Zoekresultaat: 28 artikelen

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Law Review

2019/1 EELC’s review of the year 2018

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 1 2019
Auteurs Ruben Houweling, Catherine Barnard, Filip Dorssemont e.a.
Samenvatting

    For the second time, various of our academic board analysed employment law cases from last year. However, first, we start with some general remarks.


Ruben Houweling

Catherine Barnard

Filip Dorssemont

Jean-Philippe Lhernould

Francesca Maffei

Niklas Bruun

Anthony Kerr

Jan-Pieter Vos

Luca Ratti

Daiva Petrylaite

Andrej Poruban

Stein Evju
Artikel

Het grondrecht op collectief onderhandelen van zelfstandigen versus het Europese mededingingsrecht

Tijdschrift Arbeidsrechtelijke Annotaties, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Mededingingsrecht, Zelfstandige, Cao-exceptie, Vrijheid van vakvereniging, Recht op collectief onderhandelen
Auteurs Mr. R.F. Hoekstra
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In dit artikel staat centraal dat de beperking van de door het Hof van Justitie geformuleerde ‘cao-exceptie’ op het Europese mededingingsrecht tot ‘werknemers’ en ‘schijnzelfstandigen’ zich moeilijk tot een grondrechtenbenadering lijkt te verhouden. Zelfstandigen met een zwakke arbeidsmarktpositie hebben namelijk evenzeer behoefte aan collectieve middelen om hun arbeidsvoorwaarden te verbeteren en vallen ook onder grondrechtenverdragen. Door een uitgebreide beschouwing van de relevante rechtsinstrumenten van de VN, de IAO en de Raad van Europa en de uitleg die de toezichtorganen hieraan geven blijkt dat het grondrecht op vrijheid van (vak)vereniging, collectief onderhandelen en collectieve actie evenzeer aan deze groep lijkt toe te komen, en een te rigoureuze inperking vanwege het mededingingsrecht niet gerechtvaardigd wordt geacht. De conclusie bevat enkele gedachten over hoe het Europese mededingingsrecht met een grondrechtenbenadering overeenstemming te brengen. Daarbij passeren zowel de recente ontwikkelingen rondom het zelfstandigenvraagstuk in Nederland als initiatieven op Europees niveau de revue.


Mr. R.F. Hoekstra
Mr. R.F. (Robert) Hoekstra is werkzaam als onderzoeker bij de Wiardi Beckman Stichting Den Haag. Daarnaast is hij als promovendus verbonden aan de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. Zijn promotieonderzoek ziet op het snijvlak van cao’s en grondrechten.
Article

Access_open Right to Access Information as a Collective-Based Approach to the GDPR’s Right to Explanation in European Law

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden automated decision-making, right to access information, right to explanation, prohibition on discrimination, public information
Auteurs Joanna Mazur
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article presents a perspective which focuses on the right to access information as a mean to ensure a non-discriminatory character of algorithms by providing an alternative to the right to explanation implemented in the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). I adopt the evidence-based assumption that automated decision-making technologies have an inherent discriminatory potential. The example of a regulatory means which to a certain extent addresses this problem is the approach based on privacy protection in regard to the right to explanation. The Articles 13-15 and 22 of the GDPR provide individual users with certain rights referring to the automated decision-making technologies. However, the right to explanation not only may have a very limited impact, but it also focuses on individuals thus overlooking potentially discriminated groups. Because of this, the article offers an alternative approach on the basis of the right to access information. It explores the possibility of using this right as a tool to receive information on the algorithms determining automated decision-making solutions. Tracking an evolution of the interpretation of Article 10 of the Convention for the Protection of Human Right and Fundamental Freedoms in the relevant case law aims to illustrate how the right to access information may become a collective-based approach towards the right to explanation. I consider both, the potential of this approach, such as its more collective character e.g. due to the unique role played by the media and NGOs in enforcing the right to access information, as well as its limitations.


Joanna Mazur
Joanna Mazur, M.A., PhD student, Faculty of Law and Administration, Uniwersytet Warszawski.
Artikel

De constitutionele advisering door de Venice Commission

Tijdschrift RegelMaat, Aflevering 4 2018
Auteurs Prof. mr. drs. B.P. Vermeulen en Mr. dr. A. Jasiak
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    De Venice Commission heeft zich sinds 1990 ontwikkeld tot een gezaghebbende constitutioneel raadgever met betrekking tot de verenigbaarheid van (grond)wetgeving met de beginselen van de rule of law, mensenrechten en democratie voor de lidstaten van de Raad van Europa. Besproken wordt wat de Commissie is, wat zij doet en hoe zij dat doet. Vervolgens wordt ingegaan op de maatstaven die zij hanteert, en de specifieke uitdagingen die haar internationale positie, mede gezien het opkomend populisme en het spanningsveld tussen democratie en rechtsstaat, met zich brengen voor de mate van terughoudendheid in haar oordeelsvorming. Daarbij wordt specifiek ingegaan op de ‘casus Polen’.


Prof. mr. drs. B.P. Vermeulen
Prof. mr. drs. B.P. (Ben) Vermeulen is lid van de Raad van State en lid van de Venice Commission (2007-2011 substituut-lid).

Mr. dr. A. Jasiak
Mr. dr. A. (Anna) Jasiak is sectorhoofd (sectie III) in de Afdeling advisering van de Raad van State; in 2014 was zij gedetacheerd bij het secretariaat van de Venice Commission.
Artikel

De verbodenverklaring en ontbinding van outlaw motorcycle gangs

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Ondernemingsrecht, Aflevering 5-6 2018
Trefwoorden bestuurlijke verbodenverklaring, criminele motorclubs, ontbinding rechtspersoon, ontwrichting samenleving, verboden rechtspersoon
Auteurs Mr. J.L.W. Broeksteeg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    De rechter heeft recent twee criminele motorclubs, waaronder de Bandidos, verboden en ontbonden. Volgens hem bestaat er een direct verband tussen gedragingen van leden en de werkzaamheid van de vereniging. De cultuur van de motorclub en de daaruit voortvloeiende gedragingen zijn dermate kenmerkend en structureel, dat zij de samenleving kunnen ontwrichten.


Mr. J.L.W. Broeksteeg
Mr. J.L.W. Broeksteeg is universitair hoofddocent staatsrecht aan de Radboud Universiteit.
Rulings

ECtHR 24 April 2018, application no. 56237/08 (Sadrettin Güler), Freedom of assembly and association

Sadrettin Güler – v – Turkey, Turkish case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden Freedom of assembly and association
Samenvatting

    Giving an employee an official warning after he participated in a large pre-announced Labour Day demonstration is found to be in breach of the right to freedom of association.

    This paper examines three Inter-American Court (IACtHR) cases on behalf of the Enxet-Sur and Sanapana claims for communal territory in Paraguay. I argue that while the adjudication of the cases was successful, the aftereffects of adjudication have produced new legal geographies that threaten to undermine the advances made by adjudication. Structured in five parts, the paper begins with an overview of the opportunities and challenges to Indigenous rights in Paraguay followed by a detailed discussion of the adjudication of the Yakye Axa, Sawhoyamaxa, and Xákmok Kásek cases. Next, I draw from extensive ethnographic research investigating these cases in Paraguay to consider how implementation actually takes place and with what effects on the three claimant communities. The paper encourages a discussion between geographers and legal scholars, suggesting that adjudication only leads to greater social justice if it is coupled with effective and meaningful implementation.


Joel E. Correia Ph.D.
Postdoctoral Research Associate in the Center for Latin American Studies at the University of Arizona.
Article

Access_open Legality of the World Bank’s Informal Decisions to Expand into the Tax Field, and Implications of These Decisions for Its Legitimacy

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden World Bank, legality, legitimacy, global tax governance, tax policy and tax administration reforms
Auteurs Uyanga Berkel-Dorlig
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The emergence of global tax governance was triggered by common tax problems, which are now still being faced by international society of nation-states. In the creation of this framework, international institutions have been playing a major role. One of these institutions is the World Bank (Bank). However, those who write about the virtues and vices of the main creators of the framework usually disregard the Bank. This article, therefore, argues that this disregard is not justified because the Bank has also been playing a prominent role. Since two informal decisions taken in the past have contributed to this position of the Bank, the article gives in addition to it answers to the following two related questions: whether these informal decisions of the Bank were legal and if so, what implications, if any, they have for the Bank’s legitimacy.


Uyanga Berkel-Dorlig
Ph.D. candidate in the Department of Tax Law, Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Article

Access_open Administering Justice and Serving the People

The Tension between the Objective of Judicial Efficiency and Informal Justice in Canadian Access to Justice Initiatives

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden access to justice, procedural law, courts, civil justice reform, comparative law
Auteurs Catherine Piché
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Canada has a complex system of courts that seek to serve Canadians in view of the traditional objectives of civil justice – principally accessibility, efficiency, fairness, efficacy, proportionality and equality. The Canadian court system is generally considered by its users to work well and to have legitimacy. Yet, researchers have found that ‘there is a tendency for people involved in a civil case to become disillusioned about the ability of the system to effect a fair and timely resolution to a civil justice problem’. This article will discuss the ways in which reforms of procedural law and civil justice have originated and continue to be made throughout Canada, both nationally and provincially, as well as the trends and influences in making these reforms. With hundreds of contemporary procedural reforms having been discussed, proposed and/or completed since the first days of Canadian colonisation on a national basis and in the Canadian provinces and territory, providing a detailed analysis will prove challenging. This article will nonetheless provide a review of civil justice and procedural reform issues in Canada, focusing principally, at the provincial level, on the systems of Ontario and Quebec. Importantly, I will seek to reconcile the increasing willingness to have an economically efficient civil justice and the increased power of judges in managing cases, with our court system’s invasion of ADR and its prioritisation of informal modes of adjudication.


Catherine Piché
Dr. Prof. Catherine Piché, Université de Montreal.
Artikel

Terrorisme- en radicaliseringsstudies

Een explosief onderzoeksveld

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden terrorism studies, radicalization studies, definition, analysis levels, pitfalls
Auteurs Prof.dr. B.A. de Graaf
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Studying terrorism and radicalization is quite problematic because of a lack of reliable sources. Finding out what motivates terrorists often boils down to educated guessing. The author describes the search for an academic definition of terrorism and summarizes the development of this discipline since the 1970s, thereby distinguishing research on three levels: macro, micro and meso. While before 9/11 few academics were involved in this research field, it ‘exploded’ thereafter. Important factor contributing to this expansion is the greater availability of government funds and relevant data for this type of research. However, the growth of this discipline isn’t just good news, researchers should be aware of a number of pitfalls identified as the proximity to government power, too much self-confidence (hybris) of researchers pretending to have designed a ‘unified theory’, the abundance of funds for this type of research, resulting in a lot of low-quality research, and finally the politicization of the subject, which could limit the academic freedom.


Prof.dr. B.A. de Graaf
Prof. dr. Beatrice de Graaf is als hoogleraar History of International Relations & Global Governance verbonden aan de faculteit Geesteswetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht.
ECtHR Court Watch

ECtHR 8 November 2016, application 26126/07, Diplomatic immunity in labour relations

Naku – v – Lithuania and Sweden, Lithuanian and Swedish case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden Diplomatic immunity in labour relations
Article

Access_open Legal Constraints on the Indeterminate Control of ‘Dangerous’ Sex Offenders in the Community: The French Perspective

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden Preventive detention, mandatory supervision, sex offenders, retrospective penal laws, legality principle
Auteurs Martine Herzog-Evans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    France literally ‘discovered’ sexual abuse following neighbour Belgium’s Dutroux case in the late 1990s. Since then, sex offenders have been the focus of politicians, media and law-makers’ attention. Further law reforms have aimed at imposing mandatory supervision and treatment, and in rare cases, preventive detention. The legal framework for mandatory supervision and detention is rather complex, ranging from a mixed sentence (custodial and mandatory supervision and treatment upon release or as a stand-alone sentence) to so-called ‘safety measures’, which supposedly do not aim at punishing an offence, but at protecting society. The difference between the concepts of sentences and safety measures is nevertheless rather blurry. In practice, however, courts have used safety measures quite sparingly and have preferred mandatory supervision as attached to a sentence, notably because it is compatible with cardinal legal principles. Procedural constraints have also contributed to this limited use. Moreover, the type of supervision and treatment that can thus be imposed is virtually identical to that of ordinary probation. It is, however, noteworthy that a higher number of offenders with mental health issues who are deemed ‘dangerous’ are placed in special psychiatric units, something that has not drawn much attention on the part of human rights lawyers.


Martine Herzog-Evans
Martine H-Evans, PhD, is a Professor at the Department of Law, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne.
Article

Access_open Raising Barriers to ‘Outlaw Motorcycle Gang-Related Events’

Underlining the Difference between Pre-Emption and Prevention

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden Prevention, pre-crime, pre-emption, risk, outlaw motorcycle gangs
Auteurs Teun van Ruitenburg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Fighting outlaw motorcycle gangs is currently one of the top priorities of many governments around the world. This is due to the notion that outlaw motorcycle gangs do not consist solely of motorcycle enthusiasts. Numerous cases reveal that these clubs, or at least their members, are involved in (organised) crime. In order to tackle these clubs, the former Dutch Minister of Security and Justice announced a whole-of-government strategy towards outlaw motorcycle gangs in 2012. As part of this effort, authorities such as the Dutch National Police, the Public Prosecution Service, the Dutch Tax Authority and local governments aim to cooperate in order to disrupt and restrict outlaw motorcycle gangs by means of Criminal, Administrative and Civil Law. Part of this strategy is to hinder club-related events. This article discusses the latter strategy in light of the distinction between prevention and pre-emption. As the latter two concepts are often used interchangeably, this article attempts to use a more strict division between prevention and pre-emption. Thereby, it becomes apparent that outlaw motorcycle gangs are to some extent governed through uncertainty. The author suggests that maintaining the ‘prevention–pre-emption distinction’ can offer an interesting and valuable point of departure for analysing today’s crime policies.


Teun van Ruitenburg
Teun van Ruitenburg, MSc., is PhD Candidate at the Criminology Department of the Erasmus University Rotterdam.
Article

Access_open The Right to Mental Health in the Digital Era

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden E-health, e-mental health, right to health, right to mental health
Auteurs Fatemeh Kokabisaghi, Iris Bakx en Blerta Zenelaj
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    People with mental illness usually experience higher rates of disability and mortality. Often, health care systems do not adequately respond to the burden of mental disorders worldwide. The number of health care providers dealing with mental health care is insufficient in many countries. Equal access to necessary health services should be granted to mentally ill people without any discrimination. E-mental health is expected to enhance the quality of care as well as accessibility, availability and affordability of services. This paper examines under what conditions e-mental health can contribute to realising the right to health by using the availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality (AAAQ) framework that is developed by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Research shows e-mental health facilitates dissemination of information, remote consultation and patient monitoring and might increase access to mental health care. Furthermore, patient participation might increase, and stigma and discrimination might be reduced by the use of e-mental health. However, e-mental health might not increase the access to health care for everyone, such as the digitally illiterate or those who do not have access to the Internet. The affordability of this service, when it is not covered by insurance, can be a barrier to access to this service. In addition, not all e-mental health services are acceptable and of good quality. Policy makers should adopt new legal policies to respond to the present and future developments of modern technologies in health, as well as e-Mental health. To analyse the impact of e-mental health on the right to health, additional research is necessary.


Fatemeh Kokabisaghi
Fatemeh Kokabisaghi, Iris Bakx and Blerta Zenelaj are Ph.D. candidates at the Institute of Health Policy and Management, Erasmus University Rotterdam. All authors contributed equally.

Iris Bakx
Fatemeh Kokabisaghi, Iris Bakx and Blerta Zenelaj are Ph.D. candidates at the Institute of Health Policy and Management, Erasmus University Rotterdam. All authors contributed equally.

Blerta Zenelaj
Fatemeh Kokabisaghi, Iris Bakx and Blerta Zenelaj are Ph.D. candidates at the Institute of Health Policy and Management, Erasmus University Rotterdam. All authors contributed equally.
Artikel

Schets van het internationaal gezondheidsrecht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Gezondheidsrecht, Aflevering 8 2016
Trefwoorden internationaal gezondheidsrecht, WHO-standaarden, gezondheid en mensenrechten
Auteurs Prof. mr. B.C.A. Toebes
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Deze bijdrage bespreekt de aard en reikwijdte van het internationaal gezondheidsrecht, een tak van het internationaal publiekrecht die nauw verweven is met het nationale gezondheidsrecht. De standaarden van de Wereldgezondheidsorganisatie komen aan bod, evenals de relevante mensenrechtenbepalingen. De conclusie luidt dat het internationaal gezondheidsrecht een dynamisch veld is dat voor grote uitdagingen staat, waaronder het ontwikkelen van nieuwe standaarden in antwoord op de mondiale stijging van chronische ziektes en het ter verantwoording roepen van invloedrijke niet-statelijke actoren zoals de farmaceutische industrie en de tabaksindustrie.


Prof. mr. B.C.A. Toebes
Brigit Toebes is adjunct hoogleraar en Rosalind Franklin Fellow, Afdeling Internationaal Recht, Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. Email b.c.a.toebes@rug.nl.
ECtHR Court Watch

ECtHR 2 June 2016, application 23646/09. (Geotech), Freedom of Association

Geotech Kancev GmbH – v – Germany, German case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden Freedom of association
Samenvatting

    A company’s obligation to participate in the building industry’s Social Welfare Fund did not breach the company’s right to freedom of association, nor its right to protection of property.

Artikel

Access_open Freedom of Religion, Inc.: Whose Sovereignty?

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden accommodation, freedom of religion, political theology, liberalism, liberty of conscience
Auteurs Jean L. Cohen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article focuses on an expansive conception of religious freedom propagated by a vocal group of American legal scholars – jurisdictional pluralists – often working with well-funded conservative foundations and influencing accommodation decisions throughout the US. I show that the proliferation of ‘accommodation’ claims in the name of church autonomy and religious conscience entailing exemption from civil regulation and anti-discrimination laws required by justice have a deep structure that has little to do with fairness or inclusion or liberal pluralism. Instead they are tantamount to sovereignty claims, involving powers and immunities for the religious, implicitly referring to another, higher law and sovereign than the constitution or the people. The twenty-first century version of older pluralist ‘freedom of religion’ discourses also rejects the comprehensive jurisdiction and scope of public, civil law – this time challenging the ‘monistic sovereignty’ of the democratic constitutional state. I argue that the jurisdictional pluralist approach to religious freedom challenges liberal democratic constitutionalism at its core and should be resisted wherever it arises.


Jean L. Cohen
Jean L. Cohen is the Nell and Herbert M. Singer Professor of Political Thought and Contemporary Civilization at the Department of Political Science of Columbia University (New York) and will be the Emile Noel Fellow at the Jean Monet Center of the NYU Law School from January till June 2016.
Article

Access_open The Ambivalent Shadow of the Pre-Wilsonian Rise of International Law

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden American Society of International Law, Peace-Through-Law Movement, Harvard Law Library: League of Nations, President Woodrow Wilson, Pre-Wilsonianism
Auteurs Dr Ignacio de la Rasilla del Moral Ph.D.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The generation of American international lawyers who founded the American Society of International Law in 1906 and nurtured the soil for what has been retrospectively called a 'moralistic-legalistic approach to international relations' remains little studied. A survey of the rise of international legal literature in the United States from the mid-nineteenth century to the eve of the Great War serves as a backdrop to the examination of the boosting effect on international law of the Spanish American War in 1898. An examination of the Insular Cases before the US Supreme Court is then accompanied by the analysis of a number of influential factors behind the pre-war rise of international law in the United States. The work concludes with an examination of the rise of natural law doctrines in international law during the interwar period and the critiques addressed by the realist founders of the field of 'international relations' to the 'moralistic-legalistic approach to international relations'.


Dr Ignacio de la Rasilla del Moral Ph.D.
Ignacio de la Rasilla del Moral is Lecturer in Law at the Brunel Law School of Brunel University, London. In the Spring of 2014 he served as Visiting Research Fellow at the Lauterpacht Research Centre for International Law of the University of Cambridge as recipient of a British Academy/Leverhulme Small Research Grant.
Artikel

Access_open Constitutionele antwoorden op toenemend pluralistische samenlevingen

Religieuze diversiteit in Frankrijk, Italië en Canada

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden religieuze diversiteit, religieuze symbolen, secularisme, boerkaverbod, ‘reasonable accommodation’
Auteurs Dr. Carla Zoethout
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, the question is raised which constitutional answer to immigration is most sustainable with a view to future multicultural societies. I focus on the constitutional answers to immigration in France, Italy and Canada. In France, in 2010, legislation was adopted prohibiting the wearing of face-covering clothing in public. With this ban, the French intended to enhance the equal participation of citizens in society and to protect the equality of the sexes. In Italy, a heated debate took place about the display of crucifixes in (public) schools, which resulted in a restoration of the predominance of the Catholic religion. Across the ocean, in the Canadian province of Québec, the National Assembly of Québec has been discussing a ‘Charter’, whose prevailing idea is to enhance the neutrality of the state, among others by prohibiting religious clothing in public institutions. The question is which of these approaches is best defensible to regulate a society, which will undoubtedly become even more diverse in the near future.


Dr. Carla Zoethout
Dr. C.M. Zoethout is universitair hoofddocent Staatsrecht aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Zij is redactielid van het Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid.
Artikel

Het Nederlandse detentierecht naar internationale maatstaven

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2012
Trefwoorden Dutch detention law, human rights, prison conditions, female prisoners, prison staff
Auteurs G. de Jonge
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Dutch detention law seems to meet all standards of the normative European Prison Rules. There is however no reason for self-satisfaction, because other relevant international standards have so far received little attention. The author discusses the Bangkok Rules, the Istanbul Protocol, the Declaration of Malta on Hunger Strikers and the European Code of Ethics for Prison Staff. All of these documents give rise to adaptations or additions of existing Dutch penitentiary law. The author suggests that it would be best to develop a new general detention law containing basic norms for the treatment of everyone deprived of his freedom, irrespective of the detention’s legal title.


G. de Jonge
Prof. dr. Gerard de Jonge is emeritus bijzonder hoogleraar Detentierecht aan de Universiteit Maastricht.
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