Zoekresultaat: 8 artikelen

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    This article relies on the premise that to understand the significance of Open Access Repositories (OARs) it is necessary to know the context of the debate. Therefore, it is necessary to trace the historical development of the concept of copyright as a property right. The continued relevance of the rationales for copyright interests, both philosophical and pragmatic, will be assessed against the contemporary times of digital publishing. It follows then discussion about the rise of Open Access (OA) practice and its impact on conventional publishing methods. The present article argues about the proper equilibrium between self-interest and social good. In other words, there is a need to find a tool in order to balance individuals’ interests and common will. Therefore, there is examination of the concept of property that interrelates justice (Plato), private ownership (Aristotle), labour (Locke), growth of personality (Hegel) and a bundle of rights that constitute legal relations (Hohfeld). This examination sets the context for the argument.


Nikos Koutras
Postdoctoral Researcher, Faculty of Law, University of Antwerp.
Artikel

Access_open ‘God’s Friend, the Whole World’s Enemy’

Reconsidering the role of piracy in the development of universal jurisdiction.

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden Cicero, Augustine, Bartolus, piracy, universal jurisdiction
Auteurs Louis Sicking
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Piracy holds a special place within the field of international law because of the universal jurisdiction that applies. This article reconsiders the role of piracy in the development of universal jurisdiction. While usually a connection is established between Cicero’s ‘enemy of all’ and modern conceptions of pirates, it is argued that ‘enemy of the human species’ or ‘enemy of humanity’ is a medieval creation, used by Bartolus, which must be understood in the wake of the Renaissance of the twelfth century and the increased interest for the study of Roman Law. The criminalization of the pirate in the late Middle Ages must be understood not only as a consequence of royal power claiming a monopoly of violence at sea. Both the Italian city-states and the Hanse may have preceded royal power in criminalizing pirates. All the while, political motives in doing so were never absent.


Louis Sicking
Louis Sicking is Aemilius Papinianus Professor of History of Public International Law at Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and lecturer in medieval and early modern history at Universiteit Leiden.
Article

Access_open Armed On-board Protection of Dutch Vessels: Not Allowed Yet But Probably Forthcoming

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden vessel protection, private armed guards, state monopoly on force, masters position, state control
Auteurs Paul Mevis en Sari Eckhardt
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article provides an overview of the developments about the armed on-board protection of Dutch vessels under Dutch law. The Dutch position has changed over the years. In 2011, the starting point was that private security companies (PSCs) are not to be allowed. It was expected that adequate protection of Dutch vessels could be provided by vessel protection detachments (VPDs). Although not considered as an absolute statutory bar, the state monopoly on force was considered the main argument against PSCs. After optimising the use of VPDs and given the development in other countries, the approach changed into a ‘VPS, unless …’-approach. Under the new Protection of Merchant Shipping Act that is expected to come into force in the second half of 2019, PSCs can be employed only if no VPS is available. This article gives an overview of the argumentation in this change of view over the years. It also explores the headlines, criteria and procedures of the new law and some other topics, including the position of the master under the upcoming law. In line with the other country reports, it enables the comparative study in the last article of this special issue.


Paul Mevis
Paul Mevis is professor of criminal law and criminal procedure at Erasmus University Rotterdam.

Sari Eckhardt
Sari Eckhardt holds a master’s degree in criminal law and has worked as a student assistant at the Rotterdam Erasmus University’s Department of Criminal Law and is currently working at De Bont Advocaten.
Article

Access_open Armed On-board Protection of German Ships (and by German Companies)

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden German maritime security, private armed security, privately contracted armed security personnel, anti-piracy-measures, state oversight
Auteurs Tim R. Salomon
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Germany reacted to the rise of piracy around the Horn of Africa not only by deploying its armed forces to the region, but also by overhauling the legal regime concerning private security providers. It introduced a dedicated licensing scheme mandatory for German maritime security providers and maritime security providers wishing to offer their services on German-flagged vessels. This legal reform resulted in a licensing system with detailed standards for the internal organisation of a security company and the execution of maritime security services. Content wise, the German law borrows broadly from internationally accepted standards. Despite deficits in state oversight and compliance control, the licensing scheme sets a high standard e.g. by mandating that a security team must consist of a minimum of four security guards. The lacking success of the scheme suggested by the low number of companies still holding a license may be due to the fact that ship-owners have traditionally been reluctant to travel high-risk areas under the German flag. Nevertheless, the German law is an example of a national regulation that has had some impact on the industry at large.


Tim R. Salomon
The author is a legal adviser to the German Federal Armed Forces (Bundeswehr) and currently seconded to the German Federal Constitutional Court.
Artikel

Access_open Revisiting the Humanisation of International Law: Limits and Potential

Obligations Erga Omnes, Hierarchy of Rules and the Principle of Due Diligence as the Basis for Further Humanisation

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden humanisation, constitutionalism, legal positivism, human rights, erga omnes, due diligence, positive obligations, normative hierarchy, proportionality
Auteurs Dr. Vassilis P. Tzevelekos
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article critically evaluates the theory of the humanisation of international law. First, it argues that despite human rights having impact on (other areas of) international law, this trend has in the past been somewhat inflated. A number of examples are given where human rights have been tested against other objectives pursued by international law, with humanisation revealing its limits and actual dimensions. The second argument consists in identifying and highlighting obligations erga omnes (partes) and the principle of due diligence as two ‘systemic’ tools, that are central to the humanisation of international law. Both these tools form part of modern positive law, but may also make a positive contribution towards the direction of deeper humanisation in international law, having the potential, inter alia, to limit state will, establish occasional material normative hierarchy consisting in conditional priority in the fulfilment of human rights, give a communitarian tone to international law and invite states to be pro-active in the collective protection of their common interests and values. In its conclusions, the article offers a plausible explanation about the paradox it identifies of the limits of the humanisation on the one hand, and its potential for further development on the other. For, it is inherent in international law that the line separating the law from deontology is thin. The process of humanisation needs to be balanced with the other objectives of international law as well as reconciled with the decentralised and sovereignist origins of the pluralistic international legal system.


Dr. Vassilis P. Tzevelekos
Lecturer in Public International Law, University of Hull Law School; Attorney, Athens’ Bar. PhD and M.Res, European University Institute; MA, European Political and Administrative Studies, College of Europe; DEA Droit international public et organisations internationales, Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne; LLB, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens.
Artikel

Zin en onzin van het downloadverbod

Actuele ontwikkelingen in digitale piraterij nader beschouwd

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2012
Auteurs H.B.M. Leeuw
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this contribution, the author explores some of the issues that are currently dominant in the debate revolving illegal downloading (also known as digital piracy). Four specific issues are addressed. Firstly, the legal status of downloading is discussed, followed by a brief analysis of a debate currently being held within the Dutch parliament dealing with this issue. Of particular interest is the proposed ‘download-ban’ which is intended to decrease digital piracy and increase legitimate sales. However, as will be demonstrated, this proposed ban is not without criticisms. Following this analysis, the question is raised what is actually empirically known about the impact of illegal downloading on the involved industries, and whether proposed measures such as a ‘download-ban’ can have the desired impact. Finally, the role of copyrights in the digital environment is explored.


H.B.M. Leeuw
Bastiaan Leeuw UM Mcrim is promovendus aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van Maastricht University. Hierbinnen is hij verboden aan de capaciteitsgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie. Zijn onderzoek heeft betrekking op een (criminologische) studie naar downloadgedrag op het internet, waarbij de vraag centraal staat welke mogelijke interventies effectief kunnen zijn om downloadgedrag aan te passen.

    In spite of the recent growing international naval presence in the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean Somali pirates still continue to attack passing merchantmen trying to hijack these and kidnap the crews. It seems logic to consider what security measures can be taken on the ships themselves against piracy attacks. After analyzing the dilemmas surrounding armed self-defence the author describes how various technological devices, some still developing, could contribute to greater security on board. Just as important however, is the development and appliance of an anti-piracy policy, at the shipping company as well as on board. Information sharing and communication are crucial to an efficient anti-piracy policy. Also crewmembers should know what to expect when a piracy attack occurs and how to act. The structural protection of important waterways is a primary task for naval forces, while the merchantmen themselves could take care of primary protection against piracy attacks. This would diminish their dependence on naval presence, which can never be large enough to effectively prevent piracy.


H.A. L'Honoré Naber
Henri L'Honoré Naber heeft ruime ervaring opgedaan met alle facetten van piraterij. Eerst als koopvaardijofficier. Later bij de Marinestaf te Den Haag als Hoofd Koopvaardijzaken, waar hij o.a. belast was met de veiligheid voor de koopvaardij. Hij is oprichter en directeur van adviesbureau Safer Seas Consultancy. In samenwerking met andere experts heeft hij het programma Seacure ontwikkeld, dat rederijen en offshorebedrijven de mogelijkheid biedt een volledig en integraal anti-piraterij-beleid op te zetten.

Nicholas Dorn
Nicholas Dorn is Professor of International Safety and Governance at the School of Law, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
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