Zoekresultaat: 305 artikelen

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Article

Access_open The Influence of Strategic Culture on Legal Justifications

Comparing British and German Parliamentary Debates Regarding the War against ISIS

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden strategic culture, international law, ISIS, parliamentary debates, interdisciplinarity
Auteurs Martin Hock
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article presents an interdisciplinary comparison of British and German legal arguments concerning the justification of the use of force against the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS). It is situated in the broader framework of research on strategic culture and the use of international law as a tool for justifying state behaviour. Thus, a gap in political science research is analysed: addressing legal arguments as essentially political in their usage. The present work questions whether differing strategic cultures will lead to a different use of legal arguments. International legal theory and content analysis are combined to sort arguments into the categories of instrumentalism, formalism and natural law. To do so, a data set consisting of all speeches with regard to the fight against ISIS made in both parliaments until the end of 2018 is analysed. It is shown that Germany and the UK, despite their varying strategic cultures, rely on similar legal justifications to a surprisingly large extent.


Martin Hock
Martin Hock is Research Associate at the Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.
Artikel

De opsporing en vervolging van seksueel geweld door de jaren heen vanuit een genderperspectief

Tijdschrift Boom Strafblad, Aflevering 5 2021
Trefwoorden Gender en strafrecht, Seksueel geweld tegen vrouw, Genderdiscriminatie, Gelijke behandeling, Feminisme
Auteurs Dr. K.M. (Kelly) Pitcher en mr. dr. M. (Mojan) Samadi
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    De vanzelfsprekendheid waarmee in huidige internationale instrumenten en zelfs nationale parlementaire stukken geweld tegen vrouwen wordt gekoppeld aan emancipatiebeleid en patriarchale machtsverhoudingen, verhult dat achter dit besef een jarenlange maatschappelijke, politieke en juridische strijd schuilgaat. Deze bijdrage brengt de ontwikkeling van de opsporing en vervolging van seksueel geweld tegen vrouwen in kaart en reflecteert op de onderliggende redenen die ten grondslag liggen aan de knelpunten die hierbij spelen.


Dr. K.M. (Kelly) Pitcher
Kelly Pitcher is universitair docent straf- en strafprocesrecht bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

mr. dr. M. (Mojan) Samadi
Mojan Samadi is universitair docent straf(proces)recht bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden en tevens redactiesecretaris bij Boom Strafblad.
Article

Access_open Big Data Ethics: A Life Cycle Perspective

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden big data, big data analysis, data life cycle, ethics, AI
Auteurs Simon Vydra, Andrei Poama, Sarah Giest e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The adoption of big data analysis in the legal domain is a recent but growing trend that highlights ethical concerns not just with big data analysis, as such, but also with its deployment in the legal domain. This article systematically analyses five big data use cases from the legal domain utilising a pluralistic and pragmatic mode of ethical reasoning. In each case we analyse what happens with data from its creation to its eventual archival or deletion, for which we utilise the concept of ‘data life cycle’. Despite the exploratory nature of this article and some limitations of our approach, the systematic summary we deliver depicts the five cases in detail, reinforces the idea that ethically significant issues exist across the entire big data life cycle, and facilitates understanding of how various ethical considerations interact with one another throughout the big data life cycle. Furthermore, owing to its pragmatic and pluralist nature, the approach is potentially useful for practitioners aiming to interrogate big data use cases.


Simon Vydra
Simon Vydra is a Researcher at the Institute for Public Administration, Leiden University, the Netherlands.

Andrei Poama
Andrei Poama is Assistant Professor at the Institute for Public Administration, Leiden University, the Netherlands.

Sarah Giest
Sarah Giest is Assistant Professor at the Institute for Public Administration, Leiden University, the Netherlands.

Alex Ingrams
Alex Ingrams is Assistant Professor at the Institute for Public Administration, Leiden University, the Netherlands.

Bram Klievink
Bram Klievink is Professor of Digitization and Public Policy at the Institute for Public Administration, Leiden University, the Netherlands.
Artikel

Access_open Time and Law in the Post-COVID-19 Era: The Usefulness of Experimental Law

Special Issue Experimental Legislation in Times of Crisis, Sofia Ranchordas & Bart van Klink (eds.)

Tijdschrift Law and Method, september 2021
Trefwoorden COVID-19, time and law, law-making, parliament, government, legal certainty
Auteurs Erik Longo
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The COVID-19 pandemic swept the world in 2020 impelling us to reconsider the basic principles of constitutional law like the separation of power, the rule of law, human rights protection, etc. The two most pressing legal issues that have attracted the attention of legal scholars so far are, on the one hand, the different regulatory policies implemented by governments and, on the other, the balance among the branches of government in deciding matters of the emergency. The pandemic has determined a further and violent acceleration of the legislature’s temporal dimension and the acknowledgement that, to make legislation quicker, parliament must permanently displace its legislative power in favour of government. Measures adopted to tackle the outbreak and recover from the interruption of economic and industrial businesses powerfully confirm that today our societies are more dependent on the executives than on parliaments and, from a temporal perspective, that the language of the law is substantially the present instead of the future. Against this background, this article discusses how the prevalence of governments’ legislative power leads to the use of temporary and experimental legislation in a time, like the pandemic, when the issue of ‘surviving’ becomes dominant.


Erik Longo
Prof. Dr. Erik Longo is associate professor of Constitutional Law at the University of Florence.

Lukas van den Berge
Lukas van den Berge is assistent professor of legal theory at Utrecht University.

    The theme of the special issue of Law and Method on Education in (Professional) Legal Ethics consists both of content-related as well as didactical-oriented contributions, of which most are written in the Dutch language and two are written in the English language. The content-related approaches show that in education in legal ethics use can be made of professional standards, constitutional principles as well as general ethical theories (such as utilitarianism, deontology, and virtue ethics). Because lawyers work with ‘the law’, broader or narrower conceptions of law (in relation to morality) also affect legal reasoning and are therefore relevant to education in professional legal ethics. However, these approaches are also put into perspective: the leap forward from moral reasoning based on abstract core values and ethical principles to morally correct action in concrete moral dilemmas in legal practice is a large one. Several solutions are proposed: I. teach ethics indirectly, stressing the importance of facts and of professional role consciousness, and of the importance of formal and informal respect for all concerned, as an essential part of the professional lawyers’ role (Kaptein – written in English); II. use insights from social psychology to overcome barriers to actual ethical behaviour (Becker and Mackor); III. use dialogues about case studies that demonstrate different aspects of judicial ethics for judges (Brenninkmeijer&Bish – written in English) or IV. give (to future governmental lawyers) context-sensitive bottom-up moral dilemmas to enhance realism, alertness and role resistance against opposing forces (Van Lochem). A relevant theme in the didactical approaches to legal ethics is the absence or limited practical professional experience law students have, so that, for example, conversation techniques based on personal experience have limited value. At university level, this can be remedied to some extent by reinforcing one’s own experience, i.e. experiential learning, or by bringing the experiences of others into the classroom, for example with guest lecturers from the field, or by telling and discussing fictional or true stories (Van Dongen & Tigchelaar). Education at university gives a good starting point for (professional) legal ethics, followed by post-academic legal ethics education and legal practice as lifelong learning school. A contribution with a focus on the notary (Waaijer) highlights the different approaches within this continuum.


Emanuel van Dongen
Dr. Emanuel van Dongen is Assistant Professor Private Law at the Molengraaff Institute for Private Law, researcher at the Utrecht Centre for Accountability and Liability Law and the Montaigne Centre for Rule of Law and Administration of Justice, Utrecht School of Law.

Jet Tigchelaar
Dr. Jet Tigchelaar, Assistent Professor Legal Theory, researcher at Utrecht Centre for European Research into Family Law, Utrecht School of Law.
Artikel

Access_open What does it mean to be ‘illiberal’?

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden Liberalism, Illiberalism, Illiberal practices, Extremism, Discrimination
Auteurs Bouke de Vries
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    ‘Illiberal’ is an adjective that is commonly used by scholars. For example, they might speak of ‘illiberal cultures’, ‘illiberal groups’, ‘illiberal states’, ‘illiberal democracies’, ‘illiberal beliefs’, and ‘illiberal practices’. Yet despite its widespread usage, no in-depth discussions exist of exactly what it means for someone or something to be illiberal, or might mean. This article fills this lacuna by providing a conceptual analysis of the term ‘illiberal practices’, which I argue is basic in that other bearers of the property of being illiberal can be understood by reference to it. Specifically, I identify five ways in which a practice can be illiberal based on the different ways in which this term is employed within both scholarly and political discourses. The main value of this disaggregation lies in the fact that it helps to prevent confusions that arise when people use the adjective ‘illiberal’ in different ways, as is not uncommon.


Bouke de Vries
Bouke de Vries is a postdoctoral research fellow at Umeå University and the KU Leuven.
Redactioneel

Access_open Where Were the Law Schools?

On Legal Education as Training for Justice and the Rule of Law (Against the ‘Dark Sides of Legality’)

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 1 2021
Auteurs Iris van Domselaar
Auteursinformatie

Iris van Domselaar
Iris van Domselaar is associate professor in legal philosophy and legal ethics at the Amsterdam Law School, University of Amsterdam.
Significant others

Susanne Karstedt

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2021
Auteurs Maartje Weerdesteijn
Auteursinformatie

Maartje Weerdesteijn
Dr. Maartje Weerdesteijn, MSc, is universitair docent bij de afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, en onderzoeker bij het Center for International Criminal Justice. m.weerdesteijn@vu.nl
Artikel

What makes a sex crime?

A fair label for image-based sexual abuse

Tijdschrift Boom Strafblad, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Image-based sexual abuse, Revenge porn, Wraakporno, Fair labelling, Sexual autonomy
Auteurs M.L.R. (Marthe) Goudsmit LL.M. M.A
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article considers why image-based sexual abuse (‘ibsa’) should be classified as a sexual offence. The article briefly considers harmfulness, and then moves to discuss the principle of fair labelling. Classification of offences should be informed by the wrongdoing they address. A conceptual analysis of sexual offences shows that sexual wrongs warrant labelling as sexual offences. The infringement of the right to sexual autonomy in ibsa means the nature of the wrong is sexual. Ibsa should be a sex crime.


M.L.R. (Marthe) Goudsmit LL.M. M.A
Marthe Goudsmit is PhD candidate at the University of Oxford.
Artikel

Access_open Ethiek en recht, actio in distans

Special issue on Education in (Professional) Legal Ethics, ­Emanuel van Dongen & Jet Tigchelaar (eds.)

Tijdschrift Law and Method, april 2021
Trefwoorden juridische beroepspraktijk, juridische opleiding, ethiek
Auteurs Marcel Becker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Deze tekst belicht achtergronden van het ethiekonderwijs aan juristen, zoals dat aan de Radboud Universiteit vorm krijgt. Centraal staat eerst de praktisch én theoretisch relevante spanning tussen ethiek en recht. Na een verkenning van deze spanning bespreekt Marcel Becker de status van ethische theorieën en de meerwaarde van sociaalwetenschappelijke kennis voor ethiekonderwijs.


Marcel Becker
Dr. Marcel Becker is associate professor Ethics and Political Philosophy, Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen.
Artikel

Access_open Toegang tot het recht in de rechtsstaat

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden rechtsstaat, toegang tot het recht, sociale dimensie, Nicholas Barber, Pierre Bourdieu
Auteurs Nathalie Franziska Hendrika Schnabl
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper considers access to the rule of law as a requirement for the well-functioning of the rule of law in society. In most rule of law debates, access to the rule of law is not a topic of discussion because these scholars focus themselves solely on the legalistic dimension of the rule of law. Barber was the first to mention the social dimension explicitly but without a theoretical framework. Based on the three capitals of Bourdieu, this paper offers a framework to determine the elements of the social dimension. With these capitals, barriers to the access to the rule of law for individuals can be identified, and solutions can be offered.


Nathalie Franziska Hendrika Schnabl
Nathalie Schnabl is promovenda aan de Faculteit Rechtswetenschappen van de Open Universiteit.
Artikel

Access_open Art, Science and the Poetry of Justice – ­Pragmatist Aesthetics and Its Importance for Law and Legal Education

Special Issue on Pragmatism and Legal Education ­Sanne Taekema & Thomas Riesthuis (eds.)

Tijdschrift Law and Method, maart 2021
Trefwoorden legal research, legal education, epistemology, law, science and art
Auteurs Wouter de Been
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Classic pragmatists like John Dewey entertained an encompassing notion of science. This pragmatic belief in the continuities between a scientific, ethical and cultural understanding of the world went into decline in the middle of the 20th century. To many mid-century American and English philosophers it suggested a simplistic faith that philosophy and science could address substantive questions about values, ethics and aesthetics in a rigorous way. This critique of classic pragmatism has lost some of its force in the last few decades with the rise of neo-pragmatism, but it still has a hold over disciplines like economics and law. In this article I argue that this criticism of pragmatism is rooted in a narrow conception of what science entails and what philosophy should encompass. I primarily focus on one facet: John Dewey’s work on art and aesthetics. I explain why grappling with the world aesthetically, according to Dewey, is closely related to dealing with it scientifically, for instance, through the poetic and aesthetic development of metaphors and concepts to come to terms with reality. This makes his theory of art relevant, I argue, not only to studying and understanding law, but also to teaching law.


Wouter de Been
Wouter de Been is a legal theorist who has written widely on pragmatism and legal realism. I would like to thank the reviewers for their comments. Their critical commentary made this a much better article. Any remaining shortcomings are of course my own. I dedicate this article to the memory of Willem Witteveen, who always saw the art in law.
Boekbespreking

Toezicht en moraal

Kansen voor gedragsbeïnvloeding

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Toezicht, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden moreel gedrag, integriteit, compliance, Ellemers
Auteurs Hadewych van Kempen
Auteursinformatie

Hadewych van Kempen
Drs. H van Kempen is politicoloog en strategisch kennisadviseur bij het bureau van de Inspectieraad.
Redactioneel

Access_open Zicht op het doel: wendbaar vooruit

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Toezicht, Aflevering 1 2021
Auteurs Jeroen Goudsmit en Arnt Mein
Auteursinformatie

Jeroen Goudsmit
Dr. J. Goudsmit is kerndocent Compliance & Integriteitmanagement aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, compliance officer ter bestrijding van witwassen, terrorismefinanciering en sanctie-overtredingen bij de Rabobank en redactielid van Tijdschrift voor Toezicht.

Arnt Mein
Mr. dr. A. Mein is lector Legal Management aan de Hogeschool van Amsterdam, faculteit Maatschappij en Recht en redactielid van Tijdschrift voor Toezicht.
Artikel

Whose narratives?

The Self as (also) an alien – for a complex concept of ‘Self’ in narrative criminology

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden Self, narrative criminology
Auteurs Professor Alfredo Verde
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper, answering to a recent critique by Ben Laws to the concept of Self developed by narrative criminology, and recognizing its importance, shows that narrative criminology has formulated a complex dynamic definition of it, in addressing both the limit-experiences and the unconscious dimension. Such enlargement can be attained by adding to narrative criminology the contributions of psychosocial criminology, that considers also the emotional dimension of crime narratives and the enjoyment connected to crime: the offender Self, in this perspective, is a multiplex, not completely definable, sometimes alien entity, which can be exposed analysing in depth criminal narratives.


Professor Alfredo Verde
Professor Alfredo Verde is professor of Criminology, Department of Health Sciences (DISSAL), University of Genoa, Italy.

    Phase 5 of a mediation process aims at the participants’ reaching an agreement that is complete, fair, feasible and enforceable. Its legal nature is primarily dependent on the wishes of the parties. It can comprise legally non-binding statements, agreements on the parameters of future contracts, and even legally binding declarations of intent concerning contested claims.
    It can be considered a settlement contract if it contractually settles a conflict between parties, or contractually determines an uncertain legal relationship by dint of mutual relenting. Depending on the circumstances, it may also be classified as a precontract, a procedural agreement, a contract of remission, or a contract sui generis.
    German law does not provide a special order of enforcement for mediation settlements. Though such an order (section 796d ZPO) was part of one of the drafts for the German Mediation Act and its accompanying changes of the law, it was abandoned during the legislative procedure. An agreement can be enforced based on: a settlement in court, an arbitral settlement, a lawyers’ settlement, a recorded instrument, or an arbitral verdict.


Judith Wollstädter
Judith Wollstädter is a jurist and holds master degrees in management of theatres and orchestras as well as mediation. After serving in the capacity of directrix of administration in several different theatres and orchestras, as of 2020, she has taken a position as a research assistant to Prof. Dr. Katharina Gräfin von Schlieffen at the University of Hagen, Germany, where she supervises Mediation Studies and the Master programme in Mediation.
Article

Access_open Can Non-discrimination Law Change Hearts and Minds?

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden law and society, social change, discrimination, non-discrimination law, positive action
Auteurs Anita Böcker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A question that has preoccupied sociolegal scholars for ages is whether law can change ‘hearts and minds’. This article explores whether non-discrimination law can create social change, and, more particularly, whether it can change attitudes and beliefs as well as external behaviour. The first part examines how sociolegal scholars have theorised about the possibility and desirability of using law as an instrument of social change. The second part discusses the findings of empirical research on the social working of various types of non-discrimination law. What conclusions can be drawn about the ability of non-discrimination law to create social change? What factors influence this ability? And can non-discrimination law change people’s hearts and minds as well as their behaviour? The research literature does not provide an unequivocal answer to the latter question. However, the overall picture emerging from the sociolegal literature is that law is generally more likely to bring about changes in external behaviour and that it can influence attitudes and beliefs only indirectly, by altering the situations in which attitudes and opinions are formed.


Anita Böcker
Anita Böcker is associate professor of Sociology of Law at Radboud University, Nijmegen.
Article

Access_open Positive State Obligations under European Law: A Tool for Achieving Substantive Equality for Sexual Minorities in Europe

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden Positive obligations, sexual minorities, sexual orientation, European law, human rights
Auteurs Alina Tryfonidou
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article seeks to examine the development of positive obligations under European law in the specific context of the rights of sexual minorities. It is clear that the law should respect and protect all sexualities and diverse intimate relationships without discrimination, and for this purpose it needs to ensure that sexual minorities can not only be free from state interference when expressing their sexuality in private, but that they should be given the right to express their sexuality in public and to have their intimate relationships legally recognised. In addition, sexual minorities should be protected from the actions of other individuals, when these violate their legal and fundamental human rights. Accordingly, in addition to negative obligations, European law must impose positive obligations towards sexual minorities in order to achieve substantive equality for them. The article explains that, to date, European law has imposed a number of such positive obligations; nonetheless, there is definitely scope for more. It is suggested that European law should not wait for hearts and minds to change before imposing additional positive obligations, especially since this gives the impression that the EU and the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) are condoning or disregarding persistent discrimination against sexual minorities.


Alina Tryfonidou
Alina Tryfonidou is Professor of Law, University of Reading.
Article

Access_open How Far Should the State Go to Counter Prejudice?

A Positive State Obligation to Counter Dehumanisation

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden prejudice, soft paternalism, empathy, liberalism, employment discrimination, access to goods and services
Auteurs Ioanna Tourkochoriti
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article argues that it is legitimate for the state to practice soft paternalism towards changing hearts and minds in order to prevent behaviour that is discriminatory. Liberals accept that it is not legitimate for the state to intervene in order to change how people think because ideas and beliefs are wrong in themselves. It is legitimate for the state to intervene with the actions of a person only when there is a risk of harm to others and when there is a threat to social coexistence. Preventive action of the state is legitimate if we consider the immaterial and material harm that discrimination causes. It causes harm to the social standing of the person, psychological harm, economic and existential harm. All these harms threaten peaceful social coexistence. This article traces a theory of permissible government action. Research in the areas of behavioural psychology, neuroscience and social psychology indicates that it is possible to bring about a change in hearts and minds. Encouraging a person to adopt the perspective of the person who has experienced discrimination can lead to empathetic understanding. This, can lead a person to critically evaluate her prejudice. The paper argues that soft paternalism towards changing hearts and minds is legitimate in order to prevent harm to others. It attempts to legitimise state coercion in order to eliminate prejudice and broader social patterns of inequality and marginalisation. And it distinguishes between appropriate and non-appropriate avenues the state could pursue in order to eliminate prejudice. Policies towards eliminating prejudice should address the rational and the emotional faculties of a person. They should aim at using methods and techniques that focus on persuasion and reduce coercion. They should raise awareness of what prejudice is and how it works in order to facilitate well-informed voluntary decisions. The version of soft paternalism towards changing minds and attitudes defended in this article makes it consistent with liberalism.


Ioanna Tourkochoriti
Ioanna Tourkochoriti is Lecturer Above the Bar, NUI Galway School of Law.
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