Zoekresultaat: 175 artikelen

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Article

Access_open Positive State Obligations under European Law: A Tool for Achieving Substantive Equality for Sexual Minorities in Europe

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden Positive obligations, sexual minorities, sexual orientation, European law, human rights
Auteurs Alina Tryfonidou
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article seeks to examine the development of positive obligations under European law in the specific context of the rights of sexual minorities. It is clear that the law should respect and protect all sexualities and diverse intimate relationships without discrimination, and for this purpose it needs to ensure that sexual minorities can not only be free from state interference when expressing their sexuality in private, but that they should be given the right to express their sexuality in public and to have their intimate relationships legally recognised. In addition, sexual minorities should be protected from the actions of other individuals, when these violate their legal and fundamental human rights. Accordingly, in addition to negative obligations, European law must impose positive obligations towards sexual minorities in order to achieve substantive equality for them. The article explains that, to date, European law has imposed a number of such positive obligations; nonetheless, there is definitely scope for more. It is suggested that European law should not wait for hearts and minds to change before imposing additional positive obligations, especially since this gives the impression that the EU and the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) are condoning or disregarding persistent discrimination against sexual minorities.


Alina Tryfonidou
Alina Tryfonidou is Professor of Law, University of Reading.
Pending Cases

Case C-130/20, Gender Discrimination, Pension

YJ – v – Instituto Nacional de la Seguridad Social (INSS), reference lodged by the Juzgado de lo Social n.º3 de Barcelona (Spain) on 9 March 2020

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden Gender Discrimination, Pension

    Applying the ECJ’s Maschek judgment, the Zutphen subdistrict court has found that an employee was not entitled to an allowance in lieu of untaken paid annual leave at the end of the employment relationship, as she had already received special leave. Moreover, the obligation to inform the employee concerning the right to (exercise) paid annual leave did not rest upon the employer.


Lisa de Vries
Lisa de Vries is a student at Erasmus School of Law and Editorial Assistant of EELC.

Jan-Pieter Vos
Jan-Pieter Vos is Labour Law teacher and PhD candidate at Erasmus School of Law and editor of EELC.
Rulings

ECJ 30 April 2020, joined cases C-168/19 and C-169/19 (Istituto nazionale della previdenza sociale), Pension, Other Forms of Discrimination

HB – v – Istituto nazionale della previdenza sociale (INPS) (C-168/19); IC – v – Istituto nazionale della previdenza sociale (INPS) (C-169/19), Italian case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden Pension, Other Forms of Discrimination
Samenvatting

    The Italian tax regime resulting from the Italian-Portuguese double taxation convention does not infringe with the principles of free movement and non-discrimination.

    The Supreme Court of the Netherlands has quashed a verdict of the Court of Appeal that held that a social plan provision stipulating the capping of a redundancy allowance in view of an entitlement to early retirement pension was invalid because of age discrimination. According to the Supreme Court, a more marginal justification test should have been applied to a social plan. The Court of Appeal, moreover, did not consider all the legitimate aims it specified and should also have taken additional social plan measures as well as pension measures from the past into account. By not doing so, it was not properly examined whether the social plan constituted age discrimination.


Albertine Veldman
Albertine Veldman is a lecturer in European and Dutch labour law at Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
Rulings

ECJ 2 April 2020, joined cases C-370/17 and C-37/18 (CRPNPAC), Social Insurance

Caisse de retraite du personnel navigant professionnel de l’aéronautique civile (CRPNPAC) – v – Vueling Airlines SA (C-370/17); Vueling Airlines SA – v – Jean-Luc Poignant (C-37/18), French cases

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden Social Insurance
Samenvatting

    E101 certificates which were fraudulently obtained can only be disregarded under specified conditions.

    The Federal Labour Court of Germany (Bundesarbeitsgericht, ‘BAG’) has decided that a social plan that distinguished between employees who were born in 1960 or later and employees who were born before 1960 for the calculation of severance payment did not constitute unjustified age discrimination. However, a regulation in a social plan which referred to the “earliest possible” entitlement to a statutory pension when calculating the severance payment constituted unjustified indirect discrimination against disabled persons.


Iness Gutt
Ines Gutt is an attorney-at-law at Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH.

    The Federal Labour Court of Germany (Bundesarbeitsgericht, ‘BAG’) had to decide on a case in which an employee claimed vacation entitlements for the release phase of a partial retirement scheme. Because the employee was released from his work obligation during the release phase of the partial retirement under the so-called ‘block model’ he was not entitled to statutory leave so that the lawsuit was unsuccessful in the final instance.


Othmar K. Traber
Othmar K. Traber is a partner at Ahlers & Vogel Rechtsanwälte PartG mbB in Bremen, www.ahlers-vogel.com.
Article

2020/28 The posting of workers: An EU and Slovak Republic perspective

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden Posting of Workers
Auteurs Benita Korosiová en Gabriel Havrilla
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article discusses some of the problems with the Slovak implementation of the Posting of Workers Directive.


Benita Korosiová
Benita Korosiová is a senior lawyer at HAVRILLA&Co. Law Firm, Bratislava.

Gabriel Havrilla
Gabriel Havrilla is a managing partner at HAVRILLA&Co. Law Firm, Bratislava.
Pending Cases

Case C-236/20, Fixed-Term Work, Part Time Work, Paid Leave, Other Forms of Discrimination

PG – v – Ministero della Giustizia, CSM — Consiglio Superiore della Magistratura, Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri, reference lodged by the Tribunale Amministrativo Regionale per la Emilia Romagna (Italy) on 4 June 2020

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden Fixed-Term Work, Part Time Work, Paid Leave, Other Forms of Discrimination
Rulings

ECJ 9 September 2020, Joined Cases C-674/18 and C-675/18 (TMD Friction), Transfer of Undertakings, Employment Terms, Insolvency

EM – v – TMD Friction GmbH (C-674/18) and FL – v – TMD Friction EsCo GmbH (C-675/18), German cases

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden Transfer of Undertakings, Insolvency
Samenvatting

    Member States can decide that rules on transfer of undertaking do not apply to supplementary occupational pension scheme accruals pre-transfer, if the transfer has been carried out by an insolvency administrator after the opening of insolvency proceedings.

    The central question in this case was what was the objectively applicable law to an employment contract concluded between a Turkish airline and a Dutch co-pilot, in accordance with Article 8 Rome I. The ruling is particularly interesting for the relation between the habitual place of work and the exception clause and points to the elements that should be taken into account.


Amber Zwanenburg
Amber Zwanenburg is a PhD candidate at the Erasmus University in Rotterdam and member of the editorial board of EELC.

Jan-Pieter Vos
Jan-Pieter Vos is a teacher and PhD candidate at Erasmus University Rotterdam, and member of the editorial board of EELC.
Pending Cases

Case C-244/20, Social Insurance, Gender Discrimination, Pension

FCI – v – Instituto Nacional de la Seguridad Social (INSS), reference lodged by the Tribunal Superior de Justicia de Cataluña (Spain) on 8 June 2020

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden Social Insurance, Gender Discrimination, Pension
Titel

De Arubaanse rechter oog-in-oog met het ontvoerde kind

Tijdschrift Caribisch Juristenblad, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden internationale bevoegdheidsrecht, internationale kinderontvoering, Haags Kinderbeschermingsverdrag, artikel 429c Rv, Koninkrijk
Auteurs Mr. G. Jacobs
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Dit artikel geeft de resultaten weer van een literatuurstudie naar de rechterlijke bevoegdheid in zaken van internationale ouderlijke kinderontvoering voor de periode 1965-2019. Hierbij is het oude en huidige internationale bevoegdheidsrecht van Nederland geanalyseerd en is ook onderzocht of deze regelingen door de Arubaanse rechter gebruikt kunnen worden.
    Uit het onderzoek is gebleken dat de rechters van Aruba en Sint Maarten enkel het HKV 1961 kunnen gebruiken als grondslag voor hun internationale bevoegdheid. Dit omdat een beslissing op een teruggeleidingsverzoek een kinderbeschermingsmaatregel is die binnen het materieel toepassingsgebied van het HKV 1961 valt. Valt de ontvoering ook binnen het formeel toepassingsgebied van het verdrag, dan betekent dit dat de rechters van Aruba en Sint Maarten hun internationale bevoegdheid kunnen vaststellen op grond van artikel 9 HKV 1961.
    Ook kan de Arubaanse rechter zijn internationale bevoegdheid ontlenen aan artikel 429c lid 3 RvNA (met toepassing van het ‘distributie bepaalt attributie’-beginsel).


Mr. G. Jacobs
Mr. G. Jacobs is jurist en klachtenfunctionaris bij het Instituto Medico San Nicolas te Aruba.
Article

Access_open Is the CJEU Discriminating in Age Discrimination Cases?

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden age discrimination, old people, young people, complete life view, fair innings argument
Auteurs Beryl ter Haar
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Claims have been made that the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) is more lenient in accepting age discriminating measures affecting older people than in those affecting younger people. This claim is scrutinised in this article, first, by making a quantitative analysis of the outcomes of the CJEU’s case law on age discrimination cases, followed by a qualitative analysis of the line of reasoning of the CJEU in these cases and concluding with an evaluation of the Court’s reasoning against three theoretical approaches that set the context for the assessment of the justifications of age discrimination: complete life view, fair innings argument and typical anti-discrimination approach. The analysis shows that the CJEU relies more on the complete life view approach to assess measures discriminating old people and the fair innings argument approach to assess measures discriminating young people. This results in old people often having to accept disadvantageous measures and young workers often being treated more favourably.


Beryl ter Haar
Beryl ter Haar is assistant professor and academic coordinator of the Advanced LL.M. Global and European Labour Law at Leiden University and visiting professor at the University of Warsaw.
Artikel

Conflicten bij pensioenontslag

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Ontslagrecht, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden pensioenonstslag, pensioenontslagbeding, doorwerken, pensioenleeftijd, ouderenregeling
Auteurs mr. Cornelien Donner-Broersma
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    De centrale vraag in dit artikel is tegen welke juridische discussies werkgevers kunnen aanlopen indien zij de leeftijd van de werknemer als reden hanteren voor het beëindigen van de arbeidsovereenkomst dan wel het aftoppen van de vergoeding in een sociaal plan. Voor het beantwoorden van deze vraag worden achtereenvolgens de volgende onderwerpen behandeld: het pensioenontslagbeding, een ouderenregeling in een sociaal plan en een vermeend recht op doorwerken. Vervolgens worden – mede aan de hand van de in dit artikel aangehaalde jurisprudentie – enkele aanbevelingen voor werkgevers geformuleerd.


mr. Cornelien Donner-Broersma
Cornelien Donner-Broersma is advocaat pensioenrecht en legal director bij KWPS Employee Benefits & Risk Management. Zij publiceert regelmatig over pensioengerelateerde onderwerpen.
Article

Access_open Basel IV Postponed: A Chance to Regulate Shadow Banking?

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden Basel Accords, EU Law, shadow banking, financial stability, prudential regulation
Auteurs Katarzyna Parchimowicz en Ross Spence
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the aftermath of the 2007 global financial crisis, regulators have agreed a substantial tightening of prudential regulation for banks operating in the traditional banking sector (TBS). The TBS is stringently regulated under the Basel Accords to moderate financial stability and to minimise risk to government and taxpayers. While prudential regulation is important from a financial stability perspective, the flipside is that the Basel Accords only apply to the TBS, they do not regulate the shadow banking sector (SBS). While it is not disputed that the SBS provides numerous benefits given the net credit growth of the economy since the global financial crisis has come from the SBS rather than traditional banking channels, the SBS also poses many risks. Therefore, the fact that the SBS is not subject to prudential regulation is a cause of serious systemic concern. The introduction of Basel IV, which compliments Basel III, seeks to complete the Basel framework on prudential banking regulation. On the example of this set of standards and its potential negative consequences for the TBS, this paper aims to visualise the incentives for TBS institutions to move some of their activities into the SBS, and thus stress the need for more comprehensive regulation of the SBS. Current coronavirus crisis forced Basel Committee to postpone implementation of the Basel IV rules – this could be perceived as a chance to complete the financial regulatory framework and address the SBS as well.


Katarzyna Parchimowicz
LLM. Finance (Frankfurt), PhD candidate at the University of Wrocław, Poland, Young Researcher at the European Banking Institute, Frankfurt, Germany – katarzyna.parchimowicz@uwr.edu.pl.

Ross Spence
EURO-CEFG PhD Fellow at Leiden University Law School, Young Researcher at the European Banking Institute and Research Associate at the Amsterdam Centre for Law and Economics – r.spence@law.leidenuniv.nl.
Article

Access_open Ship Recycling Financial Instruments: A Tax or Not a Tax?

Some Brief Reflections

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden Ship Recycling Fund, Ship Recycling License, green ship scrapping, EU concept of tax, earmarked tax
Auteurs Han Kogels en Ton Stevens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the question is reviewed whether two by the EU Commission proposed financial instruments to stimulate ‘green’ ship scrapping, (i) a Ship Recycling Fund (SRF) and (ii) a Ship Recycling License (SRL), might be qualified as a ‘tax’ under Article 192(2) TFEU. Qualification as such a “tax” would mean that the EU Commission can only introduce such a financial instrument with unanimity voting. The authors first explore the concept of ‘tax’ in the TFEU in general and in Article 192(2) TFEU in particular. Based on this analysis, the authors conclude that levies paid to an SRF might be qualified as an ‘earmarked tax’ falling within the definition of a ‘fiscal provision’ in the meaning of Article 192(2) TFEU, which means that levies to such a fund can only be introduced by unanimity voting. The SRL fee consists of two elements: (i) a fee to cover administrative expenses and (ii) a contribution to a savings account. The fee to cover administrative expenses is qualified by the authors as a retribution that should not be qualified as a fiscal provision in the meaning of Article 192(2) TFEU. The contribution to a blocked savings account can neither be qualified as a tax nor as a retribution. Therefore, the SRL fee can be introduced without unanimity voting by the EU Council.


Han Kogels
Prof. Dr. H.A. Kogels is Emeritus professor of European tax law Erasmus School of Law.

Ton Stevens
Prof. Dr. A.J.A. Stevens is Professor of corporation tax law Tilburg University and of counsel Loyens & Loeff, Rotterdam. He was previously holding the chair of international tax law at Erasmus School of Law and initially involved in the ship recycling financial instrument project but did not participate in the drafting of the final report.
Rulings

ECJ 22 January 2020, case C-32/19 (Pensionsversicherungsanstalt), Free movement

AT – v – Pensionsversicherungsanstalt, Austrian case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden Free movement
Samenvatting

    The requirements to obtain a right of residence by way of working for 12 months in the last 3 years also apply to persons who have reached the pensionable age during that period.

Rulings

ECJ 19 December 2019, case C-168/18 (Pensions-Sicherungs-Verein VVaG), Insolvency, pension

Pensions-Sicherungs-Verein VVaG – v – Günther Bauer, German case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden Insolvency, Pension
Samenvatting

    A reduction of old-age pensions under Directive 2008/94 is manifestly disproportionate if the former employee lives or would have to leave below Eurostat’s at-risk-of-poverty threshold, even if s/he receives at least half of the amounts of the benefits from his/her acquired rights.

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