Zoekresultaat: 70 artikelen

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Jurisprudentie

Kroniek ondernemingsstrafrecht

Tweede helft 2020

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Bijzonder Strafrecht & Handhaving, Aflevering 1 2021
Auteurs Prof. mr. H.J.B. Sackers (red.), mr. J. Boonstra, mr. dr. S.S. Buisman e.a.

Prof. mr. H.J.B. Sackers (red.)

mr. J. Boonstra

mr. dr. S.S. Buisman

mr. A.A. Feenstra

mr. K.M.T. Helwegen

mr. A.C.M. Klaasse

mr. dr. I. Koopmans

mr. V.S.Y. Liem

prof. mr. M. Nelemans

mr. dr. J.S. Nan

mr. dr. E. Sikkema

mr. dr. drs. B. van de Vorm

mr. dr. W.S. de Zanger
Artikel

Access_open Witwassen als bedrijfsmatige activiteit: de verborgen netwerken van witwassers

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden money laundering, financial facilitators, networked criminology, organized crime
Auteurs Jo-Anne Kramer, Arjan Blokland en Melvin Soudijn
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Financial Action Task Force reported that money launderers may operate in professional money laundering networks. Whether such money laundering networks operate in the Netherlands is unclear. In this article the authors therefore explore whether professional money launderers collaborate in network structures and the business-like manner in which they offer their services. Business-like refers to their involvement in multiple cases, the amount of repeat customers, and excludes family relations. The research is based on Dutch police registrations of 236 professional money launderers. Our results suggest that professional money laundering networks are indeed active in the Netherlands and that money launderers in these networks offer their services in a business-like manner to a varying extent. An important caveat to the current findings is that the criminal cases analyzed predominantly pertain drug-related offenses, leaving the existence and professionalism of money laundering networks in other types of crime, like large-scale fraud, a question open for future research.


Jo-Anne Kramer
J. Kramer MSc is onderzoeker en docent Criminologie bij de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en was als junior onderzoeker verbonden aan het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) in Amsterdam.

Arjan Blokland
Prof. dr. mr. A.A.J. Blokland is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) in Amsterdam en bijzonder hoogleraar Criminology & Criminal Justice bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Melvin Soudijn
Dr. M.R.J. Soudijn is research fellow bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) in Amsterdam en Operationeel Specialist bij de Nationale Politie.

    The recent spread of the Covid-19 pandemic has shown how economic vulnerability varies considerably across European Member States (MSs), and so does social protection in the European Union (EU). The social and economic consequences of the pandemic have impacted asymmetrically national labour markets and exacerbated existing disparities and contradictions. A measure that most governments have introduced in the immediate aftermath has been that of making financial support available to those self-employed workers who lost fully or in part their income. Most MSs have employed quantitative thresholds to identify those self-employed more in need of public subsidies and have proportioned them according to the pre-pandemic levels of income, on the condition that they have been officially recorded as taxable revenues.
    Despite their heterogeneity, we can reasonably affirm that the self-employed have been one of the most exposed clusters of the labour market to in-work poverty and economic uncertainty, which proved to be particularly problematic in periods of unforeseeable crisis, such as that of 2008 and even more so that of 2020. This article explores the range of EU-level measures designed for the self-employed and questions their potential impact on MSs’ legislation.


Luca Ratti
Luca Ratti is a professor at the University of Luxembourg.
Article

Access_open The Effectiveness Paradigm in Financial Legislation – Is Effectiveness Measurable?

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden effectiveness, effectiveness measurement methodologies, financial legislation, legislative objective, product approval governance
Auteurs Jeroen Koomans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    How can you determine if financial legislation is effective? This article seeks to identify three characteristics that make up the basis for an effectiveness review, being the determination what the legislative objective is, who is it aimed at and what approach is taken to achieve this objective. Determining the legislative objective may prove to be a challenging undertaking, and the uncertainties that come with that affect the other two characteristics as well. And even if a clear legislative objective can be established, how can you be sure that its achievement was in fact attributable to the legislation under review? What do you compare your results to absent a baseline measurement and how can the vast number of variables that affect the effectiveness of the legislation under review be accounted for, if at all? Is effectiveness in financial legislation at all measurable and, when measured, what is its value in practice?


Jeroen Koomans
Jeroen Koomans is affiliated to the University of Amsterdam FEB Academy for Banking and Insurance and employed by ABN AMRO Bank N.V.
Artikel

‘Private enforcement’ van nalatigheid bij financieel-economische criminaliteit

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Bijzonder Strafrecht & Handhaving, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden financieel-economische criminaliteit, private enforcement, aansprakelijkheid, nalatigheid, risicomanagement
Auteurs F.J. Erkens FFE MEWI LLM
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Nederland heeft, net als ieder ander land, groot belang bij goed werkende, gereguleerde handelsplatformen. De aantrekkelijkheid van handelsplatformen is mede afhankelijk van de kwaliteit van ‘public and private enforcement’ en juridische mogelijkheden om geschillen te beslechten. De afgelopen periode hebben grote Nederlandse ondernemingen de voorpagina’s van de kranten gehaald door hun (mogelijke) betrokkenheid bij financieel-economische criminaliteit. In deze bijdrage wordt de vraag beantwoord of ‘private enforcement’ van financieel-economische criminaliteit bij ondernemingen wel voldoende resultaat kan opleveren om effectief te zijn en om benadeelde partijen te ondersteunen bij het verhalen van hun schade.


F.J. Erkens FFE MEWI LLM
F.J. Erkens FFE MEWI LLM is partner bij het forensische onderzoeks- en adviesbureau Holland Integrity Group.
Discussie

Victimologie en corruptie: over de slachtoffers van een (al dan niet) slachtofferloos delict

Een multidisciplinaire verkenning

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden bribery, corruption, victims, victimless crimes, victim identification
Auteurs Suzanne van Dijk MSc en Mr. drs. Moniek Hutten
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    There is no clear answer to the question if corruption makes victims. Currently an (international) discussion is taking place about this matter. On the one hand it can be discussed that corruption in general does not know any direct victims and that corruption can even take place without any damage. On the other hand it is known that corruption can cause tremendous public and financial damage, with society as a whole as the victim of this crime, whether or not in primary gradation. In the underlying article these two perspectives will be discussed and applied on two cases. Special attention will also be paid to the impact and relevance of pointing out the victims.


Suzanne van Dijk MSc
S.L. van Dijk MSc is criminoloog bij het FIOD – Anti-Corruptie Centrum.

Mr. drs. Moniek Hutten
Mr. drs. M. Hutten is vaktechnisch adviseur en criminoloog bij het FIOD – Anti-Corruptie Centrum.

    This article relies on the premise that to understand the significance of Open Access Repositories (OARs) it is necessary to know the context of the debate. Therefore, it is necessary to trace the historical development of the concept of copyright as a property right. The continued relevance of the rationales for copyright interests, both philosophical and pragmatic, will be assessed against the contemporary times of digital publishing. It follows then discussion about the rise of Open Access (OA) practice and its impact on conventional publishing methods. The present article argues about the proper equilibrium between self-interest and social good. In other words, there is a need to find a tool in order to balance individuals’ interests and common will. Therefore, there is examination of the concept of property that interrelates justice (Plato), private ownership (Aristotle), labour (Locke), growth of personality (Hegel) and a bundle of rights that constitute legal relations (Hohfeld). This examination sets the context for the argument.


Nikos Koutras
Postdoctoral Researcher, Faculty of Law, University of Antwerp.
Uit het veld

Toezicht in een wereld zonder grenzen roept dilemma’s op voor de natiestaten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Toezicht, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden globalisering, toezicht, platformbedrijven, neoliberalisme, democratische natiestaten
Auteurs Jaap Koelewijn
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    De wereldeconomie is na 2001 snel verder geïntegreerd. De globalisatie heeft een extra dimensie gekregen door de opkomst van platformbedrijven. Het gaat hier feitelijk om virtuele ondernemingen die zich betrekkelijk eenvoudig aan de fiscale regels kunnen onttrekken. Ook de financiële sector is sterk geglobaliseerd, maar het toezicht op deze sector is nog steeds grotendeels voorbehouden aan lokale autoriteiten. Om effectief toezicht te kunnen houden zouden de natiestaten bevoegdheden moeten overdragen aan supranationale autoriteiten. Dat staat echter op gespannen voet met de mogelijkheid om op basis van een lokaal democratische legitimatie beleid te voeren. In deze bijdrage worden een aantal casusposities geanalyseerd en verschillende oplossingsrichtingen besproken.


Jaap Koelewijn
Prof. dr. J. Koelewijn is deeltijdhoogleraar Corporate Finance aan Business Universiteit Nyenrode en eigenaar van Financieel Denkwerk.
Article

Access_open Mercosur: Limits of Regional Integration

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden Mercosur, European Union, regionalism, integration, international organisation
Auteurs Ricardo Caichiolo
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This study is focused on the evaluation of successes and failures of the Common Market of the South (Mercosur). This analysis of Mercosur’s integration seeks to identify the reasons why the bloc has stagnated in an incomplete customs union condition, although it was originally created to achieve a common market status. To understand the evolution of Mercosur, the study offers some thoughts about the role of the European Union (EU) as a model for regional integration. Although an EU-style integration has served as a model, it does not necessarily set the standards by which integration can be measured as we analyse other integration efforts. However, the case of Mercosur is emblematic: during its initial years, Mercosur specifically received EU technical assistance to promote integration according to EU-style integration. Its main original goal was to become a common market, but so far, almost thirty years after its creation, it remains an imperfect customs union.
    The article demonstrates the extent to which almost thirty years of integration in South America could be considered a failure, which would be one more in a list of previous attempts of integration in Latin America, since the 1960s. Whether it is a failure or not, it is impossible to envisage EU-style economic and political integration in South America in the foreseeable future. So far, member states, including Brazil, which could supposedly become the engine of economic and political integration in South America, have remained sceptical about the possibility of integrating further politically and economically. As member states suffer political and economic turmoil, they have concentrated on domestic recovery before being able to dedicate sufficient time and energy to being at the forefront of integration.


Ricardo Caichiolo
Ricardo Caichiolo, PhD (Université catholique de Louvain, Belgium) is legal and legislative adviser to the Brazilian Senate and professor and coordinator of the post graduate programs on Public Policy, Government Relations and Law at Ibmec (Instituto Brasileiro de Mercado de Capitais, Brazil).
Artikel

The Imperfect International Sales Law

Time for a New Go or Better Keeping the Status Quo?

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Vermogensrecht, Aflevering 9 2019
Trefwoorden CISG, imperfections of the current international sales law, reform, supplement, CISG 2.0
Auteurs Prof. mr. A.U. Janssen en N.G. Ahuja
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A series of imperfections in the CISG touching upon various areas are laid out thereby prompting the question of whether the Convention ought to be reformed. Two possibilities, namely supplementing the CISG with additional hard law instruments and drafting a new convention, i.e. CISG 2.0 are discussed and evaluated.


Prof. mr. A.U. Janssen
Prof. mr. A.U. Janssen is a Professor of Civil Law and European Private Law at the Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

N.G. Ahuja
N.G. Ahuja is a Doctorate Candidate in Law at City University of Hong Kong.

    The Luxembourg Court of Appeal (Cour d’appel de Luxembourg) confirmed that an employee dismissed with notice and exempted from performing their work during the notice period is no longer bound by the non-competition duties arising from their loyalty obligation and can therefore engage in an employment contract with a direct competitor of their former employer during that exempted notice period. However, the Court of Appeal decided that, even if the former employee is in principle entitled to use the know-how and knowledge they acquired with their former employer, the poaching of clients during the notice period must, due to the facts and circumstances and in the light of the rules applicable in the financial sector, be considered as an unfair competition act and therefore constitutes serious misconduct justifying the termination of the employment contract with immediate effect.


Michel Molitor
Michel Molitor is the managing partner of MOLITOR Avocats à la Cour SARL in Luxembourg, www.molitorlegal.lu.

Régis Muller
Régis Muller is partner within the Employment, Pension & Immigration department of MOLITOR Avocats à la Cour SARL in Luxembourg, www.molitorlegal.lu.
Article

Access_open The Court of the Astana International Financial Center in the Wake of Its Predecessors

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden international financial centers, offshore courts, international business courts, Kazakhstan
Auteurs Nicolás Zambrana-Tévar
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Court of the Astana International Financial Center is a new dispute resolution initiative meant to attract investors in much the same way as it has been done in the case of the courts and arbitration mechanisms of similar financial centers in the Persian Gulf. This paper examines such initiatives from a comparative perspective, focusing on their Private International Law aspects such as jurisdiction, applicable law and recognition and enforcement of judgments and arbitration awards. The paper concludes that their success, especially in the case of the younger courts, will depend on the ability to build harmonious relationships with the domestic courts of each host country.


Nicolás Zambrana-Tévar
LLM (LSE), PhD (Navarra), KIMEP University.
Article

Access_open Matchmaking International Commercial Courts and Lawyers’ Preferences in Europe

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden choice of court, commercial court, lawyers’ preferences, survey on lawyers, international court
Auteurs Erlis Themeli
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    France, Germany, Belgium, and the Netherlands have taken concrete steps to design and develop international commercial courts. Most of the projects claim to be building courts that match the preferences of court users. They also try to challenge England and Wales, which evidence suggests is the most attractive jurisdiction in the EU. For the success of these projects, it is important that their proposed courts corresponds with the expectations of the parties, but also manages to attract some of the litigants that go to London. This article argues that lawyers are the most important group of choice makers, and that their preferences are not sufficiently matched by the new courts. Lawyers have certain litigation service and court perception preferences. And while the new courts improve their litigation service, they do not sufficiently addressed these court perception preferences.


Erlis Themeli
Postdoc, Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
Artikel

The effective public enforcement of cartels: perceptions on the functioning of the objection procedure and the reality

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Dispute resolution, Objection procedure, Cartel enforcement, Administrative law, Stakeholder interviews
Auteurs Mr. Annalies Outhuijse LLM
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Companies fined for infringing the cartel prohibition are denied access to the courts until the competition authority has reviewed its fining decision in the objection procedure. Several stakeholders have been negative about the functioning of this objection procedure in case of cartel fines, including because of its limited ability to resolve disputes and the cost and length of the procedure. In light of the discussions on the effectiveness of this objection procedure, this article analyses the ability of the cartel objection procedure to resolve disputes on basis of an analysis of the decisions on objection, as well as interviews with the parties involved in the objection procedure and a study of relevant literature. Previous studies have shown that the success of the objection procedure, regarding dispute resolution, depends on the nature of the dispute, the reason that the objection is made and the organisation of the procedure. Reviewing the data which was gathered through the interviews and case analysis with the knowledge of these factors influencing the success of the objection procedure, the article concludes that these previously carried out studies can explain the limited ability of the cartel objection procedure to resolve disputes.


Mr. Annalies Outhuijse LLM
Annalies Outhuijse is PhD fellow at the Department of Administrative Law at the University of Groningen.
Article

Access_open Personal Data, Algorithms and Profiling in the EU: Overcoming the Binary Notion of Personal Data through Quantum Mechanics

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden data protection, GDPR, bigdata, algorithm, quantum mechanics
Auteurs Alessandro El Khoury
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this paper I propose to analyse the binary notion of personal data and highlight its limits, in order to propose a different conception of personal data. From a risk regulation perspective, the binary notion of personal data is not particularly fit for purpose, considering that data collection and information flows are tremendously big and complex. As a result, the use of a binary system to determine the applicability of EU data protection law may be a simplistic approach. In an effort of bringing physics and law together, certain principles elaborated within the quantum theory are surprisingly applicable to data protection law, and can be used as guidance to shed light on many of today’s data complexities. Lastly, I will discuss the implications and the effects that certain processing operations may have on the possibility of qualifying certain data as personal. In other terms, how the chances to identify certain data as personal is dependent upon the processing operations that a data controller might put in place.


Alessandro El Khoury
Alessandro El Khoury, LLM, Legal and Policy Officer, DG Health & Food Safety, European Commission.
Article

Access_open Fostering Worker Cooperatives with Blockchain Technology: Lessons from the Colony Project

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden blockchain, collaborative economy, cooperative governance, decentralised governance, worker cooperatives
Auteurs Morshed Mannan
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In recent years, there has been growing policy support for expanding worker ownership of businesses in the European Union. Debates on stimulating worker ownership are a regular feature of discussions on the collaborative economy and the future of work, given anxieties regarding the reconfiguration of the nature of work and the decline of standardised employment contracts. Yet, worker ownership, in the form of labour-managed firms such as worker cooperatives, remains marginal. This article explains the appeal of worker cooperatives and examines the reasons why they continue to be relatively scarce. Taking its cue from Henry Hansmann’s hypothesis that organisational innovations can make worker ownership of firms viable in previously untenable circumstances, this article explores how organisational innovations, such as those embodied in the capital and governance structure of Decentralised (Autonomous) Organisations (D(A)Os), can potentially facilitate the growth of LMFs. It does so by undertaking a case study of a blockchain project, Colony, which seeks to create decentralised, self-organising companies where decision-making power derives from high-quality work. For worker cooperatives, seeking to connect globally dispersed workers through an online workplace, Colony’s proposed capital and governance structure, based on technological and game theoretic insight may offer useful lessons. Drawing from this pre-figurative structure, self-imposed institutional rules may be deployed by worker cooperatives in their by-laws to avoid some of the main pitfalls associated with labour management and thereby, potentially, vitalise the formation of the cooperative form.


Morshed Mannan
Morshed Mannan, LLM (Adv.), PhD Candidate, Company Law Department, Institute of Private Law, Universiteit Leiden.
Article

Access_open Privatising Law Enforcement in Social Networks: A Comparative Model Analysis

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden user generated content, public and private responsibilities, intermediary liability, hate speech and fake news, protection of fundamental rights
Auteurs Katharina Kaesling
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    These days, it appears to be common ground that what is illegal and punishable offline must also be treated as such in online formats. However, the enforcement of laws in the field of hate speech and fake news in social networks faces a number of challenges. Public policy makers increasingly rely on the regu-lation of user generated online content through private entities, i.e. through social networks as intermediaries. With this privat-ization of law enforcement, state actors hand the delicate bal-ancing of (fundamental) rights concerned off to private entities. Different strategies complementing traditional law enforcement mechanisms in Europe will be juxtaposed and analysed with particular regard to their respective incentive structures and consequential dangers for the exercise of fundamental rights. Propositions for a recommendable model honouring both pri-vate and public responsibilities will be presented.


Katharina Kaesling
Katharina Kaesling, LL.M. Eur., is research coordinator at the Center for Advanced Study ‘Law as Culture’, University of Bonn.

    This paper starts by reviewing empirical research that threatens law and economics’ initial success. This research has demonstrated that the functioning of the law cannot be well understood based on the assumption of the rational actor and that policies which are based on this assumption are likely to be flawed. Subsequently, three responses to this criticism are discussed. Whereas the first response denounces this criticism by maintaining that the limitations attributed to the rational actor can easily be incorporated in rational choice theory, the second response welcomes the criticism as an opportunity to come up with an integrative theory of law and behavior. The third response also takes the criticism seriously but replaces the aspiration to come up with such an integrative theory by a context-sensitive approach. It will be argued that the first two responses fall short while the third response offers a promising way to go forward.


Peter Mascini
Prof. dr. P. Mascini, Erasmus School of Law and Erasmus School of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
Artikel

Loyaliteit en zorgvuldigheid in het financiële recht

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Vermogensrecht, Aflevering 6 2018
Trefwoorden loyaliteitsverplichting, zorgplicht, klantbelang, belangenconflict
Auteurs Prof. mr. K.W.H. Broekhuizen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In het financiële recht speelt het onderscheid tussen zorgvuldigheid en loyaliteit een rol van betekenis. Het onderscheid wordt echter niet altijd in voldoende mate onder ogen gezien. In deze bijdrage wordt uitvoerig ingegaan op beide begrippen en hun onderlinge samenhang.


Prof. mr. K.W.H. Broekhuizen
Prof. mr. K.W.H. Broekhuizen is hoogleraar Recht & Regulering Financiële Markten aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Zekerheidsrechten vanuit rechtseconomisch perspectief

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Vermogensrecht, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden zekerheidsrechten, rechtseconomie
Auteurs Mr. R. Bloemink
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Dit artikel gaat in op de rechtseconomische rechtvaardiging voor de beschikbaarheid van zekerheidsrechten. Op basis van rechtseconomische inzichten wordt een aantal veelgebruikte argumenten voor de beschikbaarheid van (ruime) zekerheidsrechten ter discussie gesteld. Tegelijk wordt een drietal alternatieve argumenten voor de beschikbaarheid van ruime en gemakkelijk te vestigen zekerheidsrechten naar voren gebracht, bestaande uit het transparantieaspect, het exclusiviteitsaspect en het verruimingsaspect.


Mr. R. Bloemink
Mr. R. Bloemink is advocaat bij NautaDutilh te Amsterdam.
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