Zoekresultaat: 20 artikelen

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Artikel

Over de grenzen van de criminologie

Internationale betrekkingen en de criminologie van internationale misdrijven

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden international criminology, international relations, international crimes
Auteurs dr. Maartje Weerdesteijn
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Criminologists decided over the last few decades that it is important to study international crimes, meaning genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes, from a criminological perspective. With the international community taking up the responsibility to protect populations from these crimes and the prominence of international criminal justice on the world stage, it is argued that international criminology should embrace international relations more as an important sub-discipline.


dr. Maartje Weerdesteijn
Dr. Maartje Weerdesteijn is universitair docent bij de afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie en onderzoeker bij het Center for International Criminal Justice, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. E-mail: m.weerdesteijn@vu.nl.
ECtHR Court Watch

ECtHR 5 December 2017, application no. 57101/10, Nationality discrimination

Ribać – v – Slovenia, Slovenian case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden Race, nationality discrimination
Samenvatting

    Denial of military pension is deemed to be discriminatory based on nationality.

Article

Access_open An Empirical Study of the Voting Pattern of Judges of the International Court of Justice (2005-2016)

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden voting pattern, ICJ judges, empirical research
Auteurs Xuechan Ma en Shuai Guo
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Statute of the International Court of Justice stipulates that judges shall exercise their powers impartially. We question the practicability of this statement and examine whether the voting pattern of the judges are biased. In this light, empirical research is conducted on cases adjudicated from 2005 to 2016. We find strong evidence that (1) judges favour their home States or appointing States; and (2) judges favour States that speak same majority language with their home States.


Xuechan Ma
Xuechan Ma, Ph.D. candidate at Leiden University, LL.M. and LL.B. at Peking University. Email address: x.ma@law.leidenuniv.nl.

Shuai Guo
Shuai Guo, Ph.D. candidate at Leiden University, LL.M. and LL.B. at China University of Political Science and Law. Email address: s.guo@law.leidenuniv.nl.
Praktijk

Criminologie van de internationale misdrijven

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1-2 2017
Auteurs Prof. dr. Alette Smeulers en Dr. mr. Joris van Wijk
Auteursinformatie

Prof. dr. Alette Smeulers
Prof. dr. A.L. Smeulers is werkzaam als hoogleraar strafrecht en criminologie van de internationale misdrijven aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.

Dr. mr. Joris van Wijk
Dr. mr. J. van Wijk is als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
ECtHR Court Watch

ECtHR 25 October 2016, application nos. 45197/13, 53000/13 and 73404/13, Diplomatic immunity in labour relations

Radunović and Others – v – Montenegro, Montenegronian case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden Diplomatic immunity in labour relations

Marjoleine Zieck
Dr. Marjoleine Zieck is Professor of International Refugee Law at the Amsterdam Law School of the University of Amsterdam, and Professor of Public International Law at the Pakistan College of Law, Lahore.

    A 60-year old widow with a house but without income other than a small widow’s pension has successfully challenged legislation that moved the qualification age for state pension benefits from 65 to 67. A court has found that, in her particular case, the legislation constitutes an “individual and excessive burden” within the meaning of ECtHR case law on the First Protocol to the ECHR. The government was ordered to start paying the widow state pension from age 65 despite and contrary to the wording of the law.


Peter Vas Nunes
Peter Vas Nunes is an advocaat with BarentsKrans in The Hague, www.barentskrans.nl.
Artikel

Anders omgaan met interculturele conflicten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden conflict, security, intercultural settings, restorative justice approaches
Auteurs Inge Vanfraechem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article describes the European research project ALTERNATIVE, which studies the possible implementation of restorative justice approaches in intercultural conflicts. Besides theoretical research into concepts such as justice, security, conflict (transformation) and restorative justice, action-research was implemented in four diverse intercultural settings (Austria, Hungary, Serbia and Northern Ireland). In order to compare those settings, an innovative comparative research method was developed through which the various realities are ‘thickly described’ within evaluation grids. The article describes the different aspects of the research and reflects upon the question whether a more broad understanding of restorative justice, surpassing the judicial sector and aspects, is emerging.


Inge Vanfraechem
Inge Vanfraechem is senior onderzoeker aan het Leuven Instituut voor Criminologie (KU Leuven). Zij is Project Manager en copromotor van het Europese FP7 project ALTERNATIVE. Zij is redactielid van dit tijdschrift.
Artikel

Dutch influence on the reform of the Macedonian system of civil enforcement

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Civiele Rechtspleging, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden bailiffs, civil enforcement, direct enforcement, dejudicialization
Auteurs Prof. dr. T. Zoroska-Kamilovska
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Macedonian system of civil enforcement has long been construed as a reflection of the principle of “re-adjudication upon the original request for legal protection”. The worryingly low execution rate and the excessive length of the enforcement procedure have imposed the necessity of urgent “restructuring” of the entirety of the enforcement system, and the Dutch model has served as an excellent role-model. This article provides a short overview of the characteristic features of the Macedonian enforcement system, and the degree to which they correspond to the Dutch model of civil enforcement.


Prof. dr. T. Zoroska-Kamilovska
Prof. Dr T. Zoroska-Kamilovska is Associate Professor of Civil Procedural Law at the Faculty of Law ‘Iustinianus Primus’, Ss. Cyril and Methodius State University in Skopje, of the Republic of Macedonia.
Artikel

Raphael Lemkin en de misdaad zonder naam

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2013
Trefwoorden Genocide Convention, human rights, public international law, United Nations, international tribunals, jurisdiction, campaigning
Auteurs Reyer Baas
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Could one imagine that up until the mid-1940s international treaties had been ratified on postal services, copyright protection, and whale hunting, but not on genocide? It was only after the Second World War that the deliberate and systematic destruction of groups was recognised as an international crime. There had not even been a name for this practice, which has existed since the beginning of humanity. The 1948 Genocide Convention, the first human rights treaty adopted by the United Nations, was a milestone in the international protection of human rights, although several tragedies have shown that mere law is not sufficient to relegate genocide to the scrapheap of history. The initiator of the Convention was not a very well-known man. This article is about the struggle of Raphael Lemkin, who had, with unflagging zeal, devoted his life to the elimination of genocide.


Reyer Baas
Reyer Baas is promovendus Rechtspleging aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en bereidt een proefschrift voor over rechterlijke besluitvorming. Tevens is hij docent Algemene rechtswetenschap. Hij publiceerde onder andere: R. Baas e.a., Rechtspraak: samen of alleen, Den Haag: Raad voor de rechtspraak 2010.
Artikel

Principes van klokkenluiden: de benadering van de Raad van Europa

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 7 2013
Trefwoorden Council of Europe, whistleblowing, legal improvements, Recommendation Council of Europe, basic principles of whistleblowing
Auteurs P. Stephenson en M. Levi
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    National governments have adopted a variety of approaches to the protection of whistleblowers. This article refers to examples in Slovenia, the United Kingdom and the United States of America, and ongoing work in Ireland, the Netherlands and Serbia. It is not always clear what would count as success, but none of the existing laws appears to have wholly achieved its aims. The Council of Europe aims to establish some common ground in Europe by drafting a Recommendation which will establish principles on which Member States should draft laws and establish systems. This article considers the work done so far on the draft Recommendation, discusses some of the most important and problematic aspects, and suggests improvements.


P. Stephenson
Paul Stephenson is oud-functionaris van het ministerie van Justitie (Verenigd Koninkrijk) en deskundige op het gebied van anticorruptie.

M. Levi
Prof. Michael Levi is hoogleraar Criminologie aan de Universiteit van Cardiff.
Artikel

Roma-migratie in Europa vanuit Nederlands perspectief

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2013
Trefwoorden Roma, labour migration, minority groups
Auteurs P. Jorna
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article focusses on the share of Roma in the labour migration from Eastern and Central Europe to the Netherlands. By combining European reports on the situation of what is Europe’s largest minority group with insights from Dutch migration studies push and pull factors are identified as well as the mobility patterns of Roma involved in the process of migration. Attention is also paid to the ‘when and how’ of the Dutch response (‘agenda setting’) – at home and in the European context – to the growing importance of the Roma issue in Europe. As an example the position of Bulgarian Roma in larger cities like Rotterdam is explored further.


P. Jorna
Drs. Peter Jorna is Consultant Roma & Sinti Issues en voormalig lid voor Nederland van de Committee of Experts on Roma, Raad van Europa (2005-2011).
Artikel

Access_open International Criminal Law and Constitutionalisation

On Hegemonic Narratives in Progress

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden hegemony, constitutionalism, constitutionalisation, international criminal law
Auteurs Marjan Ajevski
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    As we move towards constructing narratives regarding the future outlook of global governance, constitutionalisation among them, the hope is that whatever shape this world order takes it will, somehow, forestall or hinder the possibility of a hegemonic order. This article tries to deconstruct the notion of hegemony and claims that as it currently stands it is useless in doing its critical work since every successful narrative will end up being hegemonic because it will employ the ‘hegemonic technique’ of presenting a particular value (or value system), a particular viewpoint, as universal or at least applying to those who do not share it. The only way for a narrative in this discourse not to be hegemonic would be for it to be either truly universal and find a perspective that stems from nowhere and everywhere – a divine perspective – or purely descriptive; the first being an impossibility for fallible beings and the other not worth engaging with since it has nothing to say about how things should be structured or decided in a specific situation.


Marjan Ajevski
Post-Doctoral research fellow part of the MultiRights project – an ERC Advanced Grant on the Legitimacy of Multi-Level Human Rights Judiciary – <www.MultiRights.net>; and PluriCourts, a Research Council of Norway Centre of Excellence – <www.PluriCourts.net>, Norwegian Centre of Human Rights, Faculty of Law, University of Oslo. I can be contacted at marjan.ajevski@nchr.uio.no.
Article

Access_open Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Treaty-Based Settlement of Terrorism-Related Disputes in the Era of Active United Nations Security Council Involvement

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden Terrorism, inter-state dispute, international treaties, the United Nations Security Council, the International Court of Justice
Auteurs Nathanael Tilahun Ali LL.M.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The United Nations Security Council has become a crucial actor in international counterterrorism by not only spurring the taking of preventive and suppressive measures against terrorist individuals and groups, but also by taking actions against states that are said to stand in the way. The Security Council's actions against such states invariably arise from accusations by other states, such as accusations of refusal to extradite suspects of terrorism or responsibility for supporting terrorists. Meanwhile, most such issues of dispute are covered under international treaties relating to terrorism, which provide for political (negotiation) and judicial (arbitration and adjudication) mechanisms of dispute settlement. The Security Council's actions against states in connection with terrorism, therefore, involve (explicit or implicit) factual and legal determinations that affect the legal positions of the disputing states under the applicable international treaties relating to terrorism. The point of departure of this paper is that, in this respect, the Security Council effectively becomes an alternative to the treaty-based dispute-settlement mechanisms. The article centrally contends that the Security Council effectively acts as a more attractive alternative to treaty-based dispute-settlement mechanisms for pursuing terrorism-related (legal) disputes between states, without providing a meaningful platform of disputation that is based on equality of the parties. And the Security Council's relative attractiveness, arising from the discursive and legal superiority its decisions enjoy and the relative convenience and expediency with which those decisions are delivered, entails the rendering of resort to treaty-based dispute-settlement mechanisms of little legal consequence. The point of concern the article aims to highlight is the lack of platform of disputation some states are faced with, trapped between a hostile Security Council that makes determinations and decisions of legal consequence and an unhelpful treaty-based dispute-settlement mechanism.


Nathanael Tilahun Ali LL.M.
PhD Candidate in public international law, Erasmus School of Law. E: ali@law.eur.nl. I would like to thank Prof. Xandra Kramer and Prof. Ellen Hey for their valuable comments on an earlier draft of this article. The usual disclaimer applies.
Artikel

Access_open The Collapse of the Rule of Law

The Messina Earthquake and the State of Exception

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden Messina, earthquake, state of exception, rule of law, progress
Auteurs Massimo La Torre
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Messina, a Sicilian town, was devasteted by an earthquake in1908. It was an hecatomb. Stricken through this unfathomable disgrace Messina’s institutions and civil society collapsed and a sort of wild natural state replaced the rule of law. In this situation there was a first intervention of the Russian Czarist navy who came to help but immediately enforced cruel emergency measures. The Italian army followed and there was a formal declaration of an ‘emergency situation.’ Around this event and the several exceptional measures taken by the government a debate took place about the legality of those exceptional measures. The article tries to reconstruct the historical context and the content of that debate and in a broader perspective thematizes how law (and morality) could be brought to meet the breaking of normality and ordinary life by an unexpected and catastrophic event.


Massimo La Torre
Massimo La Torre is Professor of Legal Philosophy at the University of Catanzaro in Italy and visiting Professor of Law at the University of Hull in England.
Artikel

Propaganda en paramilitairen

De normalisatie van geweld in het Servië van de jaren negentig

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden state crime, Serbia, propaganda, paramilitary units, Arkan
Auteurs MSc Maartje Weerdesteijn en Prof. dr. Alette Smeulers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    During the 1990s the Serbian government entered into a symbiotic relationship with criminals and paramilitary units which led to a normalization of crime and violence. While society usually inhibits people from criminal behavior, in Serbia this process was reversed. Propaganda contained the neutralization techniques that allowed people to condone and even approve of violent and criminal behavior. The reversal of the moral order became part of Serbia’s popular culture in which criminals who had committed many atrocities during the war, like Arkan, were honored. In this way, Arkan served not only a military and strategic purpose but also a political one, by generating support for the war.


MSc Maartje Weerdesteijn
Drs. M. Weerdesteijn, MSc is docent binnen de master International Crimes and Criminology aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en junior onderzoeker voor het Amsterdam centre of the interdisciplinary research on international crimes and security (ACIC), m.weerdesteijn@vu.nl.

Prof. dr. Alette Smeulers
Prof. dr. A.L. Smeulers heeft de onderzoekslijn criminologie van de internationale misdrijven aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam opgezet en is sinds 1 september 2011 tevens hoogleraar internationale criminologie aan de Universiteit van Tilburg, a.l.smeulers@tilburguniversity.edu.
Agenda

Agenda

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden Congresses
Samenvatting

    The upsurge in the use of economic sanctions in the post-Cold War era has prompted much scholarly and policy debate over their effectiveness and humanitarian consequences. Remarkably little attention, however, has been devoted to their criminalizing consequences and legacy for the post-sanctions period. In this article, the author develops an analytical framework identifying and categorizing the potential criminalizing effects of sanctions across place (within and around the targeted country) and time (during and after the sanctions period). This framework is applied and evaluated through an in-depth examination of the case of Yugoslavia. For comparative leverage and to assess the applicability of the argument beyond the Yugoslavia case, the analysis is briefly extended to Croatia. The article suggests that sanctions can unintentionally contribute to the criminalization of the state, economy, and civil society of both the targeted country and its immediate neighbors, fostering a symbiosis between political leaders, organized crime, and transnational smuggling networks. This symbiosis, in turn, can persist beyond the lifting of sanctions, contributing to corruption and crime and undermining the rule of law.


Peter Andreas
Prof. Peter Andreas is als assistent-hoogleraar Internationale Betrekkingen verbonden aan de Brown University, Rhode Island, Providence, USA.

Hans van Houtte
Professor of Law, K.U.Leuven, Belgium (hans.vanhoutte@law.kuleuven.be), formerly Commissioner and Legal Chair at the CRPC (1996–2003), arbitrator at the CRT (1998–2001), member UNCC (1999–2002), presently President of the Eritrea-Ethiopia Claims Commission (2001 - ).

Iasson Yi
Assistant at the K.U.Leuven, Belgium, working on the research project on ‘Mass Claims Settlement and the Restoration of Property Rights in the Post-Conflict Situations.’
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