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Actualiteiten rechtspraak

NTS 2020/100

HR 19 mei 2020, 18/04881, ECLI:NL:HR:2020:895

Tijdschrift Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Strafrecht, Aflevering 4 2020
Actualiteiten rechtspraak

NTS 2020/98

HR 26 mei 2020, 19/01512, ECLI:NL:HR:2020:916

Tijdschrift Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Strafrecht, Aflevering 4 2020

    The Greek Supreme Court, in a case about the transfer of a business and the obligation on the transferee to continue employing the transferred employees, underlined the importance of a thorough and genuine control on all factors to be taken into consideration in order to conclude on the existence of a transfer of undertaking or not: the business transferred must retain an autonomous economic identity, in the sense that the functional link between the different factors transferred is retained, thus allowing the new entity to use them in order to exercise an economic activity identical or similar to the previous one.

Effie Mitsopoulou
Effie Mitsopoulou is an attorney-at-law at Effie Mitsopoulou Law Office.
Case Reports

2020/18 Prohibition of dismissal of pregnant employee (RO)

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden Gender discrimination
Auteurs Andreea Suciu en Teodora Mănăilă

    Analysing the national legal framework in relation to the protection of pregnant employees and employees who have recently given birth or are breastfeeding, provisions which transposed the regulations of Directive 92/85/EEC and of the conclusions in case C-103/16, Jessica Porras Guisado – v – Bankia S.A. and Others, the Constitutional Court of Romania ascertained that the dismissal prohibition of a pregnant employee is strictly restricted to reasons that have a direct connection with the employee’s pregnancy status. As for other cases where the termination of the employment contract is the result of disciplinary misconduct, unexcused absence from work, non-observance of labour discipline, or termination of employment for economic reasons or collective redundancies, the employer must submit in writing well-reasoned grounds for dismissal.

Andreea Suciu
Andreea Suciu is Managing Partner and attorney-at-law at Suciu | The Employment Law Firm, Bucharest, Romania.

Teodora Mănăilă
Teodora Mănăilă is Managing Partner and attorney-at-law at Suciu | The Employment Law Firm, Bucharest, Romania.

    The Greek Supreme Court in Plenary Session, in a long-awaited decision, has ruled that an employee who has not been able to exercise his right to annual leave due to long-term sick leave is still entitled to his paid annual leave as well as to annual leave allowance.

Effie Mitsopoulou
Effie Mitsopoulou is an attorney-at-law at Effie Mitsopoulou Law Office.

    Within the context of a transfer of undertaking in an asset reliant group of companies, the court should not just focus on whether the assets have been transferred between the two separate group companies, but also on whether one group company had actual control over the operation of the other group company.

Zef Even
Zef Even is a partner at SteensmaEven, Rotterdam, professor at Erasmus School of Law and editor-in-chief of EELC.

Eva Poutsma
Eva Poutsma is an attorney-at-law at SteensmaEven, Rotterdam.

    Applying the ECJ’s Maschek judgment, the Zutphen subdistrict court has found that an employee was not entitled to an allowance in lieu of untaken paid annual leave at the end of the employment relationship, as she had already received special leave. Moreover, the obligation to inform the employee concerning the right to (exercise) paid annual leave did not rest upon the employer.

Lisa de Vries
Lisa de Vries is a student at Erasmus School of Law and Editorial Assistant of EELC.

Jan-Pieter Vos
Jan-Pieter Vos is Labour Law teacher and PhD candidate at Erasmus School of Law and editor of EELC.

    The Supreme Court of the Netherlands has quashed a verdict of the Court of Appeal that held that a social plan provision stipulating the capping of a redundancy allowance in view of an entitlement to early retirement pension was invalid because of age discrimination. According to the Supreme Court, a more marginal justification test should have been applied to a social plan. The Court of Appeal, moreover, did not consider all the legitimate aims it specified and should also have taken additional social plan measures as well as pension measures from the past into account. By not doing so, it was not properly examined whether the social plan constituted age discrimination.

Albertine Veldman
Albertine Veldman is a lecturer in European and Dutch labour law at Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
Case Reports

2020/14 Sickness absence related to employee’s disability (DK)

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden Disability Discrimination, Unfair Dismissal
Auteurs Christian K. Clasen

    Recently, the Danish Eastern High Court found that an employee’s sickness absence was a result of the employer’s failure to comply with its obligation to offer reasonable accommodation for the employee’s disability. For that reason the employee, who was dismissed in pursuance of the Danish ‘120-day rule’, was entitled to compensation for unfair dismissal under the Danish Anti-Discrimination Act.

Christian K. Clasen
Christian K. Clasen is a partner at Norrbom Vinding, Copenhagen.

    The Supreme Court has allowed an appeal by one of the UK’s major supermarket chains, overturning a finding that it was vicariously liable for a rogue employee’s deliberate disclosure of payroll data related to some 100,000 co-workers, of whom 10,000 brought a group claim for damages.

Richard Lister
Richard Lister is a Managing Practice Development Lawyer at Lewis Silkin LLP.

    The dismissal of an employee for gross misconduct was unfair because the investigating officer failed to share significant new information with the manager conducting the disciplinary hearing who decided to dismiss, the Employment Appeal Tribunal has ruled.

Ludivine Gegaden
Ludivine Gegaden is an Associate at Lewis Silkin LLP.

    The notice of collective redundancies required to be given to an employment agency pursuant to Section 17(1) of the German Protection Against Unfair Dismissal Act (Kündigungsschutzgesetz, ‘KSchG’) can only be effectively submitted if the employer has already decided to terminate the employment contract at the time of its receipt by the employment agency. Notices of termination in collective redundancy proceedings are therefore effective – subject to the fulfilment of any other notice requirements – if the proper notice is received by the competent employment agency before the employee has received the letter of termination.

Marcus Bertz
Marcus Bertz is an attorney-at-law at Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH.

    In a recent Supreme Court decision, it was held by a 4-1 majority that there is no reason, in principle, why the provision of ‘reasonable accommodation’ for an employee with a disability should not involve the redistribution of duties.

Orla O’Leary
Orla O’Leary is an attorney-at-law at Mason Hayes & Curran, Dublin.

    The Belgian Court of Cassation (Supreme Court), in a decision of 20 January 2020, has ruled that the prohibition for an employer to terminate the employment relationship of a worker for reasons related to a complaint for acts of violence and/or moral and/or sexual harassment at work does not, however, preclude the dismissal from being justified by motives inferred from the facts set out in the complaint.

Gautier Busschaert
Gautier Busschaert is an attorney-at-law at Van Olmen & Wynant, Brussels.

    The Federal Labour Court of Germany (Bundesarbeitsgericht, ‘BAG’) has decided that a social plan that distinguished between employees who were born in 1960 or later and employees who were born before 1960 for the calculation of severance payment did not constitute unjustified age discrimination. However, a regulation in a social plan which referred to the “earliest possible” entitlement to a statutory pension when calculating the severance payment constituted unjustified indirect discrimination against disabled persons.

Iness Gutt
Ines Gutt is an attorney-at-law at Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH.
Case Reports

2020/22 Works council’s right to inspect remuneration lists (GE)

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden Information and Consultation, Privacy
Auteurs Robert Pacholski

    The Federal Labour Court (Bundesarbeitsgericht, “BAG”) has held that a works council must be provided with the documents necessary for carrying out its duties at any time on request. A works committee or another committee of the works council formed in accordance with the provisions of the Works Constitution Act (Betriebsverfassungsgesetz, “BetrVG”) is entitled to inspect the lists of gross wages. This right to inspect is not limited to anonymized gross pay lists. Data protection considerations do not dictate that the right is limited to anonymized gross payrolls. The processing of personal data associated with the right of inspection is permitted under the European General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) and the German Federal Data Protection Act (Bundesdatenschutzgesetz, “BDSG”).

Robert Pacholski
Robert Pacholski is an attorney-at-law at Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH.

Verpanding van andere objecten dan eigendom, beperkte rechten en vorderingsrechten

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Vermogensrecht, Aflevering 9 2020
Trefwoorden vermogensrecht, overdracht, overdraagbaar, verpandbaar
Auteurs Mr. dr. ing. A.J. Verdaas

    De praktijk heeft behoefte aan de verpanding van andere objecten dan eigendom, beperkte rechten en vorderingsrechten. Onderzocht wordt in hoeverre het vermogensrecht in deze behoefte dient te voorzien. Geconcludeerd wordt tot enkele toevoegingen aan de Aanwijzingen voor de regelgeving.

Mr. dr. ing. A.J. Verdaas
Mr. dr. ing. A.J. Verdaas is advocaat bij Ronald Verdaas advocatuur en onderzoeker bij het Onderzoekcentrum Onderneming & Recht van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.

Cybersecurity anno 2020

Het is niet de vraag of je gehackt wordt, maar wanneer

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Bijzonder Strafrecht & Handhaving, Aflevering 5 2020
Trefwoorden cybercrime, cybersecurity, ransomware, (cyber)verzekeringen, losgeld
Auteurs Mr. N. van der Voort en Mr. W.M. Warnaars

    Sinds enkele jaren neemt de dreiging van ransomware wereldwijd toe. Deze kwaadaardige gijzelsoftware kan elke organisatie treffen die geen of onjuiste maatregelen neemt. De laatste jaren is er een nieuwe trend zichtbaar: gerichte aanvallen met gebruik van ransomware op bedrijven (veelal grote multinationals) die een hoger losgeldbedrag kunnen en in sommige gevallen noodzakelijkerwijs zullen betalen. Deze trend is het afgelopen jaar veelvuldig door de media onder de aandacht gebracht en bedrijven zagen zich massaal genoodzaakt na te denken over het afsluiten van een zogenoemde cyberverzekering, met de achterliggende gedachte zich hiermee te beschermen tegen potentiële gevolgschade.
    Deze bijdrage gaat in op cyberincidenten anno 2020, het losgeld-dilemma voor slachtoffers van een geslaagde cyberaanval, de rol die cyberverzekeraars (kunnen) hebben op de cybersecurity(aansprakelijkheid) van bedrijven en enkele beschouwingen voor de toekomst.

Mr. N. van der Voort
Mr. N. van der Voort is advocaat bij Simmons & Simmons Amsterdam op de afdeling Crime, Fraud & Investigations.

Mr. W.M. Warnaars
Mr. W.M. Warnaars is advocaat bij Simmons & Simmons Amsterdam op de afdeling Crime, Fraud & Investigations.

Access_open The Obligation of Judges to Uphold Rules of Positive Law and Possibly Conflicting Ethical Values in Context

The Case of Criminalization of Homelessness in Hungary

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden Judicial independence, Rule of law, Judicial ethics, Hungary, Criminalization of homelessness
Auteurs Petra Gyöngyi

    This article examines the tension between the constitutional obligation of judges to uphold rules of positive law and possibly conflicting standards of conduct arising from professional-ethical values. The theoretical analysis will be illustrated by the case of Hungary, an EU member state experiencing rule of law challenges since 2010 and where the 2018-2019 criminalization of homelessness exemplifies the studied tension. Inspired by the theories of Philip Selznick and Martin Krygier, rule of law will be viewed as a value that requires progressive realization and context-specific implementation. By contextualizing the relevant Hungarian constitutional framework with the content of the judicial code of ethics and judicial practice, it will be shown how the legitimate space for Hungarian judges to distance themselves from legislation possibly in conflict with rule of law values is reduced. Theoretical suggestions for addressing such rule of law regressions will be made.

Petra Gyöngyi
Petra Gyöngyi is postdoctoral fellow aan de University of Oslo.

Access_open Kan een non disclosure agreement worden ontbonden?

Tijdschrift Contracteren, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden ontbinding, Non disclosure agreement, Samenhangende overeenkomsten, geheimhoudingsovereenkomst, Wet bescherming bedrijfsgeheimen
Auteurs Prof. mr. dr. T.H.M. van Wechem en Mr. A.J. Rijsterborgh

    Het in handelsrelaties contractueel verankeren van geheimhouding ter zake van bedrijfsgeheimen is als gevolg van de Wet bescherming bedrijfsgeheimen belangrijk(er) geworden. Partijen kunnen in de regel kiezen voor een NDA of een geheimhoudingsbeding in een meeromvattende overeenkomst. De schending van een geheimhoudingsverplichting zal in rechte veelal moeilijk zijn aan te tonen en ontbinding van de NDA wordt vaak uitgesloten. Toch onderzoeken de auteurs de juridische kwalificatie van de NDA en de gevolgen hiervan met betrekking tot de mogelijkheden tot ontbinding. Zij betogen dat een NDA veelal zal kwalificeren als een obligatoire overeenkomst, maar niet als een wederkerige overeenkomst, waardoor een NDA in geval van een tekortkoming niet kan worden ontbonden. De rechtsgevolgen van ontbinding zouden volgens de auteurs sowieso beperkt zijn geweest. In het geval vertrouwelijkheid is gewaarborgd in de vorm van een geheimhoudingsbeding in een meeromvattende overeenkomst, ligt dit anders. Gezien de verstrekkende rechtsgevolgen die een ontbinding in dat geval kan hebben, betogen auteurs dat het goed is dat de opstellers van contracten zich hier bewust van zijn.

Prof. mr. dr. T.H.M. van Wechem
Prof. mr. dr. T.H.M. van Wechem is hoogleraar Corporate Legal Counselling aan de Open Universiteit en zelfstandig juridisch adviseur te Amsterdam.

Mr. A.J. Rijsterborgh
Mr. A.J. Rijsterborgh is schrijfjurist in het gerechtshof Den Haag en werkt als buitenpromovendus aan de Open Universiteit aan een proefschrift over partiële aantasting van overeenkomsten.
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