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Kroniek ondernemingsstrafrecht

Eerste helft 2021

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Bijzonder Strafrecht & Handhaving, Aflevering 4 2021
Auteurs Prof. mr. H.J.B. Sackers (red.), mr. J.S. Boeser, mr. J. Boonstra e.a.

Prof. mr. H.J.B. Sackers (red.)

mr. J.S. Boeser

mr. J. Boonstra

mr. dr. S.S. Buisman

mr. A.A. Feenstra

mr. K.M.T. Helwegen

mr. A.C.M. Klaasse

mr. dr. I. Koopmans

mr. V.S.Y. Liem

prof. mr. M. Nelemans

mr. dr. J.S. Nan

mr. dr. drs. B. van de Vorm

mr. dr. W.S. de Zanger

Facebook Ireland: one-stop-shop confirmed

Het arrest van het Hof van Justitie in zaak C-645/19

Tijdschrift Nederlands tijdschrift voor Europees recht, Aflevering 5-6 2021
Trefwoorden AVG, één-loketmechanisme, one-stop-shop, privacy, leidende toezichthoudende autoriteit
Auteurs Mr. M.O.G. Temme

    Dit artikel behandelt het arrest van het Hof van Justitie van 15 juni 2021 in de zaak Facebook Ireland. Het Hof van Justitie bepaalt dat hoewel de leidende toezichthoudende autoriteit voor de grensoverschrijdende verwerking van persoonsgegevens in principe als de one-stop-shop in de zin van artikel 56 AVG moet worden aangemerkt, een betrokken toezichthoudende autoriteit in bepaalde omstandigheden gebruik kan maken van haar bevoegdheid als bedoeld in artikel 58 lid 5 AVG en een rechtsvordering kan instellen. De uitzonderingen op het één-loketmechanisme volgen uit de AVG.
    HvJ 15 juni 2021, zaak C-645/19, ECLI:EU:C:2021:483 (Facebook Ireland Ltd, Facebook Inc. en Facebook Belgium BVBA/Gegevensbeschermingsautoriteit (België)).

Mr. M.O.G. Temme
Mr. M.O.G. (Merle) Temme is advocaat bij CMS in Amsterdam/Brussel.

Naar een consistent en coherent consumentenrecht

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Vermogensrecht, Aflevering 7-8 2021
Trefwoorden consumentenrecht, informatieplichten, algemene voorwaarden, wetgeving, coherentie
Auteurs Mr. T.J. de Graaf

    In deze bijdrage wordt vanuit ondernemersperspectief een aanzet gedaan tot een consistent, coherent, gelaagd en modern consumentenrecht.

Mr. T.J. de Graaf
Mr. T.J. de Graaf is universitair hoofddocent burgerlijk recht aan de Universiteit Leiden en redacteur van dit tijdschrift.

    In its decision rendered on 28 February 2019, the Luxembourg Court of Appeal (Cour d’appel de Luxembourg) examined under which circumstances on-call duty performed at the workplace qualifies as actual working time.
    The issue raised was whether the time spent at night by an employee (i.e. the presence of an employee at the workplace) performing the work of a live-in carer was to be considered as ‘actual working time’.
    The Court expressly referred to EU case law and decided that the concept of actual working time is defined by two criteria, namely (i) whether the employee during such a period must be at the employer’s disposal, and (ii) the interference with the employee’s freedom to choose their activities.
    In view of the working hours provided for in the employment contract and in the absence of evidence proving that the employee would not have been at the employer’s home during her working hours, the Court found that the employee stayed at the employer’s home at night and at the employer’s request. It was irrelevant in this respect whether it was for convenience or not. It was further established that the employee could not leave during the night and return to her home and go about her personal business, so that the hours she worked at night were to be considered as actual working time.
    Given that the employee’s objections regarding her salary were justified (as the conditions of her remuneration violated statutory provisions), the Court decided that the dismissal was unfair.

Michel Molitor
Michel Molitor is the managing partner of MOLITOR Avocats à la Cour SARL in Luxembourg,

    The Supreme Court (SC) has unanimously decided that drivers engaged by Uber are workers rather than independent contractors. It also decided that drivers are working when they are signed in to the Uber app and ready to work.

Colin Leckey
Colin Leckey is a partner at Lewis Silkin LLP.

    On 22 May 2020, fifty-two members of the Hungarian parliament petitioned the Constitutional Court which was requested to establish the unconstitutionality of Section 6(4) of Government Decree no. 47/2020 (III. 18), its conflict with an international treaty and to annul it with retroactive effect to the date of its entry into force. According to Section 6(4) of the Decree “in a separate agreement, the employee and the employer may depart from the provisions of the Labour Code” (i.e. ‘absolute dispositivity’). The petition, among other things, alleged the violation of equal treatment and the right to rest and leisure. The Constitutional Court rejected the motion to establish the unconstitutionality of Section 6(4) and its annulment, since it was repealed on 18 June 2020. The Constitutional Court may, as a general rule, examine the unconstitutionality of the legislation in force, however it was no longer possible to examine the challenged piece of legislation in the framework of a posterior abstract norm control.

Kristof Toth
Kristof Toth is PhD student at the Karoli Gaspar University in Hungary.

    The German Federal Labour Court (Bundesarbeitsgericht, ‘BAG’) has ruled that the user of an online platform (‘crowdworker’) who takes on so-called ‘microjobs’ on the basis of a framework agreement concluded with the platform operator (‘crowdsourcer’) can be an employee of the crowdsourcer. This applies in a case where the framework agreement is aimed at a repeated acceptance of such microjobs. The decisive factor is whether the crowdworker performs work that is subject to instructions and is determined by third parties in the context of the actual performance of the contractual relationship. The name of the contract is irrelevant. One assumes an employment relationship if the crowdsourcer controls the collaboration via an online platform operated by them in such a way that the crowdworker cannot freely shape their activity in terms of place, time and content.

Katharina Gorontzi
Katharina Gorontzi, LLM, is a senior associate at Luther lawfirm in Dusseldorf, Germany.

Jana Voigt
Jana Voigt is a senior associate at Luther lawfirm in Dusseldorf, Germany.

    On 12 October 2020, the Labour Court of Appeal of Ghent ruled that there was no indirect discrimination in the case of Mrs. Achbita, because a policy of neutrality does not disadvantage Muslim women who want to wear a headscarf more than any other worker. The Labour Court of Appeal was also of the opinion that the employer should not examine alternative job positions.

Gautier Busschaert
Gautier Busschaert is an attorney-at-law at Van Olmen & Wynant.

    In the context of collective redundancies the term ‘establishment’ (Betrieb) must be interpreted in compliance with the Collective Redundancies Directive 98/59/EC (the ‘Directive’). The early warning mechanism of Section 45a of the Austrian Labour Market Promotion Act (Arbeitsmarktförderungsgesetz, ‘AMFG’) is only triggered if the number of the planned redundancies reaches a relevant threshold in an establishment. In the present case the stores in question were qualified as separate establishments within the meaning of Section 45a AMFG.

Andreas Tinhofer
Andreas Tinhofer is a partner at Zeiler Floyd Zadkovich.

Markus Blatnig
Markus Blatnig is an associate at Zeiler Floyd Zadkovich.
Case Reports

2021/18 Fixed-term singers not comparable to permanent singers at the Royal Danish Theatre (DK)

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Fixed-Term Work, Other Forms of Discrimination
Auteurs Christian K. Clasen

    In a recent case, the Danish Supreme Court addressed the question of what constitutes a comparable permanent employee in relation to discrimination against fixed-term employees. The Supreme Court ruled that even though the two groups of fixed-term and permanent singers at the Royal Opera Chorus of the Royal Danish Theatre performed almost the same tasks, their positions were not comparable as the singers’ qualifications and skills were different and, for this reason, the difference in terms and conditions was not discriminatory.

Christian K. Clasen
Christian K. Clasen is a partner at Norrbom Vinding, Copenhagen.

    The Court of Appeal has overturned a High Court decision which granted injunctive relief to prevent the defendant from removing the plaintiff from his position as chief financial officer during his probationary period.

Orla O’Leary
Orla O’Leary is an attorney-at-law at Mason Hayes & Curran in Dublin.

Laura Ryan
Laura Ryan is a trainee solicitor at Mason Hayes & Curran in Dublin.

    The Bulgarian Supreme Court of Cassation in a decision of 2 February 2021 has ruled that in cases where the selection process is not a mandatory part of the termination procedure it is entirely up to the employer to conduct the selection and base its termination decisions on the results of such selection.

Kalina Tchakarova
Kalina Tchakarova is a partner at Djingov, Gouginski, Kyutchukov and Velichkov.

    In the case of a ‘service provision change’ under the Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) Regulations 2006 (TUPE), where a service is outsourced or re-tendered, the Employment Appeal Tribunal (EAT) has ruled that an employee’s contract can be split so they go from working full-time for one employer to working part-time for two or more employers.

Amy Cooper
Amy Cooper is an associate at Lewis Silkin LLP.

Access_open Eerste stappen in Europese regulering van artificiële intelligentie: algoritmes en patiëntenrechten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Gezondheidsrecht, Aflevering 4 2021
Trefwoorden kunstmatige intelligentie, Europees gezondheidsrecht, Artificial Intelligence Act, AI
Auteurs Mr. H.B. van Kolfschooten

    AI kan de kwaliteit en toegankelijkheid van zorg verbeteren, maar gaat ook gepaard met grote risico’s voor patiënten. Deze bijdrage bespreekt de recente Europese ontwikkelingen met betrekking tot regulering van AI in de gezondheidszorg en de gevolgen daarvan voor de rechten van de patiënt.

Mr. H.B. van Kolfschooten
Hannah van Kolfschooten is docent en promovendus bij het Law Center for Health and Life, Universiteit van Amsterdam.

Doorlooptijden: staat de trein stil of komt die (nu eindelijk) in beweging?

Een bespreking van het eindrapport ‘Doorlooptijden in beweging’

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Civiele Rechtspleging, Aflevering 3 2021
Trefwoorden doorlooptijden, regie, civiele zaken, kantonzaken
Auteurs Frans van Dijk, Kim van der Kraats en Remme Verkerk

    De lengte van procedures en de onvoorspelbaarheid daarvan vormen een structurele zwakte van de Nederlandse rechtspraak. De verkorting van doorlooptijden istopprioriteit van de Rechtspraak. Ruim een jaar geleden verscheen het eindrapport van het project doorlooptijden Rechtspraak. Het bevat veel suggesties om dit probleem aan te pakken. In deze bijdrage wordt een aanzet gegeven voor een uitwerking van de meest veelbelovende oplossingsrichtingen. Conclusie is dat die oplossing gezocht moet worden in een stappenplan aan het begin van de procedure, regie van begin tot einde door de zaaksrechter, het houden van een zitting in iedere zaak en het direct inroosteren van schrijftijd voor de uitspraak.

Frans van Dijk
Prof. dr. F. van Dijk is hoogleraar Empirische Analyse van Rechtssystemen aan de Universiteit Utrecht.

Kim van der Kraats
Prof. mr. drs. K.G.F. van der Kraats is bijzonder hoogleraar Rechtspraak aan de Universiteit Utrecht en rechter in de rechtbank Midden-Nederland.

Remme Verkerk
Prof. dr. mr. R.R. Verkerk is hoogleraar Burgerlijk Procesrecht aan de Universiteit Utrecht en advocaat bij Houthoff.

Angelique Perdaems
Mr. A.J.C. Perdaems is fiscaal advocaat bij Hertoghs advocaten.

Francisca Mebius

Groen van Prinsterer las Tocqueville

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Tocqueville, Groen van Prinsterer, democratie, revolutie
Auteurs Jurn de Vries

    The books by the French writer Alexis Tocqueville attracted great interest, also in the Netherlands, including Groen van Prinsterer and his friends. Groen frequently quotes from it, often with approval – for example about the vulnerability of democracy –, sometimes with critical commentary – about democracy as the fruit of revolutionary concepts, for example. This article contains the result of an investigation into intercourse of Groen with the works of Tocqueville. This research was carried out as part of the Tocqueville project of Prof. Sophie van Bijsterveld, professor of Law, Religion and Society at Radboud University in Nijmegen (

Jurn de Vries
Dr. J.P. de Vries was hoofdredacteur van het Nederlands Dagblad, lid van de Eerste Kamer en postdoc-onderzoeker publieke theologie aan de Theologische Universiteit in Kampen.

Access_open What does it mean to be ‘illiberal’?

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden Liberalism, Illiberalism, Illiberal practices, Extremism, Discrimination
Auteurs Bouke de Vries

    ‘Illiberal’ is an adjective that is commonly used by scholars. For example, they might speak of ‘illiberal cultures’, ‘illiberal groups’, ‘illiberal states’, ‘illiberal democracies’, ‘illiberal beliefs’, and ‘illiberal practices’. Yet despite its widespread usage, no in-depth discussions exist of exactly what it means for someone or something to be illiberal, or might mean. This article fills this lacuna by providing a conceptual analysis of the term ‘illiberal practices’, which I argue is basic in that other bearers of the property of being illiberal can be understood by reference to it. Specifically, I identify five ways in which a practice can be illiberal based on the different ways in which this term is employed within both scholarly and political discourses. The main value of this disaggregation lies in the fact that it helps to prevent confusions that arise when people use the adjective ‘illiberal’ in different ways, as is not uncommon.

Bouke de Vries
Bouke de Vries is a postdoctoral research fellow at Umeå University and the KU Leuven.

Kroniek economie in het mededingingsrecht 2020

Tijdschrift Markt & Mededinging, Aflevering 2 2021
Auteurs Nicole Rosenboom, Anna den Boer en Lola Damstra

Nicole Rosenboom
Dr. N. Rosenboom is werkzaam als senior consultant bij Oxera Amsterdam.

Anna den Boer
A. den Boer, MSc, is werkzaam als senior consultant bij Oxera Amsterdam.

Lola Damstra
L. Damstra, MSc, is werkzaam als consultant bij Oxera Amsterdam.
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