Zoekresultaat: 32 artikelen

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Artikel

Pro-cycling’s doping pentiti

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden doping, cycling, cultural criminology, crime facilitative system, organisational crime
Auteurs Dr. mr. Roland Moerland en Giulio Soana
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Throughout the last decade several cyclists have published memoirs in which they account for their doping use. In previous literature such autobiographical accounts have been characterized as attempts of fallen sports stars to sanitize their spoiled public image. In contrast, the analysis in this article will show that the accounts are of relevance when it comes to understanding the problem of doping in professional cycling. Their accounts break the omertà regarding doping, providing insights about the motivation and opportunity structures behind doping and how such structures are endemic to the system of professional cycling.


Dr. mr. Roland Moerland
Dr. mr. Roland Moerland is universitair docent criminologie aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Universiteit Maastricht.

Giulio Soana
Giulio Soana is afgestudeerd Master Forensica, Criminologie en Rechtspleging, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Universiteit Maastricht.
Artikel

Woekeren met andermans talent

Over de handel en wandel en het zelfbeeld van spelersagenten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden football agents, fraud, money laundering, regulation, self-image
Auteurs Prof. dr. Hans Nelen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The focus of this article is on the role that football agents play in the world of professional football. Their role has also been associated with criminal activities such as money laundering, tax evasion, corruption and the exploitation of under-age players. The article pays attention to recent developments in the world of football and the shady business practices in relation to the transfer of football players. Moreover, the article addresses the self-image of football agents and raises the question whether they should take more responsibility themselves in containing fraud and money laundering in the world of football.


Prof. dr. Hans Nelen
Prof. dr. Hans Nelen is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit Maastricht en redacteur voor Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit.

Dr. Olga Petintseva
Olga Petintseva is universitair docent aan Universiteit Gent en postdoctoraal bursaal bij FWO Vlaanderen (Universiteit Gent – Vrije Universiteit Brussel).

Dr. Damián Zaitch
Dr. Damián Zaitch is universitair hoofddocent bij het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht. Hij onderzoekt en publiceert over drugshandel, drugsbeleid en georganiseerde misdaad in Nederland en Latijns-Amerika, en over diverse vormen van transnationale misdaad, globale criminele markten en organisatiecriminaliteit.
Artikel

Prepping and verstehen

A narrative criminological perspective

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden Verstehen, narrative, prepping, experience, ethnography
Auteurs Michael F. Mills en Jennifer Fleetwood
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Talk, chat, and stories are ubiquitous in ethnographic research. Engaging with the recently burgeoning literature around narrative criminology, this article argues that considerations of stories and storytelling can add much to cultural criminologists’ pursuit of ‘criminological verstehen’ (Ferrell, 1997). In doing so, we focus on one case study: ethnographic research grounded within the USA’s contemporary ‘doomsday’ prepping subculture. The article considers the value of attending to narrative during the pursuit of verstehen at two levels. First, we address the importance of storytelling upon entry to the ethnographic field – drawing attention to how the narratives researchers share, and their respect for certain stories, can facilitate deep and experiential access to stigmatized fields of activity (such as prepping). Second, we explore how narrative remains in play during immediate experiences. In particular, we argue that fleeting excitements featured in prepping lifestyles are often shaped by the significance of the ‘moments’ in which they occur to numerous personal narratives. We therefore contend that, for ethnographers interested in verstehen, a consideration of narrative offers a means to expand and deepen empathetic appreciation of participants’ worldviews and activities.


Michael F. Mills
Michael F. Mills is Lecturer in Criminology, School of Social Policy, Sociology and Social Research, University of Kent.

Jennifer Fleetwood
Jennifer Fleetwood is Senior lecturer in Criminology, Department of Sociology, Goldsmiths, University of London.
Polen

Access_open Die Stellung des überlebenden Ehegatten sowie das Pflichtteilsrecht in der polnischen Rechtsordnung

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift Erfrecht, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden Polen, polnisches Erbrecht, Stellung des überlebenden Ehegatten nach polnischem Recht, Pflichtteil nach polnischem Recht
Auteurs Dr. Błażej Bugajski
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In Bezug auf den überlebenden Ehegatten des Erblassers hat der polnische Gesetzgeber einige besondere Regelungen geschafft, die sich auf die Verstärkung seiner Stellung richten. Die besondere und einmalige Rolle, die ein Ehegatte im Lebensbereich des anderen Ehegatten spielt, spricht eindeutig für die Bevorzugung des überlebenden Ehegatten auf den Todesfall des anderen Ehegatten.
    In der polnischen Rechtsordnung kann der Pflichtteilsberechtigte die Herausgabe oder die Eigentumsübertragung von Sachen aus der Erbschaft nicht verlangen. Der Pflichtteilsanspruch ist lediglich ein Geldanspruch, der sich gegen die Erben richtet. Die Hauptgedanke der polnischen Regelung in Bezug auf das Pflichtteil ist positiv zu bewerten. Einerseits kann der Erblasser über den Nachlass auf den Todesfall frei zu verfügen. Andererseits wird indirekt die Sicherung des Interesses von nahestehenden Personen durch den Geldanspruch auf Zahlung des Pflichtteils garantiert. Die Höhe des Pflichtteilanspruchs ist dabei als ein Kompromiss zwischen dem Erblasserwillen und den Bedürfnissen der nahestehenden Personen des Erblassers zu betrachten.


Dr. Błażej Bugajski
Dr. Błażej Bugajski ist Mitarbeiter der Forschungsstelle für Zivil-, Wirtschafts- und internationales Privatrecht der Wirtschaftsuniversität zu Krakau und Rechtsanwalt (radca prawny) in Krakau.
Italië

Access_open Einblicke in das italienische Erbrecht – allgemeine Grundsätze, Ehegattenerbrecht und Pflichtteilsrecht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift Erfrecht, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden Italien, Erbrecht, Pflichtteilsrecht, Ehegattenerbrecht
Auteurs Assoz. Prof. Dr. Gregor Christandl LL.M. en Mag. Maximilian Dallago
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Der vorliegende Beitrag führt in die Grundprinzipien des italienischen Erbrechts ein und vertieft vor allem die Aspekte des Ehegattenerbrechts und des Pflichtteilsrechts. Es zeigt sich damit ein insgesamt reformbedürftiges Erbrecht, das geprägt von Verboten und Beschränkungen der Testierfreiheit nur wenig Spielraum lässt.


Assoz. Prof. Dr. Gregor Christandl LL.M.
Assoz. Prof. Dr. Gregor Christandl, LL.M. (Yale) ist Leiter des Instituts für Italienisches Recht der Universität Innsbruck in Österreich.

Mag. Maximilian Dallago
Universitätsassistent Mag. Maximilian Dallago ist wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter am Institut für Italienisches Recht der Universität Innsbruck in Österreich.

Marnix Eysink Smeets
M.W.B. Eysink Smeets is lector Publiek Vertrouwen in Veiligheid en hoofd van de Onderzoeksgroep Recht & Veiligheid van Hogeschool Inholland in Rotterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Theoretische vernieuwing in de criminologie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden Theoretical innovation, Scientific revolutions, Power-knowledge complex, Sensitising theory, Integrative theory
Auteurs Prof. dr. René van Swaaningen en Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article starts off with an exposé of what ‘theoretical innovation’ means in the social sciences. The development of criminology is considered to be a result of (1) historical and cultural developments, (2) political-economic developments, (3) developments in other academic disciplines and (4) reactions to or specifications of other theoretical perspectives in criminology itself. Paradigm shifts in criminology are characterised by an individualistic and positivist aetiological turn in its early days; a sociological turn towards a ‘criminology of the lawmaker’ from the late 1950s on; and a return to positivism in the neoliberal and neoconservative turn of the 1990s. The new century ushers in a new epistemological break in criminology, in which globalisation, global warming, migration, human rights and the implications of cyberspace ‘force’ criminologists to overcome their anthropocentric and colonial character biases.


Prof. dr. René van Swaaningen
Prof. dr. René van Swaaningen is hoogleraar criminologie en voorzitter van de sectie criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. E-mail: vanswaaningen@law.eur.nl.

Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg is universitair docent Strafrecht en Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. E-mail: m.b.schuilenburg@vu.nl.
Artikel

Emotions and Explanation in Cultural Criminology

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden cultural criminology, emotions, affective states, explanation, theory
Auteurs dr. Nicolás Trajtenberg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Cultural Criminology (CC) is one of the most recent and exciting developments in criminological theory. Its main argument is that mainstream criminological theories provide inadequate explanations of crime due to epistemological and theoretical flaws. CC’s alternative involves assuming a phenomenological and interpretative approach that focuses on the cultural and emotional components of crime. In this article I shall argue that although CC makes a valid demand for more realistic and complex explanations of crime, its own alternative needs to deal with two main challenges referred to its conceptualization of explanation and emotion. First, two problematic antagonisms should be avoided: understanding vs. causal explanation; and universal nomothetic explanations as opposed to ideographic descriptions. Considering recent developments in philosophy of social science, particularly the ‘social mechanisms approach’, CC should focus on explaining retrospectively through identification of specific causal mechanisms rejecting universal and predictive pretensions. Second, although cultural criminologists rightly question the emotionless character of criminological explanations, they lack an articulated alternative conceptualization of emotions to explain crime. A more refined concept needs to be elaborated in dialogue with recent advances in social sciences.


dr. Nicolás Trajtenberg
Dr. Nicolás Trajtenberg is senior lecturer and researcher at the Department of Sociology, Universidad de la República (UdelaR), Uruguay. He holds a PhD in criminology by the Institute of Criminology, University of Cambridge, UK. His main areas of research are explanation and theory in criminology, and youth violence. E-mail: nico.trajtenberg@gmail.com.
Artikel

Inlichtingenwerk vanuit een methodologisch perspectief

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden Intelligence research, Methodology, Security threats, Unknown threats, a values and b values
Auteurs Dr. Gilliam de Valk en Mr.Drs. Willemijn Aerdts
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article compares criminal investigations and judicial research to intelligence research. Criminal investigations and judicial research focus on evidence and prosecution, while intelligence researchers don’t want to overlook any threats. Methodologically speaking: criminal investigations and judicial research focus on keeping a low α value, intelligence focusses on keeping a low ß value. This ß oriented research should lead to drastically different research design. ß-oriented research is a quest for the unknowns. Possible threats need to be neutralized, most of the times without a judicial review (by a judge). This absence of review, in combination with the additional special powers laid down in the revised Intelligence and Security Services Acts, should be reason for adjustment of the oversight.


Dr. Gilliam de Valk
Dr. G.G. de Valk is universitair docent bij de onderzoeksgroep Intelligence & Security van het Institute of Security and Global Affairs (Universiteit Leiden). Hij is gespecialiseerd in de methodologie van inlichtingenanalyses, www.universiteitleiden.nl/medewerkers/giliam-de-valk#tab-1.

Mr.Drs. Willemijn Aerdts
Mr. Drs. W.J.M. Aerdts is als docent-onderzoeker verbonden aan de onderzoeksgroep Intelligence & Security van het Institute of Security and Global Affairs (Universiteit Leiden) en doet onderzoek op het terrein van inlichtingen naar methodologie, analysetechnieken en restdreiging, www.universiteitleiden.nl/medewerkers/willemijn-aerdts#tab-1.

    This paper discusses three approaches that can be helpful in the area of comparative rights jurisprudence, oriented in reference to three different kinds of studies that are possible in that area. To a large extent the methods for a comparative legal research depend on the research question and the goal of the researcher. First, a comparative law study may focus on the sociocultural context that led to the elaboration of differences or similarities in the protection of rights. Second, a comparative law approach can be a normative enterprise. It can focus on engaging in a philosophical analysis enlightened by the differences or similarities in the regulation of rights, in order to propose concrete solutions for the regulation of a right. Third, a comparative law approach can combine both elements of the two previously mentioned approaches. The paper discusses the challenges that the researcher faces in her attempt to use these methodologies and how these challenges can be overcome. The law as a normative discipline has its own constraints of justifiability. If what motivates a comparative law study is the search for principles of justice the researcher needs to persuade that her methodological approach serves her aim.


Ioanna Tourkochoriti
School of Law, NUI Galway, Ireland.
Artikel

Europerikelen: consequenties van uittreding uit de euro voor in euro’s luidende verbintenissen

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Vermogensrecht, Aflevering 10 2017
Trefwoorden euro, redenominatie, valutarisico, conversie, rekeneenheid
Auteurs Prof. mr. W.A.K. Rank
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Onderzocht wordt of een Nederlandse leninggever een valutarisico loopt als hij uitzettingen heeft in euro’s in een ander Euroland en dat Euroland op enig moment de Eurozone verlaat en een nieuwe valuta invoert ter vervanging van de euro. Bepalend is daarbij welke valuta uiteindelijk als de contractvaluta moet worden aangemerkt.


Prof. mr. W.A.K. Rank
Prof. mr. W.A.K. Rank is hoogleraar Financieel Recht aan de Universiteit Leiden en advocaat te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Inleiding

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden denial, speech act, discourse theory, performative function of language, cultural criminology
Auteurs prof. dr. Hans Nelen en dr. mr. Roland Moerland
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the introductory article of this special issue on the language of denial, some relevant concepts in relation to denial, speech act and discourse theory are explored. Stanley Cohen’s distinction between literal, interpretative and implicatory denial is illuminated, as well as the contribution of various scholars on the performative function of language. At the end of the article the relevance of these concepts for (cultural) criminology is explained.


prof. dr. Hans Nelen
Prof. dr. Hans Nelen is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit Maastricht.

dr. mr. Roland Moerland
Dr. mr. Roland Moerland is universitair docent criminologie aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Universiteit Maastricht.
Artikel

Gluren bij de buren

De juridische en bestuurlijke kaders van de geestelijke verzorging in zorginstellingen in Nederland en van het ziekenhuispastoraat en de spiritual care in Duitsland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden Nederland, Duitsland, spiritual care, geestelijke verzorging, Pastoraat
Auteurs Dr. Stefan Gärtner
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article analyzes the legal integration of religion and worldview communication in secular care contexts in Germany and the Netherlands. The constitutional position of spiritual care and healthcare chaplaincy and the organization of the religious field are diverse in these states. This creates a variety of correlation between the religious and the medical domain within healthcare institutions in both countries. The analysis leads to the question, how the observed differences work out in organization and policy concretely. Finely, there are some conclusions drawn out of the comparison.


Dr. Stefan Gärtner
Dr. habil. S. Gärtner is universitair docent Praktische theologie aan de universiteit van Tilburg en Privatdozent aan de universiteit van Münster.
Artikel

Wetenschap en de beroepspraktijk: partners in veiligheidszorg

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 5 2016
Trefwoorden Wetenschappelijk onderzoek, Praktijkgericht onderzoek, Veiligheid, Valorisatie
Auteurs Prof. dr. Emile Kolthoff
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article discusses the relationship between science and professional practice from the presumption that the two need and reinforce each other. The distinction between theoretical and applied research is rather small and maybe even fictional. This is also true for research in the area of public safety. However, we deal with a very specific area of research here that sometimes requires specific requirements concerning publications and trust.


Prof. dr. Emile Kolthoff
Prof. dr. Emile Kolthoff is lector Veiligheid, Openbare orde en Recht aan de Avans Hogeschool. Hij is fellow bij de onderzoeksgroep Quality of Governance aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en hoogleraar Criminologie aan de faculteit Rechtswetenschappen van de Open Universiteit.

Jing Hiah
Jing Hiah is PhD candidate at the Department of Criminology, Erasmus University Rotterdam (hiah@law.eur.nl).

Thomas Riesthuis
Thomas Riesthuis is PhD candidate at the Department of Sociology, Theory and Methodology, Erasmus University Rotterdam (riesthuis@law.eur.nl).
Artikel

Access_open Herman Bianchi

Over criminologie, emoties en ongerijmdheden

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden Herman Bianchi, labelling approach, critical criminology, abolitionism, historical criminology
Auteurs prof. dr. René van Swaaningen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Herman Bianchi, who passed away on the 30th of December 2015, has been a true ‘significant other’ for cultural criminologists. This article is a ‘criminological Verstehen’ of Bianchi’s work. His general attitude towards criminology is characterised by a mix of academic analysis, emotional outrage and incongruities. In order to understand this, his contributions to criminology are linked to biographical notes and to the mixed reactions he got on his work. Bianchi played an important role in the establishment of criminology as an autonomous academic discipline, yet he was very critical of this ‘discipline of shame’ because it has always served the exclusion of the most vulnerable members of society. He has been one of the frontmen of critical criminology, but he was not a Marxist. His concern for the despised other is related to his eternal fear, as a gay man in a ‘closet with a revolving door’, of new waves of discrimination against gays, and his rigorous abolitionism to his experience as a prisoner in a Nazi-concentration camp in 1944. Bianchi’s historical interest led him at the end of his career in the 1980s to support the emergence of strong historical criminol­ogy, but his utilitarian use of historical studies, also resulted in some clashes with professional historians.


prof. dr. René van Swaaningen
Prof. dr. René van Swaaningen is werkzaam als hoogleraar Criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit, Erasmus School of Law, sectie Criminologie.
Artikel

De seksuele tiener en de sociale orde

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden youth, sex, transgression, criminal law
Auteurs Mr. drs. Juul Gooren
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A taboo serves the social order for it facilitates social control. This article will focus on taboos related to sexual contact by youngsters. The way authorities guard sexual taboos is indicative of the way authorities envision the organization of society. It is this organization through the control of youth and sex which will receive attention. In the classic study by Mary Douglas on pollution and taboo dirt is understood as ‘matter out of place’. The sexual teenager is an illustration of this ‘matter out of place’ because it is difficult to categorize sexual teenagers on the basis of asexual children and sexual adults as an organizing principle for society. In criminal law lewd conduct by youngsters refers to wrong sex at the wrong age. By criminalizing these sexual transgressions the proper place of youth and sex is once again restored. This is necessary for it will be argued that the interests of society are somewhat under pressure because of transgressions when it comes to children as asexual and when it comes to sex as something for within a relationship. The perpetrator of lewd conduct should be understood as a scapegoat reestablishing when and how sex should take place. By restoring the asexual child and the sexual relationship it is hoped sex and youngsters can once again offer some guidance in a social order lacking these clear markers.


Mr. drs. Juul Gooren
Mr. drs. Juul Gooren is docent voor Safety & Security Management Studies aan De Haagse Hogeschool.

    The Versailles Treaty (Art. 227) called for the prosecution of Wilhelm II, the German ex-Kaiser. Because of the refusal of the Dutch Government to surrender Wilhelm, a trial never took place. This paper tries to elaborate some questions concerning this possible trial. What was the background of the said Treaty paragraph? What would have happened when Wilhelm had been surrendered? Based on a report of a special committee to the peace conference, the possible indictment is discussed. The authors try to elaborate some thoughts for answering the question about Wilhelm’s criminal responsibility, especially as author of the war (‘ius ad bellum’) by starting an aggressive war and/or by violating the neutrality of Belgium and Luxemburg. Wilhelm’s possible responsibility for violations of the ‘ius in bello’ (laws and customs of war) in Belgium, France, and Poland and/or by ordering an unlimited submarine war is discussed as well. It is concluded that it would have been very difficult for the tribunal to have Wilhelm find criminal responsible for the indictment, except for the violation of the neutrality of Belgium and Luxemburg. But then, the tribunal would have been obliged to answer fundamental questions about the command responsibility of Wilhelm. From a point of view of international criminal law, it is rather unfortunate that the unique opportunity for a ‘Prologue to Nuremberg’ was not realised, although a trial would not have made history take a different turn than it did in the twentieth century after the ‘Great War’.


Paul Mevis
P.A.M. Mevis is professor of criminal law at the Erasmus University Rotterdam. Prof. Mevis wrote before ‘De berechting van Wilhelm II’, in J. Dohmen, T. Draaisma & E. Stamhuis (ed.), Een kwestie van grensoverschrijding. Liber amicorum P.E.L. Janssen (2009), at 197-231.

Jan M. Reijntjes
J.M. Reijntjes is professor of (international) criminal law at the University of Curaçao.
Artikel

Als de berg niet naar Mohammed komt ...

Over het belang van inzicht in levensbeschouwing bij de politiële aanpak van eergerelateerd geweld

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden honour-based violence, religion, Islam, police, motive
Auteurs Dr. Janine Janssen en Drs. Ruth Sanberg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    How can police officers make use of citizens’ religious beliefs when dealing with cases of honour-based violence (HBV)? In this article religion is addressed regarding motive and legitimisation of violence and as a social network of people and institutions for communities of believers. We focus on Islamic religion, because most cases of HBV handled by the police take place within Islamic communities and because the Dutch public debate on religion revolves around Islam. We interviewed police officers with expertise on HBV. These officers have an instrumental vision on religion. It helps them to gain insight in motives for violence and it offers opportunities for conflict mediation and coping with the aftermath of HBV.


Dr. Janine Janssen
Dr. J.H.L.J. Janssen is hoofd onderzoek bij het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld (LEC EGG) en universitair docent bij de vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Drs. Ruth Sanberg
Drs. R. Sanberg is onderzoeker bij het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld (LEC EGG).
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