdschrift voor Europees recht, Aflevering 7 2017
Trefwoorden SSM-bankentoezicht, prudentieel toezicht, Europese Centrale Bank, nationale toezichthouders, Administrative Board of Review (ABoR)
Auteurs Mr. A.W.M. van Toor
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Het eerste arrest over de rolverdeling tussen de Europese Centrale Bank (ECB) en de nationale toezichthouders binnen het Single Supervisory Mechanism (SSM) is van principiële aard. Het Gerecht oordeelt dat het SSM-bankentoezicht een exclusieve bevoegdheid van de ECB is en dat de nationale toezichthouders deze taak ten aanzien van niet-significante banken decentraal uitoefenen. Hoewel dit oordeel voor de hand lag, doet het vragen rijzen over de uitoefening van nationale bevoegdheden door de ECB en over de ministeriële verantwoordelijkheid voor het SSM-toezicht van de nationale toezichthouder. Verder verduidelijkt het arrest de betekenis van de adviezen van de Administrative Board of Review (ABoR) voor de motivering van ECB-toezichtbesluiten.
    Gerecht 16 mei 2017, zaak T-122/15, Landeskreditbank Baden-Württemberg/ECB (L-Bank), ECLI:EU:T:2017:337


Mr. A.W.M. van Toor
Mr. A.W.M. (Anne) van Toor is jurist bij De Nederlandsche Bank N.V. Zij schrijft dit artikel op persoonlijke titel.
Artikel

Access_open De rol van alternatieve handhaving in het mededingingstoezicht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Toezicht, Aflevering 1-2 2017
Trefwoorden handhaving, mededinging, toezichtstrategie, informele handhaving, preventieve interventie
Auteurs Eva Lachnit
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In deze bijdrage worden enkele alternatieve handhavingsinstrumenten geanalyseerd zoals zij gebruikt worden door de Nederlandse Autoriteit Consument en Markt (ACM), de Britse Competition and Markets Authority (CMA) en de Franse Autorité de la Concurrence (de Autorité). Echter, hierbij ligt de focus niet op de individuele, juridische analyse van ieder handhavingsinstrument, maar op de relatie tussen handhavingsinstrumenten, onderliggende strategie, en toezichthouder. Het uiteindelijke doel van deze bijdrage is om te illustreren wat de gevolgen kunnen zijn van een brede toepassing van alternatieve handhavingsinstrumenten vanuit het perspectief van toezicht. Hierbij zullen er, met name in de concluderende paragrafen, conclusies worden getrokken die bruikbaar zijn voor het toepassen van alternatieve handhaving buiten het mededingingstoezicht.


Eva Lachnit
Mr. dr. E.S. Lachnit is universitair docent Economisch Publiekrecht bij de Universiteit Utrecht. Zij promoveerde in september op het proefschrift Alternative Enforcement of Competition Law en doet onderzoek en advisering op het gebied van toezicht- en handhavingsstrategieën van toezichthouders in brede zin.

    In the theory, legislation and practice of regulation and conduct of administrative procedures, trends towards the concept of good administration can be detected at both supra- and national levels. Based on normative and comparative-legal analyses of Slovene (1999), Croatian (2009) and the EP Resolution (2013) administrative procedure acts (APAs), the article identifies user-oriented institutions that pursue the principles of good administration. Furthermore, it examines acceleration and braking mechanisms that influence the duration of procedures (e.g. setting and shortening time limits, positive fiction, preclusions, and enforcement of procedural errors, broader participation of affected parties, legal protection). Timely and efficient decision-making viewed as a human right with balanced protection of public and private legal interests is in fact crucial for achieving good administration. Hence, in conclusion, the authors propose selected changes de lege ferenda for the reregulation of APAs in Slovenia and beyond, in support of less excessive length of procedures.


Tina Sever

Polonca Kovac
Artikel

Een doelmatigheidsonderzoek naar de maatstaf van de gemiddelde consument

Proefschrift van mr. B.B. Duivenvoorde

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Vermogensrecht, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden maatman, gemiddelde consument, Richtlijn oneerlijke handelspraktijken, misleidende handelspraktijk, consumentenrecht
Auteurs Mr. dr. drs. C.M.D.S. Pavillon
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    De Europese ‘gemiddelde consument’-maatstaf bemoeilijkt de realisering van de door de Richtlijn oneerlijke handelspraktijken nagestreefde doelstellingen van consumentenbescherming, interne markt en eerlijke concurrentie. Onderhavige bijdrage bespreekt hoe Duivenvoorde in zijn proefschrift tot deze conclusie komt en spiegelt de wijze waarop de Nederlandse rechter omgaat met de consumentmaatstaf aan zijn bevindingen.


Mr. dr. drs. C.M.D.S. Pavillon
Mr. dr. drs. C.M.D.S. Pavillon is universitair docent burgerlijk recht aan de Universiteit Leiden.

    In this paper, an attempt is made to work out a methodology for comparative legal research, which goes beyond the ‘functional method’ or methodological scepticism.
    The starting point is the idea that we need a ‘toolbox’, not a fixed methodological road map, and that a lot of published, but largely unnoticed, research outside rule and case oriented comparative law offers varying approaches, which could usefully be applied in comparative research. Six methods have been identified: the functional method, the structural one, the analytical one, the law-in-context method, the historical method, and the common core method. Basically, it is the aim of the research and the research question that will determine which methods could be useful. Moreover, different methods may be combined, as they are complementary and not mutually exclusive.This paper focuses on scholarly comparative legal research, not on the use of foreign law by legislators or courts, but, of course, the methodological questions and answers will largely overlap.


Mark Van Hoecke
Professor of Comparative Law at Queen Mary University of London, and Professor of Legal Theory and Comparative Law at Ghent University
Redactioneel

How to look at access to justice?

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2015
Auteurs Bernard Hubeau, Ashley Terlouw en Mies Westerveld
Auteursinformatie

Bernard Hubeau
Bernard Hubeau is a full-time Professor in Sociology and Sociology of Law at the Faculty of Law of the University of Antwerp. He also teaches at the Faculty of Social Sciences of the University of Antwerp and the Faculty of Law and Criminology of the University of Brussels. He is the former ombudsman of the city of Antwerp and of the Flemish Parliament.

Ashley Terlouw
Ashley Terlouw is Professor in Sociology of Law at the Radboud University of Nijmegen. She is responsible for the Centre for Migration Law of the Radboud University. Besides she is part-time Judge at the District Court of Gelderland. Her research concentrates on legal and societal issues of asylum and equal treatment and on the working of the judiciary.

Mies Westerveld
Mies Westerveld is Professor Legal aid by special appointment and Professor in Labour Law (social insurance) at the University of Amsterdam. Her research concentrates on current issues of access to justice and state-financed legal aid on the one hand and the decreasing role of social insurance on a fragmented labour market on the other hand.
Artikel

De Nederlandse wetgever en andere normenstelsels: op zoek naar het recht der werkelijkheid

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden multilevel lawmaking, Dutch legislator, private regulation, coherence of law
Auteurs Jan Smits
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    It is well known that the role of the national legislator in setting legally relevant norms is rapidly changing under the influence of increasing Europeanization, globalization and privatization. Today the national legislator is only one of the relevant norm-setters. This contribution considers the role that the Dutch legislator sees for itself in this emerging multilevel legal order. To this end, six themes of fundamental importance in a multilevel order are explored: (1) the question of when government regulation is to be preferred over private regulation; (2) the question of at which level of government (national, European, sub-national or supranational) a topic is preferably dealt with; (3) the role of the national legislator in realizing the cognoscibility and coherence of law; (4) the preferred way of implementing EU directives; (5) the question of whether the national legislator must refer to codes of conduct, certification and norms of standards bodies, and if so how; (6) the question of whether the national legislator must position its own national law on the international ‘law market.’


Jan Smits
Jan Smits is hoogleraar Europees Privaatrecht aan de Universiteit Maastricht.
Artikel

National variations in the implementation and enforcement of European food hygiene regulations

Comparing the structure of food controls and regulations between Scotland and the Netherlands

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden food regulation, official controls, EU food law, implementation, enforcement
Auteurs Tetty Havinga
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Over the course of time the European Union has increased its powers considerably. Currently, almost all food safety regulations in the member states rest on European law. Despite this common legal base, several differences between member states still exist. This article compares the way Scottish and Dutch authorities deal with a particular item of European food law: the development of national guides to good practice for hygiene and for the application of HACCP principles by the food industry. The results of this investigation are consistent with the conclusion of Falkner et al. that the implementation of EU law in both the Netherlands and the UK depends on domestic issues. The dominant issue in Scotland (and the UK) is the FSA objective to bring consistent food controls and independency from industry which results in the development of governmental guidance. The prevailing issue in the Netherlands is making industry responsible for food safety which helps explain the extensive use of industry guides. This study shows that in order to understand what happens on the ground it is important to look beyond transposition or direct effect and also to investigate the implementation of regulations and to dig deeper than just their transposition.


Tetty Havinga
Tetty Havinga is Associate Professor at the Institute for the Sociology of Law, Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands. She has published on the regulation of food safety, policy implementation and law enforcement, equal opportunities law, asylum migration and migrant workers. Her recent research projects deal with the development and effects of private regulation of food safety, oversight and official controls in the food industry, and the experiences of large companies with Dutch special courts. She is co-editor of The Changing Landscape of Food Governance (to be published by Edward Elgar, 2015).
Artikel

Hoe Europa zijn zigeuners uitvond

Over een schaduwzijde van de moderniteit

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2014
Trefwoorden European culture, history of gypsies, modernity, images of gypsies, European literature
Auteurs Prof. dr. K.M. Bogdal
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Europe is commonly depicted as the cradle of modernity. But this image usually has a blind eye for marginal communities and cultures existing seemingly apart of the big developments. An example of this is the neglect of the Roma people who settled here early, on the threshold of the Middle Ages and the modern era. The attitude of the European people towards this mobile ethnic group can be described as moving between contempt and fascination. Referring to images of gypsies in literature and other cultural expressions the author shows how during the Romantic era the gypsies were serving as a projection object for desires and fantasies about socially deviant lifestyles. The subsequent process of ‘de-Europeanization’ together with the creation of exotic images through ethnology is described as well as the racial theories and their political consequences for the Roma people in the twentieth century. Instead of contributing to the creation of borderlines and fuelling destruction fantasies, art and sciences should give more attention to the undividedness of humankind and to human dignity.


Prof. dr. K.M. Bogdal
Prof. dr. Klaus-Michael Bogdal is als hoogleraar verbonden aan de afdeling Germanistische literatuurwetenschap van de Universiteit Bielefeld. Zijn boek Europa erfindet die Zigeuner. Eine Geschichte von Faszination und Verachtung (Bogdal 2011) werd in 2013 bekroond met de Leipziger Buchpreis für Europäische Verständigung.
Artikel

Participatie, veiligheid en beeldvorming van Romaminderheden

Een kritische reflectie op het Nederlandse beleid

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2014
Trefwoorden Roma, Europeanization, European minority policies, securitization, the Netherlands
Auteurs Dr. H. van Baar
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article critically evaluates the recent developments in Dutch policy formation regarding Roma minorities from the perspective of the increased attention paid to their position at European level. First, the author discusses the so-called ‘Europeanization of Roma representation’, that is the post-1989 representation of the Roma as a European minority and the simultaneous large-scale, Europe-wide devising of development, inclusion, and empowerment programs meant for them. Thereafter, the author argues that some of the risks of the Roma’s Europeanization – such as the isolation and culturalization of policy formation and the diminishing of democratic accountability – have also and ambiguously affected Dutch policies meant for Roma, Sinti and caravan dwellers. By means of a brief analysis of recent policy developments, the author demonstrates that the Dutch shift towards a policy that, at least in name, encourages social participation, has actually tended to result into a one-sided focus on the Roma as a ‘problem group’ and ‘security threat’.


Dr. H. van Baar
Dr. Huub van Baar is verbonden aan het Institut für Politikwissenschaft, Justus-Liebig Universität Gieβen, en aan het Amsterdam Centre for Globalisation Studies, Faculteit Geesteswetenschappen, Universiteit van Amsterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Constitutionele antwoorden op toenemend pluralistische samenlevingen

Religieuze diversiteit in Frankrijk, Italië en Canada

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden religieuze diversiteit, religieuze symbolen, secularisme, boerkaverbod, ‘reasonable accommodation’
Auteurs Dr. Carla Zoethout
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, the question is raised which constitutional answer to immigration is most sustainable with a view to future multicultural societies. I focus on the constitutional answers to immigration in France, Italy and Canada. In France, in 2010, legislation was adopted prohibiting the wearing of face-covering clothing in public. With this ban, the French intended to enhance the equal participation of citizens in society and to protect the equality of the sexes. In Italy, a heated debate took place about the display of crucifixes in (public) schools, which resulted in a restoration of the predominance of the Catholic religion. Across the ocean, in the Canadian province of Québec, the National Assembly of Québec has been discussing a ‘Charter’, whose prevailing idea is to enhance the neutrality of the state, among others by prohibiting religious clothing in public institutions. The question is which of these approaches is best defensible to regulate a society, which will undoubtedly become even more diverse in the near future.


Dr. Carla Zoethout
Dr. C.M. Zoethout is universitair hoofddocent Staatsrecht aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Zij is redactielid van het Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid.
Artikel

Onafhankelijkheid vs. Accountability: de casus van de nieuwe EU financiële toezichthouders

Tijdschrift RegelMaat, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden onafhankelijkheid, accountability, agentschappen, financieel toezicht, EU
Auteurs Dr. M. Scholten
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Dit artikel analyseert de onafhankelijkheid en accountability van de nieuwe EU financiële agentschappen (EBA, EIOPA en ESMA). Het behandelt eerst de de jure institutionele, persoonlijke en financiële elementen van de onafhankelijkheids- en accountability arrangementen van de nieuwe agentschappen en laat zien dat zowel hun onafhankelijkheid als accountability versterkt is in vergelijking met die van hun voorgangers, de zogenoemde Lamfalussy-comités. Verder wordt een aantal punten met betrekking tot de de facto onafhankelijkheid en accountability van EU-agentschappen besproken. Het artikel sluit af met een aantal lessen die uit de EU-ervaring getrokken kunnen worden. Het biedt daarmee nuttige inzichten aan nationale wetgevers die zich met het ‘onafhankelijkheid vs. accountability’-dilemma geconfronteerd zien.


Dr. M. Scholten
Dr. M. Scholten is postdoctoraal onderzoeker aan het Centrum voor Regulering en Handhaving in Europa en aan het Europa Instituut, Faculteit van Recht, Economie, Bestuur en Organisatie, Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Access_open Source-usage within doctrinal legal inquiry: choices, problems, and challenges

Tijdschrift Law and Method, juni 2014
Trefwoorden methodological challenges, doctrinal legal inquiry, source-usage, methodology, method
Auteurs Mr. Marnix Vincent Roderick Snel LLM, MA
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article provides an overview of the methodological challenges that scholars are confronted with in relation to use of legislation, case law and literature commentaries within doctrinal legal inquiry. Therefore it employs a systematic literature review and a supplementary explorative expert-consultation among legal scholars of Tilburg University. Although the scope of the research is still limited, it shows that doctrinal legal inquiry is subjected to more and other methodological challenges surrounding the source-usage than one might expect. This insight may contribute to the further development of the meta-discipline ’law and methodology’ and simultaneously allows for more methodological awareness among doctrinal legal scholars.


Mr. Marnix Vincent Roderick Snel LLM, MA
Marnix Snel is a PhD researcher at the Research Group ‘Methodology of law and legal scholarship’ at Tilburg University. I thank prof. Rob van Gestel, prof. Jan Vranken and Dr. Arie-Jan Kwak for their comments on earlier draft version of this article.

    This article addresses the problem of qualitative interviewing in the field of legal studies, and more precisely the practice of interviewing judges. In the last five years the authors of this article conducted two different research projects which involved interviewing judges as a research method. In this article the authors share their experience and views on the qualitative interviewing method, and provide the reader with an overview of the ‘ins’ and ‘outs’ attached to this tool, but also its advantages and disadvantages.


Urszula Jaremba
Urszula Jaremba is an Assistant Professor of EU Law at Erasmus School of Law (Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands)

Elaine Dr. Mak
Elaine Mak is Endowed Professor of Empirical Study of Public Law, in particular of Rule-of-Law Institutions, at Erasmus School of Law (Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands)
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