Zoekresultaat: 7 artikelen

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Artikel

Gelijkebehandelingswetgeving en identiteitsgebonden benoemingsbeleid van orthodox-protestantse scholen

Onzekerheid over consistentie en het enkele feit

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden Equal treatment / anti-discrimination, Orthodox-protestant schools, Religious norms, Semi-autonomous social fields, Uncertainty
Auteurs Mr. dr. Niels Rijke
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Within orthodox-protestant schools in The Netherlands there is growing diversity and uncertainty about internal religious, cultural and social norms. Though orthodox-protestant schools are among the strongest semi-autonomous social fields, where it is difficult for equal treatment law to pervade, this growing diversity and uncertainty about internal norms can make this pervasion possible. The uncertainty about the meaning of the exception clause in equal treatment legislation for the appointment policy of religious schools also affects this.
    Because of the uncertainty about the meaning of the exception clause the position of the school board was strengthened in comparison to the employee, even though the intention of the equal treatment law was the opposite. At a later stage the clarification of the anti-discrimination norm by changing the exception clause has strengthened the position of the employee. Though this is only possible when religious, cultural and social norms are changing. In that case orthodox-protestant schools, as semi-autonomous fields, are more open for the effects of this legal norm.
    Uncertainty about the meaning of the requirement of a consistent appointment policy has led both to tightening as well as relaxation of the policy. In the first place tightening or relaxation of policies depends on the development of religious, cultural and social norms within different school denominations. Thus, uncertainty about internal norms works both contrary as well as strengthening to uncertainty about equal treatment legislation.


Mr. dr. Niels Rijke
Niels Rijke was van 2015 tot 2019 als buitenpromovendus verbonden aan de Universiteit Utrecht en voerde hij onderzoek uit naar identiteitsgebonden benoemingsbeleid ten aanzien van personeel op orthodox-protestantse basis- en middelbare scholen in Nederland in relatie tot mensenrechten.
Artikel

Homoseksuele leraar op een orthodox-protestantse school?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden orthodox-protestants, homoseksualiteit, gelijke behandeling, onderwijs
Auteurs Mr. dr. Niels Rijke
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Whether homosexual teachers can work at an orthodox Protestant school in The Netherlands is regularly subject of societal debate. The Equal Treatment Law (1994) prohibits discrimination on the ground of homosexual orientation. How this works out in practice differs per denomination (type of school) and shifts over time in the direction of increasing acceptance. Within orthodox Protestant schools room is increasing to come out of the closet. Within certain schools there is increasing room for homosexual relationships, although opinions within these schools often differ and hence may also lead to conflict.


Mr. dr. Niels Rijke
Mr. dr. N.A. Rijke is jurist en sociaal wetenschapper. Hij promoveerde in november 2019 in Utrecht op zijn onderzoek naar identiteitsgebonden benoemingsbeleid van orthodox-protestantse scholen in relatie tot mensenrechten.
Artikel

Access_open Islamitische scholen dragen bij aan integratie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden islamitische scholen, Integratie, bijzonder onderwijs, Schoolidentiteit
Auteurs Dr. Marietje Beemsterboer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Unlike the common expectations, Islamic primary schools can contribute to the integration of Muslims in the Dutch society. This article is a reflection of Dr Beemsterboer’s doctoral research and asks what this conclusion can say about other religion based primary schools.


Dr. Marietje Beemsterboer
Dr. M.M. Beemsterboer promoveerde in 2018 op het proefschrift Islamitische basisscholen in Nederland. Ze werkt als leerkracht in het basisonderwijs en is verbonden aan het Centre for the Study of Islam and Society van de Universiteit Leiden (LUCIS). m.m.beemsterboer@gmail.com
Artikel

Access_open Maatschappelijk initiatief voor nieuwe scholen

Over een verruiming van het richtingbegrip

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden vrijheid van onderwijs, Richtingbegrip, oprichting van scholen, bekostiging van scholen, richtingvrije planning
Auteurs Mr. Hansko Broeksteeg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch freedom to set up schools has become illusory. The foundation standards (the number of students) are high and the current interpretation of the concept of direction (religion or philosophy of life) does not seem to be sufficiently connected with today’s pluriform society. The alternative of direction-free planning of schools had practical and fundamental objections. Parent statements are insufficiently reliable and a school without direction does not have a foundation. An extension of direction is neither without disadvantages: the government will have to test whether there is a sufficiently coherent concept to be able to count as a direction.


Mr. Hansko Broeksteeg
Mr. J.L.W. Broeksteeg is universitair hoofddocent Staatsrecht aan de Radboud Universiteit. Hij was voorzitter van een commissie, ingesteld door de katholieke onderwijsbonden KBO en KBVO (inmiddels opgegaan in Verus), die in 2011 adviseerde over de toekomst van het Nederlandse onderwijsstelsel.
Artikel

Access_open Freedom of Religion, Inc.: Whose Sovereignty?

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden accommodation, freedom of religion, political theology, liberalism, liberty of conscience
Auteurs Jean L. Cohen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article focuses on an expansive conception of religious freedom propagated by a vocal group of American legal scholars – jurisdictional pluralists – often working with well-funded conservative foundations and influencing accommodation decisions throughout the US. I show that the proliferation of ‘accommodation’ claims in the name of church autonomy and religious conscience entailing exemption from civil regulation and anti-discrimination laws required by justice have a deep structure that has little to do with fairness or inclusion or liberal pluralism. Instead they are tantamount to sovereignty claims, involving powers and immunities for the religious, implicitly referring to another, higher law and sovereign than the constitution or the people. The twenty-first century version of older pluralist ‘freedom of religion’ discourses also rejects the comprehensive jurisdiction and scope of public, civil law – this time challenging the ‘monistic sovereignty’ of the democratic constitutional state. I argue that the jurisdictional pluralist approach to religious freedom challenges liberal democratic constitutionalism at its core and should be resisted wherever it arises.


Jean L. Cohen
Jean L. Cohen is the Nell and Herbert M. Singer Professor of Political Thought and Contemporary Civilization at the Department of Political Science of Columbia University (New York) and will be the Emile Noel Fellow at the Jean Monet Center of the NYU Law School from January till June 2016.
Artikel

Access_open De staat als ‘neutral organiser of religions’?

Een analyse van de rechtspraak van het Europees Hof voor de Rechten van de Mens (I)

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden religie, godsdienstvrijheid, EVRM, secularisme, neutraliteit, Europees Hof voor de rechten van de mens
Auteurs Sophie van Bijsterveld
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since 2001 the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) regularly applies the normative characterization of the state as a ‘neutral and impartial organiser of religions’ in its cases. This qualification has no explicit basis in the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). Where does it come from, how does the ECtHR understand this, in which type of cases does the ECtHR use it and with which result? This essay analyses the use of this qualification by the ECtHR and aims to provide an answer to these questions. It asserts that the qualification of the state as ‘neutral and impartial organiser of religions’ is an inadequate standard and examines wether it may harbor other normative dimensions that are important in the relation between state and religion. After introducing the first case in which the ECtHR used this qualification, the first part deals with cases concerning conflicts within and between churches, equal treatment of religious groups in multi-tiered church and state systems, and pupils in public schools wearing religious garb. The second part will appear in the next issue of this Journal and continues with an analysis of cases concerning the place of religion in education, and various alleged interferences of religious liberty. It concludes with a reflection on the use by the ECtHR of the qualification of the state as ‘neutral and impartial organizer of religious’.


Sophie van Bijsterveld
Prof. dr. S.C. van Bijsterveld is bijzonder hoogleraar Religie, rechtsstaat en samenleving aan de Universiteit van Tilburg. Zij is redactielid van het Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid. s.c.vbijsterveld@uvt.nl.
Artikel

Access_open Scheiding van kerk en staat in het onderwijsrecht

Het aanhoudende debat over het beleid van de staat ten opzichte van het openbaar en bijzonder onderwijs

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 3 2010
Trefwoorden scheiding kerk en staat, schoolstrijd, openbaar onderwijs, bijzonder onderwijs
Auteurs Dick Mentink
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    From the beginning of the 19th century until today, education in the Netherlands has been a prime battleground in the search for the right balance of church and state. This article discusses five parliamentary debates regarding the position of public and private (particularly religious) education. Although two of these debates took place a long time ago, they are anything but mere history: they laid the foundation for the current dual educational system of public and private education (in 1857) and the unique constitutional provision on the financial equality of public and private schools (in 1917). The three other debates concerned the religious neutrality of public schools and the freedom of education, and these topics are recurring topics of parliamentary debate. This debate is fed by changing societal circumstances and governmental principles regarding the quality of education. This is no surprise, concludes the author. These issues concern essential questions regarding educational policy on pluralism in education. Every time such a question arises, the legislator must justify its political explanation based on what the constitutional provision regarding education (Article 23) requires and allows on the separation of church and state.


Dick Mentink
Prof. dr. mr. D. Mentink is emeritus hoogleraar Onderwijsrecht aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en voorzitter van de Nederlandse Vereniging voor Onderwijsrecht.
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