Zoekresultaat: 222 artikelen

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Artikel

Homofobe en transfobe haatuitingen onder het IVBPR en EVRM

Ontwikkelingen en reflecties

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 1 2022
Trefwoorden homofobe haatuitingen, lhbtiq-rechten, transfobe haatuitingen, vrijheid van meningsuiting, IVBPR en EVRM
Auteurs Jeroen Temperman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article investigates if and in what manner international human rights treaties provide a mandate for state parties to combat hateful homophobic and transphobic speech. It is concluded that under the ICCPR, the path to inclusive readings of its incitement provision is principally paved by state parties. The UN Human Rights Committee welcomes states’ going beyond the codified (Art. 20) prohibition grounds of ‘national, racial or religious hatred’, thus including such grounds as sexual orientation and gender identity. Within the regional context of the ECHR, it is the European Court of Human Rights that functions as a catalyst. In recent jurisprudence, the latter court has developed a positive duty to investigate instances of hateful homophobic speech. Under both regimes a similarly steadfast approach to combating transphobic speech cannot yet be detected.


Jeroen Temperman
Prof. J.D. Temperman is hoogleraar International Recht & Religie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en lid van het OSCE Panel of Experts on Freedom of Religion or Belief.
Artikel

Access_open Legal Philosophy as an Enrichment of Doctrinal Research – Part II: The Purposes of Including Legal Philosophy

Tijdschrift Law and Method, januari 2022
Trefwoorden legal philosophy, research methods, interdisciplinary research, conceptual analysis
Auteurs Sanne Taekema en Wibren van der Burg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Many doctrinal legal research questions require making use of other academic disciplines or perspectives. This article explains the relevance of legal philosophy for doctrinal research projects. Often legal research questions have conceptual or evaluative dimensions that presuppose philosophical understanding. For research on the concept of democracy, the function of constitutional rights, or the possible introduction of a referendum in the Netherlands, questions of a philosophical nature need to be answered. Legal philosophy can supplement and enrich doctrinal research in various ways. In this article, we present seven purposes that legal philosophy may serve in the context of a doctrinal research project: conceptual clarification, exposition and reconstruction of fundamental normative principles and values, theory building, providing creative perspectives, structural critiques, evaluation, and recommendations. For each objective, we illustrate how to use relevant philosophical methods. Thus, this article complements our earlier publication ‘Legal Philosophy as an Enrichment of Doctrinal Research – Part I: Introducing Three Philosophical Methods’.1x http://www.lawandmethod.nl/tijdschrift/lawandmethod/2020/01/lawandmethod-D-19-00006.

Noten

  • * This text has been presented to classes at the University of Zagreb, Queen Mary University of London and Erasmus School of Law, Rotterdam; we profited from the feedback of our students. We also want to thank Irma Bluijs, Machteld Geuskens, Tamar de Waal and the reviewers for their helpful comments on previous versions of this article, and Jacqueline Brand and Robert Poll for providing research assistance.
  • 1 http://www.lawandmethod.nl/tijdschrift/lawandmethod/2020/01/lawandmethod-D-19-00006.


Sanne Taekema
Prof. mr. dr. Sanne Taekema is Professor of Jurisprudence, Erasmus School of Law, Rotterdam.

Wibren van der Burg
Prof. dr. mr. Wibren van der Burg, is Professor of Legal Philosophy, Erasmus School of Law, Rotterdam.
Forum

Access_open Een gemankeerde wereld

Theorieën over (on)toegankelijkheid

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2021
Auteurs Erwin Dijkstra
Auteursinformatie

Erwin Dijkstra
Erwin Dijkstra is docent/onderzoeker aan de Rechtenfaculteit van de Universiteit Leiden en redacteur bij het juridisch-wetenschappelijke tijdschrift Handicap & Recht. Zijn onderzoek focust op de maatschappelijke positie van gehandicapten. Daarnaast schrijft hij een proefschrift over de mogelijkheden om discriminatie te bestrijden binnen de rechtsstaat.
Artikel

Access_open Welcoming the Other in a Pandemic Society

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Discourse, Solidarity, Poststructuralism, Levinas, Derrida
Auteurs Thomas Jacobus de Jong en Carina van de Wetering
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution explores the meaning and scope of solidarity with the emergence of the coronavirus discourse as formulated by politicians in order to make sense of the virus. It offers a poststructuralist account drawing on discourse theory together with insights from Levinas and Derrida. This leads to a critical reflection on the prevailing view of solidarity as secondary and derivative to corona policies, because solidarity is often subjugated to hegemonic meanings of efficiency. Instead, the argument is made that solidarity refers to the unique responsibility to which the other as wholly other commands me. This appeal for responsibility, that is presented in the face of the other, is to be assumed in the distance between the rules and the singularity of the situation. Accordingly, solidarity is described as a paradox of dependence (calculability) and independence (beyond calculation), that appears in a moment of undecidability, for it can never be overcome.


Thomas Jacobus de Jong
Thomas Jacobus de Jong is senior parketsecretaris at the Netherlands Public Prosecution Service (OM).

Carina van de Wetering
Carina van de Wetering is Lecturer in International Relations at the Institute of Political Science at Leiden University.
Artikel

Access_open The Exceptionality of Solidarity

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Solidarity, COVID-19, Crisis, Normalcy, Exceptionality
Auteurs Amalia Amaya Navarro
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In times of crisis, we witness exceptional expressions of solidarity. Why does solidarity spring in times of crisis when it wanes in normal times? An inquiry into what may explain the differences between the expression of solidarity in crisis vs. normalcy provides, as I will argue in this article, important insights into the conditions and nature of solidarity. Solidarity requires, I will contend, an egalitarian ethos and state action within and beyond the state. It is neither a momentary political ideal, nor an exclusionary one, which depends for its sustainment on formal, legal, structures. Transient, sectarian, and informal conceptions of solidarity unduly curtail the demands of solidarity by restricting its reach to times of crisis, to in-group recipients, and to the social rather than the legal sphere. The article concludes by discussing some aspects of the dynamics of solidarity and its inherent risks that the analysis of the exceptionality of solidarity helps bring into focus.


Amalia Amaya Navarro
Amalia Amaya Navarro is British Academy Global Professor of Legal Philosophy at the University of Edinburgh.
Artikel

Access_open Solidarity, Religious Freedom and COVID-19

The Case of the Ultra-Orthodox Sects in Israel

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Social solidarity, COVID-19, Religious freedom, Cultural defence, Ultra-Orthodox sects in Israel
Auteurs Miriam Gur-Arye en Sharon Shakargy
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article discusses the tension between social solidarity and religious freedom as demonstrated by the refusal of the ultra-Orthodox sects in Israel to comply with COVID-19 regulations. The article provides a detailed description of the refusal to comply with the regulations restricting mass prayer services in synagogues and studying Torah in the yeshivas, thus interfering with the ultra-Orthodox religious life. The article suggests possible explanations for that refusal, based on either religious beliefs or a socio-political claim to autonomy, and discusses whether the polity should be willing to tolerate such a refusal on the basis of the cultural defence. The article concludes that despite the drastic restrictions on religious life caused by the social distancing regulations, and the special importance of freedom of religion, reducing the pandemic’s spread called for awarding priority to solidarity over religious freedom, and the enforcement of social solidarity legal duties – the social distancing regulations – on all.


Miriam Gur-Arye
Miriam Gur-Arye is the Judge Basil Wunsh Professor of Criminal Law, Faculty of Law, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

Sharon Shakargy
Sharon Shakargy is a Senior Lecturer at the Faculty of Law, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Artikel

Access_open Living with Others in Pandemics

The State’s Duty to Protect, Individual Responsibility and Solidarity

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, The state’s duty to protect, Duty to rescue, Responsibility, Solidarity
Auteurs Konstantinos A Papageorgiou
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article discusses a range of important normative questions raised by anti-COVID-19 measures and policies. Do governments have the right to impose such severe restrictions on individual freedom and furthermore do citizens have obligations vis-à-vis the state, others and themselves to accept such restrictions? I will argue that a democratic state may legitimately enforce publicly discussed, properly enacted and constitutionally tested laws and policies in order to protect its citizens from risks to life and limb. Even so, there is a natural limit, factual and normative, to what the state or a government can do in this respect. Citizens will also need to take it upon themselves not to harm and to protect others and in the context of a pandemic this means that endorsement of restrictions or other mandatory measures, notably vaccination, is not to be seen as a matter of personal preference concerning the supposedly inviolable sovereignty of one’s own body.


Konstantinos A Papageorgiou
Konstantinos A Papageorgiou is Professor of the Philosophy of Law at the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Law.
Artikel

Access_open Suffering from Vulnerability

On the Relation Between Law, Contingency and Solidarity

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Vulnerability, Contingency, Freedom and Anxiety, Solidarity, Legal concept of inclusion
Auteurs Benno Zabel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The COVID-19 crisis has produced or amplified disruptive processes in societies. This article wants to argue for the fact that we understand the meaning of the COVID-19 crisis only if we relate it to the fundamental vulnerability of modern life and the awareness of vulnerability of whole societies. Vulnerability in modernity are expressions of a reality of freedom that is to some extent considered contingent and therefore unsecured. It is true that law is understood today as the protective power of freedom. The thesis of the article, however, boils down to the fact that the COVID-19 crisis has resulted in a new way of thinking about the protection of freedom. This also means that the principle of solidarity must be assigned a new social role. Individual and societal vulnerability refer thereafter to an interconnectedness, dependency, and a future perspective of freedom margins that, in addition to the moral one, can also indicate a need for legal protection. In this respect, law has not only a function of delimitation, but also one of inclusion.


Benno Zabel
Benno Zabel is Professor of Criminal Law and Philosophy of Law at the University of Bonn.
Article

Access_open Victim-Offender Contact in Forensic Mental Health

Resocialisation and Victim Acknowledgement During the Execution of the Dutch TBS Order

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2021
Trefwoorden victim-offender contact, resocialisation, victim acknowledgement, forensic psychiatry, mentally disordered offenders
Auteurs Lydia Dalhuisen en Alice Kirsten Bosma
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Crime victims have gained a stronger position in all phases of the criminal procedure, including the post-sentencing phase. It is in this phase specifically that victims’ needs and interests relating to acknowledgement interplay with the offenders’ needs and interests relating to resocialisation. In the Netherlands, offenders who suffer from a mental disorder at the time of the offence limiting their criminal accountability and pose a significant safety threat, can be given a TBS order. This means that they are placed in a forensic psychiatric hospital to prevent further crimes and receive treatment aimed at resocialisation. As resocialisation requires the offender to return to society, contact with the victim might be a necessary step. This article focuses on victim-offender contact during the execution of this TBS order, and looks at risks and opportunities of victim-offender contact in this context, given the particular offender population. Offenders are divided into three groups: those with primarily psychotic disorders, those suffering from personality disorders and those with comorbidity, especially substance abuse disorders. The TBS population is atypical compared to offenders without a mental disorder. Their disorders can heighten the risks of unsuccessful or even counterproductive victim-offender contact. Yet, carefully executed victim-offender contact which includes thorough preparation, managing expectations and choosing the right type of contact can contribute to both successful resocialisation as well as victim acknowledgement.


Lydia Dalhuisen
Lydia Dalhuisen, PhD, is Assistant Professor at the Utrecht University, the Netherlands.

Alice Kirsten Bosma
Alice Kirsten Bosma is Assistant Professor at the Faculty of Law of Tilburg University, the Netherlands.
Article

Access_open The Common Law Remedy of Habeas Corpus Through the Prism of a Twelve-Point Construct

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Habeas corpus, common law, detainee, consitution, liberty
Auteurs Chuks Okpaluba en Anthony Nwafor
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Long before the coming of the Bill of Rights in written Constitutions, the common law has had the greatest regard for the personal liberty of the individual. In order to safeguard that liberty, the remedy of habeas corpus was always available to persons deprived of their liberty unlawfully. This ancient writ has been incorporated into the modern Constitution as a fundamental right and enforceable as other rights protected by virtue of their entrenchment in those Constitutions. This article aims to bring together the various understanding of habeas corpus at common law and the principles governing the writ in common law jurisdictions. The discussion is approached through a twelve-point construct thus providing a brief conspectus of the subject matter, such that one could have a better understanding of the subject as applied in most common law jurisdictions.


Chuks Okpaluba
Chuks Okpaluba, LLB LLM (London), PhD (West Indies), is a Research Fellow at the Free State Centre for Human Rights, University of the Free State, South Africa. Email: okpaluba@mweb.co.za.

Anthony Nwafor
Anthony O. Nwafor, LLB, LLM, (Nigeria), PhD (UniJos), BL, is Professor at the School of Law, University of Venda, South Africa. Email: Anthony.Nwafor@univen.ac.za.

    The Employment Appeal Tribunal (EAT) has ruled that ‘gender critical’ beliefs are protected philosophical beliefs for equality law purposes, while confirming that a belief in ‘gender identity’ is also a protected characteristic. This means that it is unlawful to discriminate against someone because they do or do not hold either of those beliefs.


Bethan Carney
Bethan Carney is a Managing Practice Development Lawyer, Lewis Silkin LLP.
Landmark Ruling

ECJ 15 July 2021, joined cases C-804/18 and C-341/19 (WABE), Religious Discrimination

IX – v – WABE eV and MH Müller Handels GmbH – v – MJ, German cases

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 3 2021
Trefwoorden Religious Discrimination
Samenvatting

    An employer’s need to present a neutral image may justify a prohibition on any visible expression of beliefs, but must correspond to a genuine need, notwithstanding the specific national context end more favourable national provisions.

Artikel

Gender als discriminatiegrond in het strafrecht

Tijdschrift Boom Strafblad, Aflevering 5 2021
Trefwoorden Gender, Discriminatie, LGBTQI, Uitingsdelict, Transgerrechten
Auteurs Mr. dr. L.A. (Marloes) van Noorloos en prof. mr. P.A.M. (Pieter) Verrest
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    De gedachte leeft breed dat voor een effectieve aanpak van uitingsdelicten op grond van gender het Wetboek van Strafrecht dient te worden aangepast. Deze gedachte is inmiddels kracht bijgezet door een concept-wetsvoorstel waarmee onder meer wordt beoogd het uitingsdelict groepsbelediging (art. 137c Sr) aan te passen zodat op gender gebaseerde discriminatie onderdeel wordt van deze bepaling. Hoewel dit wetsvoorstel gezien de huidige maatschappelijke context begrijpelijk is, roept het ook wat vragen op. Deze bijdrage bespreekt dit wetsvoorstel en gaan in op een aantal problematische aspecten ervan.


Mr. dr. L.A. (Marloes) van Noorloos
Marloes van Noorloos is universitair hoofddocent straf(proces)recht aan Tilburg University.

prof. mr. P.A.M. (Pieter) Verrest
Pieter Verrest is hoogleraar straf(proces)recht aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en lid van de redactie van Boom Strafblad.
Artikel

Access_open Time and Law in the Post-COVID-19 Era: The Usefulness of Experimental Law

Special Issue Experimental Legislation in Times of Crisis, Sofia Ranchordas & Bart van Klink (eds.)

Tijdschrift Law and Method, september 2021
Trefwoorden COVID-19, time and law, law-making, parliament, government, legal certainty
Auteurs Erik Longo
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The COVID-19 pandemic swept the world in 2020 impelling us to reconsider the basic principles of constitutional law like the separation of power, the rule of law, human rights protection, etc. The two most pressing legal issues that have attracted the attention of legal scholars so far are, on the one hand, the different regulatory policies implemented by governments and, on the other, the balance among the branches of government in deciding matters of the emergency. The pandemic has determined a further and violent acceleration of the legislature’s temporal dimension and the acknowledgement that, to make legislation quicker, parliament must permanently displace its legislative power in favour of government. Measures adopted to tackle the outbreak and recover from the interruption of economic and industrial businesses powerfully confirm that today our societies are more dependent on the executives than on parliaments and, from a temporal perspective, that the language of the law is substantially the present instead of the future. Against this background, this article discusses how the prevalence of governments’ legislative power leads to the use of temporary and experimental legislation in a time, like the pandemic, when the issue of ‘surviving’ becomes dominant.


Erik Longo
Prof. Dr. Erik Longo is associate professor of Constitutional Law at the University of Florence.

    On 12 October 2020, the Labour Court of Appeal of Ghent ruled that there was no indirect discrimination in the case of Mrs. Achbita, because a policy of neutrality does not disadvantage Muslim women who want to wear a headscarf more than any other worker. The Labour Court of Appeal was also of the opinion that the employer should not examine alternative job positions.


Gautier Busschaert
Gautier Busschaert is an attorney-at-law at Van Olmen & Wynant.
Artikel

Access_open Professional Ethics for Judges – Lessons Learned from the Past. Dialogue as Didactics to Develop Moral Leadership for Judges

Special Issue on Education in (Professional) Legal Ethics, ­Emanuel van Dongen & Jet Tigchelaar (eds.)

Tijdschrift Law and Method, juli 2021
Trefwoorden professional ethics, ethical dilemmas, judiciary, independence
Auteurs Alex Brenninkmeijer en Didel Bish
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    There is an intimate link between good conduct by judges and the rule of law. The quintessence of their role is that judges shape a trustworthy and fair legal system from case to case. Ethical trading is not carved in granite, and judges must determine their course on different levels. First, it concerns personal conduct and requires integrity and reliability. On the second level, the challenge is to achieve proper adjudication by conducting a fair trial in accordance with professional standards. Third, judges exercise discretion, in which normative considerations run the risk of becoming political. They should act independently as one of the players in the trias politica. A triptych of past cases illustrate moral dilemmas judges may encounter in their profession. Calibrating the ethical compass is not an abstract or academic exercise. A dialogue at the micro (internal), meso (deliberation in chambers) and macro levels (court in constitutional framework) could be incorporated in the legal reasoning as a didactic framework to make future judges aware of their ethical challenges.


Alex Brenninkmeijer
A.F.M. Brenninkmeijer, PhD is Member of the European Court of Auditors, Luxembourg. Professor of Institutional Aspects of the Rule of Law at Utrecht University.

Didel Bish
D.A. Bish, LLM is a trainee at the European Court of Auditors, Luxembourg.
Artikel

Access_open What does it mean to be ‘illiberal’?

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden Liberalism, Illiberalism, Illiberal practices, Extremism, Discrimination
Auteurs Bouke de Vries
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    ‘Illiberal’ is an adjective that is commonly used by scholars. For example, they might speak of ‘illiberal cultures’, ‘illiberal groups’, ‘illiberal states’, ‘illiberal democracies’, ‘illiberal beliefs’, and ‘illiberal practices’. Yet despite its widespread usage, no in-depth discussions exist of exactly what it means for someone or something to be illiberal, or might mean. This article fills this lacuna by providing a conceptual analysis of the term ‘illiberal practices’, which I argue is basic in that other bearers of the property of being illiberal can be understood by reference to it. Specifically, I identify five ways in which a practice can be illiberal based on the different ways in which this term is employed within both scholarly and political discourses. The main value of this disaggregation lies in the fact that it helps to prevent confusions that arise when people use the adjective ‘illiberal’ in different ways, as is not uncommon.


Bouke de Vries
Bouke de Vries is a postdoctoral research fellow at Umeå University and the KU Leuven.
Rechtsbescherming

Een nieuw EU-sanctieregime tegen ernstige schendingen van de mensenrechten

Tijdschrift Nederlands tijdschrift voor Europees recht, Aflevering 3-4 2021
Trefwoorden EU-sancties, mensenrechten, rechtsbescherming, implementatie
Auteurs Prof. dr. C.M.J. Ryngaert en Prof. dr. R.A. Wessel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In december 2020 nam de Europese Unie een Global Human Rights Sanctions Regime aan. Het nieuwe sanctieregime past binnen de ambities van de EU om een bijdrage te leveren aan de wereldwijde bescherming van mensenrechten. Dit artikel bespreekt de behoefte aan dit regime, zijn reikwijdte, de geboden rechtsbescherming en de implementatie door de lidstaten. De auteurs stellen onder meer dat het juridisch onduidelijk is waarom het nodig was dit regime in te stellen. Ook vragen zij zich af of de politieke besluitvorming die ten grondslag ligt aan het regime, voldoende in staat is om rechtstatelijke waarborgen te garanderen.
    Besluit (GBVB) 2020/1999 en Verordening (EU) 2020/1998 van de Raad van 7 december 2020 (PbEU 2020, LI 410/13).


Prof. dr. C.M.J. Ryngaert
Prof. dr. C.M.J. (Cedric) Ryngaert is hoogleraar internationaal recht aan de Universiteit Utrecht (RENFORCE onderzoeksprogramma).

Prof. dr. R.A. Wessel
Prof. dr. R.A. (Ramses) Wessel is hoogleraar Europees recht aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.
Artikel

Access_open Dismissal protection in Germany

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Ontslagrecht, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Statutory and judge-made dismissal protrection in germany, Dismissal protection and constitutional law, The importance of the case law, Legal principles, Payments during sickness
Auteurs dr. Bernd Waas
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article provides overview of the main elements of protection against dismissal in germany. In particular, the possible reasons for dismissal and the substantive requirements are discussed. The procedural aspects and remedies are also dealt with. Finally, it is explained, how the payment during sickness is organized.


dr. Bernd Waas
Bernd Waas is Chair of Labour Law and Civil Law under consideration of European and International Labour Law at Goethe-Universität.
Case Law

Access_open 2021/1 EELC’s review of the year 2020

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 1 2021
Auteurs Ruben Houweling, Daiva Petrylaitė, Marianne Hrdlicka e.a.
Samenvatting

    Various of our academic board analysed employment law cases from last year. However, first, we start with some general remarks.


Ruben Houweling

Daiva Petrylaitė

Marianne Hrdlicka

Attila Kun

Luca Calcaterra

Francesca Maffei

Jean-Philippe Lhernould

Niklas Bruun

Jan-Pieter Vos

Luca Ratti

Andrej Poruban

Anthony Kerr

Filip Dorssemont
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