Zoekresultaat: 5 artikelen

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Article

Access_open How Far Should the State Go to Counter Prejudice?

A Positive State Obligation to Counter Dehumanisation

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden prejudice, soft paternalism, empathy, liberalism, employment discrimination, access to goods and services
Auteurs Ioanna Tourkochoriti
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article argues that it is legitimate for the state to practice soft paternalism towards changing hearts and minds in order to prevent behaviour that is discriminatory. Liberals accept that it is not legitimate for the state to intervene in order to change how people think because ideas and beliefs are wrong in themselves. It is legitimate for the state to intervene with the actions of a person only when there is a risk of harm to others and when there is a threat to social coexistence. Preventive action of the state is legitimate if we consider the immaterial and material harm that discrimination causes. It causes harm to the social standing of the person, psychological harm, economic and existential harm. All these harms threaten peaceful social coexistence. This article traces a theory of permissible government action. Research in the areas of behavioural psychology, neuroscience and social psychology indicates that it is possible to bring about a change in hearts and minds. Encouraging a person to adopt the perspective of the person who has experienced discrimination can lead to empathetic understanding. This, can lead a person to critically evaluate her prejudice. The paper argues that soft paternalism towards changing hearts and minds is legitimate in order to prevent harm to others. It attempts to legitimise state coercion in order to eliminate prejudice and broader social patterns of inequality and marginalisation. And it distinguishes between appropriate and non-appropriate avenues the state could pursue in order to eliminate prejudice. Policies towards eliminating prejudice should address the rational and the emotional faculties of a person. They should aim at using methods and techniques that focus on persuasion and reduce coercion. They should raise awareness of what prejudice is and how it works in order to facilitate well-informed voluntary decisions. The version of soft paternalism towards changing minds and attitudes defended in this article makes it consistent with liberalism.


Ioanna Tourkochoriti
Ioanna Tourkochoriti is Lecturer Above the Bar, NUI Galway School of Law.
Artikel

Criminaliteit relateren aan verblijfspopulaties

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden crime rate, ambient population, residential population, commuters, tourists
Auteurs Prof. dr. Wim Bernasco en Dr. Chantal van den Berg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Crime victimization risk is usually calculated by dividing the number of crimes by the size of the local population. This procedure does not account for the mobility of the residents. We develop and apply an alternative procedure that divides the number of crimes by the number of people actually present: the ambient population. The ambient population includes commuters, tourists and other visitors. The regular and the alternative crime rate measures of the four largest cities in the Netherlands are compared using data of the ‘AD Misdaadmeter’. We find that ambient populations are larger than residential populations, in particular in Amsterdam. The differences are small however, and the increased effort of calculating ambient populations does not compensate the increased precision in crime measures. For comparisons between annual crimes rates of cities or municipalities, it is sufficient to divide numbers of crimes by populations.


Prof. dr. Wim Bernasco
Prof. dr. W. Bernasco is bijzonder hoogleraar ‘Ruimtelijke analyse van criminaliteit’ bij de afdeling Ruimtelijke Economie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Dr. Chantal van den Berg
Dr. C.J.W. van den Berg is onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).
Artikel

Access_open Through the Looking Glass of Global Constitutionalism and Global Administrative Law

Different Stories About the Crisis in Global Water Governance?

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden global water governance, global constitutionalism, global administrative law, water crisis, integrated water resources management
Auteurs Mónika Ambrus
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In addition to (or sometimes rather than primarily) attributing it to water scarcity, water crisis has been described as a ‘crisis of governance’; with the word ‘crisis’ also indicating that water governance lacks (full) legitimacy. The article undertakes the task to analyse the current status of global water governance (GWG) from the perspective of two competing theories relating to the legitimacy of global governance, namely global constitutionalism (GC) and global administrative law (GAL). Having mapped the current legal framework of GWG from these two perspectives, it is discussed how these theories might shape GWG and how this shaping could contribute to solving the water crisis. In addition, it is also explored whether reading one of the most accepted proposals for legitimising global water governance, the concept of ‘integrated water resources management’ (IWRM), through the lenses of either GC or GAL would have an impact on how this concept is interpreted, and whether it can be a useful mechanism to address the water crisis. The use of two theories analysing the same subject matter provides interesting insights into global water governance and the nature of the water crisis as well as the relationship between these two theories.


Mónika Ambrus
Assistant professor of public international law at the Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
Artikel

Fysieke belasting van brandweerwerk in relatie tot gezondheid, fitheid en inzetbaarheid van brandweermensen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2012
Trefwoorden firefighting, physical demands, health and fitness, deployability, active recovery, physical safety
Auteurs Eric Mol, Ronald Heus, Ron van Raaij e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Based on state-of-the-art scientific knowledge, this article reviews the physical aspects of firefighting in relation to physical safety. Firefighting is known to be one of the most demanding occupations. Based on the ‘Occupational Demands Model’ the (physical) strain of firefighting is described. The physical demands of firefighting are determined by a combination of firefighting-specific efforts, the use of personal protective equipment and enviromental and climatological conditions. The effects on the firefighter depend on his/her health and fitness status as well as on his/her hydration and nutrition status and influences the repressive job performance. If the demands and the effects are not in balance, personal safety, health and effectivity of the firefighter’s deployment are in jeopardy and hence his/her physical safety. In the second part of the paper, the relationship between the physical demands of firefighting and health, fitness and deployability of firefighters are described. Finally, a method of maintaining deployability prior to, during and post firefighting activities or training through active recovery is described to improve the preparedness of the individual firefighter.


Eric Mol
Drs. Eric Mol is als docent/onderzoeker verbonden aan het Instituut Sport en Bewegingsstudies (ISBS) van de Hogeschool van Arnhem en Nijmegen (HAN). E-mail: eric.mol@han.nl

Ronald Heus
Drs. Ronald Heus is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Instituut Fysieke Veiligheid (NIFV).

Ron van Raaij
Drs. Ron van Raaij is als bedrijfsarts/duikerarts werkzaam bij Bedrijfsartsen5 Zuidwest.

Ricardo Weewer
Dr. ir. Ricardo Weewer is lector Brandweerkunde aan de Brandweeracademie van het Nederlands Instituut Fysieke Veiligheid (NIFV).

George Havenith
Prof. dr. George Havenith is hoogleraar Environmental Physiology and Ergonomics en directeur van het Environmental Ergonomics Research Centre, Loughborough University (UK)
Discussie

Foucault en de beheersbaarheidsmentaliteit

Tijdschrift RegelMaat, Aflevering 2 2009
Trefwoorden transparantie, beheersbaarheid, privacy, instrumentalisme, macht, regeerkunst (oud en nieuw)
Auteurs Prof. dr. W.J. Witteveen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    De ontwikkelingen die de burger transparant maken en diens privacy beperken, zijn niet alleen te wijten aan de opkomst van nieuwe technologie en een versterkt beheersingsstreven bij de overheid dat zich onder invloed van de terroristische dreiging manifesteert. Transparantie berust op een algemene mentaliteit die gericht is op beheersbaarheid van risico’s. De Franse filosoof Foucault analyseerde dertig jaar geleden al de historische ontwikkelingen die de opkomst van een beheersbaarheidsmentaliteit onafwendbaar maakten. Zijn analyse van macht en kennis is nog steeds verhelderend, net als zijn vergelijking van de oude regeerkunst die van het recht gebruikmaakte, en de nieuwe regeerkunst die naar voren komt in disciplinerende kennispraktijken.


Prof. dr. W.J. Witteveen
Prof. dr. W.J. Witteveen is hoogleraar rechtstheorie en retorica aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.
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