Zoekresultaat: 34 artikelen

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Artikel

Access_open Bescherming van derdelandmigranten tegen arbeidsuitbuiting in de EU

Tijdschrift Arbeidsrechtelijke Annotaties, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden Migratie, Derdelanders, Arbeidsuitbuiting
Auteurs Mr. drs. Gerrie Lodder
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Arbeidsmigratie is in de EU een belangrijk en actueel onderwerp. Enerzijds, omdat steeds meer landen in de EU te kennen geven dat ze voor het op peil houden van het arbeidspotentieel hun toevlucht moeten nemen tot het aantrekken van arbeidsmigranten van buiten de EU. Anderzijds blijkt dat er regelmatig sprake is van uitbuiting van deze arbeidsmigranten. In EU-wetgeving in het algemeen en de regulering van migratie van onderdanen van derde landen (derdelanders) naar de EU in het bijzonder wordt aandacht besteed aan de kwetsbare positie van derdelanders en een eerlijke behandeling. Het doel van migratiewetgeving is echter met name ook het beheersen van migratie, het bestrijden van illegale migratie en het stimuleren van economische ontwikkeling. Deze verschillende doelen kunnen met elkaar botsen. In dit artikel wordt onderzocht wat de invloed is van de EU-migratiewetgeving op de uitbuiting van arbeidsmigranten.


Mr. drs. Gerrie Lodder
Mr. drs. G.G. Lodder is werkzaam als onderzoeker en docent bij het Europa Instituut van de Universiteit Leiden.
Pending Cases

Case C-502/20, Free Movement, Work and Residence Permit

TP – v – Institut des experts en automobiles, reference lodged by the Cour d’appel de Mons (Belgium) on 5 October 2020

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden Free Movement, Work and Residence Permit
Article

Access_open Migration and Time: Duration as an Instrument to Welcome or Restrict

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden Migration, EU migration law, time
Auteurs Gerrie Lodder
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    States apply different material conditions to attract or restrict residence of certain types of migrants. But states can also make use of time as an instrument to design more welcoming or more restrictive policies. States can apply faster application procedures for desired migrants. Furthermore, time can be used in a more favourable way to attract desired migrants in regard to duration of residence, access to a form of permanent residence and protection against loss of residence. This contribution makes an analysis of how time is used as an instrument in shaping migration policy by the European Union (EU) legislator in the context of making migration more or less attractive. This analysis shows that two groups are treated more favourably in regard to the use of time in several aspects: EU citizens and economic- and knowledge-related third-country nationals. However, when it comes to the acquisition of permanent residence after a certain period of time, the welcoming policy towards economic- and knowledge-related migrants is no longer obvious.


Gerrie Lodder
Gerrie Lodder is lecturer and researcher at the Europa Institute of Leiden University.
Article

Access_open The Potential of Positive Obligations Against Romaphobic Attitudes and in the Development of ‘Roma Pride’

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden Roma, Travellers, positive obligations, segregation, culturally adequate accommodation
Auteurs Lilla Farkas en Theodoros Alexandridis
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article analyses the jurisprudence of international tribunals on the education and housing of Roma and Travellers to understand whether positive obligations can change the hearts and minds of the majority and promote minority identities. Case law on education deals with integration rather than cultural specificities, while in the context of housing it accommodates minority needs. Positive obligations have achieved a higher level of compliance in the latter context by requiring majorities to tolerate the minority way of life in overwhelmingly segregated settings. Conversely, little seems to have changed in education, where legal and institutional reform, as well as a shift in both majority and minority attitudes, would be necessary to dismantle social distance and generate mutual trust. The interlocking factors of accessibility, judicial activism, European politics, expectations of political allegiance and community resources explain jurisprudential developments. The weak justiciability of minority rights, the lack of resources internal to the community and dual identities among the Eastern Roma impede legal claims for culture-specific accommodation in education. Conversely, the protection of minority identity and community ties is of paramount importance in the housing context, subsumed under the right to private and family life.


Lilla Farkas
Lilla Farkas is a practising lawyer in Hungary and recently earned a PhD from the European University Institute entitled ‘Mobilising for racial equality in Europe: Roma rights and transnational justice’. She is the race ground coordinator of the European Union’s Network of Legal Experts in Gender Equality and Non-discrimination.

Theodoros Alexandridis
Theodoros Alexandridis is a practicing lawyer in Greece.
Pending Cases

Case C-194/20, Work and Residence Permit

BY and others – v – City of Duisburg, reference lodged by the Verwaltungsgericht Düsseldorf (Germany) on 7 May 2020

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden Work and Residence Permit
Pending Cases

Case C-71/20, Work and residence permit

Anklagemyndigheden – v – VAS Shipping ApS, reference lodged by the Østre Landsret (Denmark) on 12 February 2020

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden Work and residence permit
Article

Access_open Age Barriers in Healthcare

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden age discrimination, age equality, health care
Auteurs Rachel Horton
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Age limits, minimum and maximum, and both explicit and ‘covert’, are still used in the National Health Service to determine access to a range of health interventions, including infertility services and cancer screening and treatment. Evidence suggests that chronological age is used as a proxy for a host of characteristics in determining access to healthcare: as a proxy for the capacity of an individual to benefit from an intervention; for the type of harm that may result from an intervention; for the likelihood of such benefit or harm occurring; and, in some cases, for other indicators used to determine what may be in the patient’s interest. Age is used as a proxy in this way in making decisions about both individual patients and wider populations; it may be used where no better ‘marker’ for the relevant characteristic exists or – for reasons including cost, practicality or fairness – in preference to other available markers. This article reviews the justifications for using age in this way in the context of the existing legal framework on age discrimination in the provision of public services.


Rachel Horton
Lecturer University of Reading.
Case Law

2020/1 EELC’s review of the year 2019

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 1 2020
Auteurs Ruben Houweling, Daiva Petrylaitė, Peter Schöffmann e.a.
Samenvatting

    Various of our academic board analysed employment law cases from last year. However, first, we start with some general remarks.


Ruben Houweling

Daiva Petrylaitė

Peter Schöffmann

Attila Kun

Francesca Maffei

Jean-Philippe Lhernould

Niklas Bruun

Jan-Pieter Vos

Luca Ratti

Anthony Kerr

Petr Hůrka

Michal Vrajík
Rulings

ECJ 2 October 2019, case C-93/18 (Bajratari), Work and residence permit

Ermira Bajratari – v – Secretary of State for the Home Department, UK case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden Work and residence permit
Samenvatting

Rulings

ECJ 3 October 2019, case C-302/18 (X), Work and residence permit

X – v – Belgische Staat, Belgian case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden Work and residence permit
Samenvatting

Rulings

ECJ 19 September 2019, case C-544/18 (Dakneviciute), Work and residence permit

Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs – v – Henrika Dakneviciute, UK case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden Work and residence permit
Samenvatting

Article

Access_open Levying VAT in the EU Customs Union: Towards a Single Indirect Tax Area? The Ordeal of Indirect Tax Harmonisation

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden single indirect tax area, VAT action plan, quick fixes, e-commerce package, definitive VAT system
Auteurs Ben Terra
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution deals with the latest proposals regarding levying VAT in the European Union (EU) Customs Union. The present system, which has been in place since 1993 and was supposed to be transitional, splits every cross-border transaction into an exempted cross-border supply and a taxable cross-border acquisition. It is like a customs system, but lacks equivalent controls and is therefore the root of cross-border fraud. After many years of unsuccessful attempts, the Commission abandoned the objective of implementing definitive VAT arrangements based on the principle of taxing all cross-border supplies of goods in the Member State of their origin, under the same conditions that apply to domestic trade including VAT rates. The European Parliament and the Council agreed that the definitive system should be based on the principle of taxation in the Member State of the destination of the goods. After a brief discussion of the VAT Action Plan of 2016 (Section 1), the e-commerce package in the form of Directive (EU) 2017/2455 is dealt with (Section 2), followed by the proposal to harmonise and simplify certain rules in the VAT system and introduce the definitive system, only partially adopted (Section 3). Section 4 deals with the proposal to introduce detailed measures of the definitive VAT system. The proposed harmonisation and simplification of certain rules were meant to become applicable on 1 January 2019, but will become only partially applicable on 2020. It is proposed to make the detailed measures of the definitive VAT system applicable in 2022. It remains to be seen whether the Member States are willing to accept the definitive VAT system at all; hence the subtitle ‘the ordeal of indirect tax harmonisation’.


Ben Terra
Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Ben Terra was a professor of tax law at the universities of Amsterdam and Lund and visiting professor at the Universidade Católica in Lisbon.
Article

Access_open Chambers for International Commercial Disputes in Germany: The State of Affairs

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden Justizinitiative Frankfurt, Law Made in Germany, International Commercial Disputes, Forum Selling, English Language Proceedings
Auteurs Burkhard Hess en Timon Boerner
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The prospect of attracting foreign commercial litigants to German courts in the wake of Brexit has led to a renaissance of English-language commercial litigation in Germany. Leading the way is the Frankfurt District Court, where – as part of the ‘Justizinitiative Frankfurt’ – a new specialised Chamber for International Commercial Disputes has been established. Frankfurt’s prominent position in the financial sector and its internationally oriented bar support this decision. Borrowing best practices from patent litigation and arbitration, the Chamber offers streamlined and litigant-focused proceedings, with English-language oral hearings, within the current legal framework of the German Code of Civil Procedure (ZPO).1xZivilprozessordnung (ZPO).
    However, to enable the complete litigation process – including the judgment – to proceed in English requires changes to the German Courts Constitution Act2xGerichtsverfassungsgesetz (GVG). (GVG). A legislative initiative in the Bundesrat aims to establish a suitable legal framework by abolishing the mandatory use of German as the language of proceedings. Whereas previous attempts at such comprehensive amendments achieved only limited success, support by several major federal states indicates that this time the proposal will succeed.
    With other English-language commercial court initiatives already established or planned in both other EU Member States and Germany, it is difficult to anticipate whether – and how soon – Frankfurt will succeed in attracting English-speaking foreign litigants. Finally, developments such as the 2018 Initiative for Expedited B2B Procedures of the European Parliament or the ELI–UNIDROIT project on Transnational Principles of Civil Procedure may also shape the long-term playing field.

Noten

  • 1 Zivilprozessordnung (ZPO).

  • 2 Gerichtsverfassungsgesetz (GVG).


Burkhard Hess
Burkhard Hess is the Executive Director of the Max Planck Institute Luxembourg for International, European and Regulatory Procedural Law (MPI Luxembourg).

Timon Boerner
Timon Boerner is a Research Fellow at the MPI Luxembourg.
Rulings

ECJ 15 May 2019, case C-677/17 (Çoban), Free Movement, Work and Residence Permit

M. Çoban – v – Raad van bestuur van het Uitvoeringsinstituut werknemersverzekeringen, Dutch case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden Free movement, Work and residence permit
Samenvatting

Rulings

ECJ 7 August 2018, case C-123/17 (Yön), Free movement

Nefiye Yön – v – Landeshauptstadt Stuttgart, German case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Free movement
Samenvatting

Case Reports

2018/27 Citizen’s rights after Brexit: no preliminary questions to the ECJ (NL)

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Free movement, Work and residence permit, Other forms of free movement
Auteurs Jan-Pieter Vos
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Amsterdam Court of First Instance had contemplated asking certain preliminary questions to the ECJ about the EU rights of UK citizens residing outside the UK (see EELC 2018/18), but the Court of Appeal has now refused this, considering the underlying claims to be too vague.


Jan-Pieter Vos
Jan-Pieter Vos is a lecturer in labour law at Erasmus University Rotterdam
Artikel

EU Smart borders, from strategic consideration to operational execution: an effective counter-terrorism strategy or discriminatory system control?

Tijdschrift Crimmigratie & Recht, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden EU Smart borders, Schengen Area, Biometric matching system, Terrorism
Auteurs Dr. Daniela Rodríguez Bautista
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The inclusion of biometric data in EU border controls reflects a shift from immigration management as an original purpose by making control and identification of individuals a top priority. It also shows a preference for biometrical data as part of the European security strategy. This article elaborates on these so-called ‘EU Smart borders’ and focusses on the different existing central information systems including these data.


Dr. Daniela Rodríguez Bautista
Dr. D. Rodríguez Bautista works as a legal officer (administrateur) at the Court of Justice of the European Union.
Artikel

Access_open Migrant smuggling in the Mediterranean

An excludable act under article 1F(b) Refugee Convention?

Tijdschrift Crimmigratie & Recht, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden article 1F, Refugee Convention, exclusion clauses, migrant smuggling, serious non-political crimes
Auteurs Anne Aagten LLL.M.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2015, deadly incidents of migrant smuggling in the Mediterranean were daily covered by everyday newspapers. Empirical research has shown that migrants themselves may be involved in these smuggling operations. If they apply for refugee protection, they may be excluded from refugee status under Article 1F of the Refugee Convention. Article 1F(b) excludes asylum seekers from international protection if serious reasons exist to consider that they have committed serious non-political crimes. This contribution discusses whether migrant smuggling can be considered as such and whether various forms of participation in smuggling operations give rise to individual responsibility and trigger application of article 1F(b).


Anne Aagten LLL.M.
A.E.M. Aagten LLL.M. is onderwijs- en onderzoeksmedewerker bij het Instituut voor Immigratierecht (Universiteit Leiden).
Case Reports

2018/18 Preliminary questions to ECJ about Brexit implications for UK citizens? (NL)

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden Free movement, Work and residence permit, Other forms of free movement
Auteurs Jan-Pieter Vos
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Recently, the Court of Amsterdam decided to ask preliminary questions to the ECJ about EU citizens’ rights of British nationals, anticipating Brexit. However, two weeks later, it allowed an appeal against this decision. It is therefore unclear if and when these questions will be asked.


Jan-Pieter Vos
Jan-Pieter Vos is a lecturer of Labour Law at Erasmus University Rotterdam.
Artikel

Access_open The substance of citizenship: is it rights all the way down?

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden Citizenship, Political Membership, Citizenship Rights
Auteurs Chiara Raucea
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper examines how the distribution of social goods within a political community relates to decisions on membership boundaries. The author challenges two renowned accounts of such a relation: firstly, Walzer’s account according to which decisions on membership boundaries necessarily precede decisions on distribution; secondly, Benhabib’s account, according to which membership boundaries can be called into question on the basis of universalist claims. Departing from both accounts, the author concludes that actual changes in the pool of participants in practices of creation and exchange of social goods pressure a political community to redefine its distributive patterns and, accordingly, the boundaries of its formal political membership. This claim will be supported by the analysis of threshold cases decided by the EU Court of Justice, in which EU citizenship is invoked with the atypical purpose of granting rights to a specific group of non-formal members.


Chiara Raucea
Chiara Raucea is lecturer at Tilburg Law School. A longer version of her article is included in her doctoral dissertation Citizenship Inverted: From Rights To Status?, defended in December 2017 at Tilburg University.
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