Zoekresultaat: 76 artikelen

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Living on the Other Side: A socio-legal analysis of family law and migration in Morocco

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden family law, migration, Morocco, socio-legal studies
Auteurs Nada Heddane MA (Master in North African and Middle Eastern Studies) en Judith van Uden MSc (Master in International Development Studies)
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In our research project ‘Living on the Other Side’, we aim to understand how (ir)regular migrants from the Middle East and West/Central Africa deal with the legal and formal aspect of their lives in Morocco by focusing on major life events, such as marriage, divorce, birth and death. Life does not simply stand still when residing in a foreign country – people continue to marry, divorce, have children and die. However, there is little empirical knowledge on what migrants actually do when faced with such events. Registering major life events secures a migrant’s legal identity and protects their human rights. Having a legal identity, most likely, influences the daily lives of migrants. A migrant, who does not formally exist in the eyes of the state, might not be able to access basic services, like health care and education. From a legal pluralist perspective, we aim to investigate how migration and family law intersect by conducting online and offline ethnographic fieldwork.


Nada Heddane MA (Master in North African and Middle Eastern Studies)
Nada Heddane is promovenda bij het Van Vollenhoven Instituut voor Recht, Bestuur en Samenleving (VVI) van de Rechtenfaculteit van de Universiteit Leiden. Nada’s onderzoek verkent de relevantie van het familierecht voor West-/Centraal-Afrikaanse migranten bij belangrijke levensgebeurtenissen. Zij geeft een sociaaljuridische analyse van de strategieën van migranten op basis van online en offline veldwerk in Marokko.

Judith van Uden MSc (Master in International Development Studies)
Nada Heddane is Promovenda bij het Van Vollenhoven Instituut voor Recht, Bestuur en Samenleving (VVI) van de Rechtenfaculteit van de Universiteit Leiden. In haar onderzoek bevraagt Judith wat de rol is van het familierecht in de levens van Midden-Oosterse migranten in Marokko. Deze kwalitatieve studie bekijkt de ervaringen van migranten door een juridisch-antropologische lens.
Artikel

A machine without an engine: why deportation would hardly find its place in the Italian judicial system

Tijdschrift Crimmigratie & Recht, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden deportation, convicted foreign nationals, crimmigration, judicial decision-making
Auteurs Eleonora Di Molfetta
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the last decades, many Western countries have embraced an exclusionary stance towards non-members by increasingly relying on deportation. An important target of ‘crimmigration’ practices is represented by convicted foreign nationals, who are subject to deportation after serving their sentence. In Italy, trial judges can issue a deportation order towards convicted foreign nationals considered socially dangerous. This article examines whether and how deportation has found its space in judicial settings. Drawing on data collected in the court of Turin, this article sheds light on how structural and cultural traits of the Italian judicial system make deportation ‘a machine without an engine’.


Eleonora Di Molfetta
Dr. E. Di Molfetta, sectie Criminologie, Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

The Crimmigration Trend in the Netherlands: Some Critical Reflections

Tijdschrift Crimmigratie & Recht, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden crimmigration, immigration control, irregular migrants, the Netherlands, crimmigration critique
Auteurs Richard Staring en Ruben Timmerman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Over the past decade, the concept of crimmigration has dominated legal and criminological understanding of contemporary immigration control. Drawing on the Netherlands as case study, this article provides a critical reflection on ‘crimmigration’ as both a policy trend and a scholarly trend. We argue that much of the existing scholarship has presented a one-dimensional understanding of crimmigration as a unilateral process singularly trending towards increasing punitiveness, securitization and exclusion. We examine a number of concrete examples illustrating the need for a more complex understanding that incorporates an analysis of the full range of actors and (counter)processes within the field of crimmigration.


Richard Staring
Prof. dr. R.H.J.M. Staring, sectie Criminologie, Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Ruben Timmerman
R.I. Timmerman LLM, MA, PhD candidate, sectie Criminologie, Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Vrijheidsontneming, penitentiaire beginselen en de eendentest

Over de aard van vreemdelingenbewaring

Tijdschrift Crimmigratie & Recht, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden vreemdelingenbewaring, vrijheidsontneming, penitentiair recht, Wet terugkeer en vreemdelingenbewaring, visitatie isoleercel
Auteurs Mr. drs. Frans-Willem Verbaas
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands, immigration detention is classified under administrative law. More precisely: it is a form of administrative coercion. But immigration detention is also deprivation of liberty, or a habeas corpus measure. This makes it the most far-reaching form of administrative coercion you can think of. The regime and house rules of immigration detention differ just a little from those of criminal deprivation of liberty. The draft bill on the Return and Detention Act provides some improvements. For asylum seekers that cause nuisance, there is the Enforcement and Supervision Location, where the foreign national is given an area restriction and must remain within the municipal boundaries. Due to the liberty restrictions, immigration detention should always be the last resort.


Mr. drs. Frans-Willem Verbaas
Mr. drs. F.W. Verbaas is advocaat bij Collet Advocaten Alkmaar. Hij is mensenrechtenadvocaat en gespecialiseerd in penitentiair recht en vreemdelingenrecht, waaronder vreemdelingenbewaring.
Jurisprudentie

Annotatie Lang

Ophouden in de transitzone toch een bewaringsmaatregel

Tijdschrift Crimmigratie & Recht, Aflevering 2 2020
Auteurs Mr. Aniel Pahladsingh
Auteursinformatie

Mr. Aniel Pahladsingh
Mr. A. Pahladsingh is jurist bij de Raad van State en redacteur van dit tijdschrift.
Article

Access_open Migration and Time: Duration as an Instrument to Welcome or Restrict

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden Migration, EU migration law, time
Auteurs Gerrie Lodder
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    States apply different material conditions to attract or restrict residence of certain types of migrants. But states can also make use of time as an instrument to design more welcoming or more restrictive policies. States can apply faster application procedures for desired migrants. Furthermore, time can be used in a more favourable way to attract desired migrants in regard to duration of residence, access to a form of permanent residence and protection against loss of residence. This contribution makes an analysis of how time is used as an instrument in shaping migration policy by the European Union (EU) legislator in the context of making migration more or less attractive. This analysis shows that two groups are treated more favourably in regard to the use of time in several aspects: EU citizens and economic- and knowledge-related third-country nationals. However, when it comes to the acquisition of permanent residence after a certain period of time, the welcoming policy towards economic- and knowledge-related migrants is no longer obvious.


Gerrie Lodder
Gerrie Lodder is lecturer and researcher at the Europa Institute of Leiden University.
Article

Access_open Positive State Obligations under European Law: A Tool for Achieving Substantive Equality for Sexual Minorities in Europe

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden Positive obligations, sexual minorities, sexual orientation, European law, human rights
Auteurs Alina Tryfonidou
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article seeks to examine the development of positive obligations under European law in the specific context of the rights of sexual minorities. It is clear that the law should respect and protect all sexualities and diverse intimate relationships without discrimination, and for this purpose it needs to ensure that sexual minorities can not only be free from state interference when expressing their sexuality in private, but that they should be given the right to express their sexuality in public and to have their intimate relationships legally recognised. In addition, sexual minorities should be protected from the actions of other individuals, when these violate their legal and fundamental human rights. Accordingly, in addition to negative obligations, European law must impose positive obligations towards sexual minorities in order to achieve substantive equality for them. The article explains that, to date, European law has imposed a number of such positive obligations; nonetheless, there is definitely scope for more. It is suggested that European law should not wait for hearts and minds to change before imposing additional positive obligations, especially since this gives the impression that the EU and the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) are condoning or disregarding persistent discrimination against sexual minorities.


Alina Tryfonidou
Alina Tryfonidou is Professor of Law, University of Reading.
Article

Access_open A Positive State Obligation to Counter Dehumanisation under International Human Rights Law

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden Dehumanisation, International Human Rights Law, Positive State obligations, Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, International Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Racial Discrimination
Auteurs Stephanie Eleanor Berry
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    International human rights law (IHRL) was established in the aftermath of the Second World War to prevent a reoccurrence of the atrocities committed in the name of fascism. Central to this aim was the recognition that out-groups are particularly vulnerable to rights violations committed by the in-group. Yet, it is increasingly apparent that out-groups are still subject to a wide range of rights violations, including those associated with mass atrocities. These rights violations are facilitated by the dehumanisation of the out-group by the in-group. Consequently, this article argues that the creation of IHRL treaties and corresponding monitoring mechanisms should be viewed as the first step towards protecting out-groups from human rights violations. By adopting the lens of dehumanisation, this article demonstrates that if IHRL is to achieve its purpose, IHRL monitoring mechanisms must recognise the connection between dehumanisation and rights violations and develop a positive State obligation to counter dehumanisation. The four treaties explored in this article, the European Convention on Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities and the International Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Racial Discrimination, all establish positive State obligations to prevent hate speech and to foster tolerant societies. These obligations should, in theory, allow IHRL monitoring mechanisms to address dehumanisation. However, their interpretation of the positive State obligation to foster tolerant societies does not go far enough to counter unconscious dehumanisation and requires more detailed elaboration.


Stephanie Eleanor Berry
Stephanie Eleanor Berry is Senior Lecturer in International Human Rights Law, University of Sussex.
Article

Access_open State Obligations to Counter Islamophobia: Comparing Fault Lines in the International Supervisory Practice of the HRC/ICCPR, the ECtHR and the AC/FCNM

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden Human rights, positive state obligations, islamophobia, international supervisory mechanisms
Auteurs Kristin Henrard
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Islamophobia, like xenophobia, points to deep-seated, ingrained discrimination against a particular group, whose effective enjoyment of fundamental rights is impaired. This in turn triggers the human rights obligations of liberal democratic states, more particularly states’ positive obligations (informed by reasonability considerations) to ensure that fundamental rights are effectively enjoyed, and thus also respected in interpersonal relationships. This article identifies and compares the fault lines in the practice of three international human rights supervisory mechanisms in relation to Islamophobia, namely the Human Rights Committee (International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights), the European Court of Human Rights (European Convention on Human Rights) and the Advisory Committee of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities. The supervisory practice is analysed in two steps: The analysis of each international supervisory mechanism’s jurisprudence, in itself, is followed by the comparison of the fault lines. The latter comparison is structured around the two main strands of strategies that states could adopt in order to counter intolerance: On the one hand, the active promotion of tolerance, inter alia through education, awareness-raising campaigns and the stimulation of intercultural dialogue; on the other, countering acts informed by intolerance, in terms of the prohibition of discrimination (and/or the effective enjoyment of substantive fundamental rights). Having regard to the respective strengths and weaknesses of the supervisory practice of these three international supervisory mechanisms, the article concludes with some overarching recommendations.


Kristin Henrard
Kristin Henrard is Professor International Human Rights and Minorities, Erasmus School of Law, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

    The Belgian Court of Cassation (Supreme Court), in a decision of 20 January 2020, has ruled that the prohibition for an employer to terminate the employment relationship of a worker for reasons related to a complaint for acts of violence and/or moral and/or sexual harassment at work does not, however, preclude the dismissal from being justified by motives inferred from the facts set out in the complaint.


Gautier Busschaert
Gautier Busschaert is an attorney-at-law at Van Olmen & Wynant, Brussels.
Asiel en migratie

Menselijke waardigheid en een waardige levensstandaard; de uitspraak van het Hof van Justitie inzake Zubair Haqbin

Tijdschrift Nederlands tijdschrift voor Europees recht, Aflevering 3-4 2020
Trefwoorden opvang, asiel, menselijke waardigheid, rechten van het kind
Auteurs Prof. mr. A.B. Terlouw en Mr. dr. K.M. Zwaan
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Richtlijn 2013/33/EU (de Opvangrichtlijn) regelt welke opvangvoorzieningen aan asielzoekers moeten worden verstrekt en ook hun rechten op documenten, onderwijs en toegang tot de arbeidsmarkt en gezondheidszorg. In de uitspraak HvJ 12 november 2019, zaak C-233/18 inzake Zubair Haqbin oordeelt het Hof van Justitie dat de intrekking – al was het maar tijdelijk – van alle materiële opvangvoorzieningen of van de materiële opvangvoorzieningen die betrekking hebben op huisvesting, voeding of kleding, onverenigbaar is met de verplichting om ervoor te zorgen dat Haqbin een waardige levensstandaard geniet. Een dergelijke sanctie ontneemt hem immers de mogelijkheid om te voorzien in zijn meest elementaire behoeften.
    HvJ 12 november 2019, zaak C-233/18, ECLI:EU:C:2019:956 (Zubair Haqbin/Federaal Agentschap voor de opvang van asielzoekers, België)


Prof. mr. A.B. Terlouw
Prof. mr. A.B. (Ashley) Terlouw is hoogleraar rechtssociologie aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.

Mr. dr. K.M. Zwaan
Mr. dr. K.M. (Karin) Zwaan is universitair hoofddocent migratierecht aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.
Artikel

From the securitisation of migration to the criminalisation of solidarity towards migrants

The shrinking space for NGOs and volunteers in the Mediterranean Sea

Tijdschrift Crimmigratie & Recht, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden migration, securitisation, solidarity, growing pattern of criminalisation
Auteurs Fleur Boixiere
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In recent years, migration has been at the centre of European debates and the number of migrants trying to cross the Mediterranean remains alarming. To this day, hundreds of people continue to risk their lives crossing the Mediterranean on small boats in order to flee conflict zones, persecution or extreme poverty. However, due to the lack of legal alternatives, migrants engage in dangerous journeys and find themselves helpless in the hands of smugglers. This article will address the growing pattern of criminalisation of migration and humanitarian assistance throughout Europe and consider the extent to which national, European and international anti-smuggling laws affect the work of civil society actors.


Fleur Boixiere
Fleur Boixiere is a former student of Public International Law at Leiden University and this contribution is based on her Master thesis. While writing her article, she did an internship at the ICC.
Artikel

Access_open De gevaarlijke asielzoeker en het Unierecht

Gevaarzetting als grond voor uitsluiting van internationale bescherming

Tijdschrift Crimmigratie & Recht, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden Europees recht, openbare orde, asiel
Auteurs Mr. Hans van Oort
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The dangerous asylum seeker easily captures the public's attention. Policies increasingly focus on strong repercussions for asylum seekers who cause disturbances or can be considered dangerous. This article distinguishes between categories of asylum seekers based on the kind of disturbance or danger they cause in the view of the general public. It is argued that EU law provides a strong basis for denying or withdrawing the residence rights of asylum seekers based on public order considerations. In practice however, it seems difficult to meet the threshold of the public order criteria developed by the Court of Justice.


Mr. Hans van Oort
Mr. J.C.M. van Oort is advocaat bij Kroes Advocaten Immigration Lawyers.

    De grote toestroom van migranten en asielzoekers in de EU houdt vandaag nog steeds verschillende regelgevers wakker. Niet alleen de nationale overheden, maar ook de EU-regelgevers zoeken naarstig naar oplossingen voor de problematiek. Daartoe trachten de EU-regelgevers het Gemeenschappelijk Europees Asielstelsel (GEAS) bij te werken.
    Binnen de groep migranten en asielzoekers bestaat een specifiek kwetsbaar individu: de niet-begeleide minderjarige vreemdeling (NBMV). Hij is zowel vreemdeling als kind en kreeg reeds ruime aandacht binnen de rechtsleer. Nochtans werd deze aandacht niet altijd weerspiegeld in de EU-wetgeving. Het lijkt alsof hij door de regelgevers af en toe uit het oog verloren werd.
    Uit het onderzoek blijkt dat de EU-regelgevers nog een zekere weg te gaan hebben. In de eerste plaats bestaat er wat betreft het geheel aan regels met betrekking tot de NBMV weinig coherentie. De EU-regelgevers zouden bijvoorbeeld meer duidelijkheid kunnen scheppen door een uniforme methode vast te leggen voor de bepaling van de leeftijd van de NBMV. Hetzelfde geldt voor een verduidelijking van de notie ‘het belang van het kind’ binnen asiel en migratie. Verder blijken de Dublinoverdrachten en de vrijheidsontneming van de NBMV nog steeds gevoelige pijnpunten. Hier en daar moet aan de hervorming van het asielstelsel nog wat gesleuteld worden, zodat de rechten van de NBMV optimaal beschermd kunnen worden.
    ---
    Today, the large influx of migrants and asylum seekers into the European Union (EU) keeps several regulators awake. Not only national authorities, but EU regulators too are diligently searching for solutions to the problems. To this end, EU regulators are seeking to update the Common European Asylum System (CEAS).
    There is however a particularly vulnerable individual within the group of migrants and asylum seekers: the unaccompanied alien minor (UAM). These minors already received a great deal of attention within legal doctrine. However, this attention was not always reflected in EU legislation. It seems as if UAM are occasionally lost from sight by the regulators.
    This article shows that the EU regulators still have a certain way to go. First, there is little coherence in the set of rules relating to the UAM. The EU regulators could, for example, create more clarity by laying down a uniform method for determining the age of the UAM. The same applies to a clarification of the notion of 'best interests of the child' within the context of asylum and migration. Second, the proposal for a new Dublin Regulation and the proposal for a new Reception Conditions Directive still appear to be sensitive. Here and there, the reform of the asylum system still needs adjustments, so that the rights of UAM can be optimally protected."


Caranina Colpaert LLM
Caranina Colpaert is PhD researcher
Kroniek

Criminalisering van migratie en grensmobiliteit als een legitieme zorg voor de publieke criminologie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden crimmigration, border mobility, criminalization, migration, public criminology
Auteurs Maartje van der Woude
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    What role do Dutch criminologists play in the – especially since the onset of the so-called migration crisis – heated national and international debates on the criminalization of migration and border mobility? This will be the central question in this publication. Based on an inventory of national and international peer-reviewed publications written by Dutch criminologists, the article will reflect upon Dutch criminologists’ public role. In addition, based on the observed ‘silences’ in the scholarly debates on the criminalization of migration and border mobility, three avenues for further criminological research will be identified.


Maartje van der Woude
Prof. mr. dr. M.A.H. van der Woude is hoogleraar Rechtssociologie aan het Van Vollenhoven Instituut voor Recht, Bestuur en Samenleving van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Zorg voor en zorgen om alleenstaande minderjarige vreemdelingen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2019
Trefwoorden unaccompanied minor asylum seekers, mental health problems, mental health care, resilience, guardianship
Auteurs Prof. dr. Monika Smit
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Among the asylum seekers arriving in Europe are unaccompanied minors (UMAs). As a result of the often traumatic experiences before and during their flight, many have mental health problems. The question is how they cope in the country of destination. After the flight, the plight is not over: destination countries are often not welcoming in all respects, UMAs may encounter violence in reception facilities, and experience stress related to the asylum procedure and possible family reunification, as well as worries about relatives left behind. Although UMAs are also known to be resilient, and most are supported by family members and/or significant others, there are worries about their transition to adulthood. When they turn 18, they have to deal with the developmental tasks that come with that age, as well as to come to terms with past experiences. At the same time their guardianship ends, and they are supposed to manage on their own in the relatively new country. Many UMAs seem to manage, but it would be helpful if the 18 years age limit could be used flexible when necessary.


Prof. dr. Monika Smit
Prof. dr. M. Smit is hoofd van de Onderzoeksafdeling Rechtsbestel, Wetgeving en Internationale en Vreemdelingenaangelegenheden van het WODC en bijzonder hoogleraar Psychosociale zorg voor alleenstaande minderjarige vreemdelingen aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.
Artikel

Access_open Detentie van asielzoekers: een kwestie van gevoel?

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden street-level bureaucrats, aliens detention, asylum seekers, emotions, intuition
Auteurs Mr. drs. Wouter van der Spek en Dr. Anita Böcker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper analyses how street-level bureaucrats in the Netherlands decide on detaining asylum seekers. The paper is based on interviews with officers of the national police and the military police who take these decisions as part of their job. The relevant Dutch and European legal rules are not clear and unambiguous and the officers are given wide margins of discretion in making these decisions. Many interviewees said that they ultimately rely on their ‘feelings’. The paper therefore pays special attention to whether and how gut feelings and emotions of the officers influence their decision-making. In addition, the paper examines whether and how the increased use of ICTs and the Europeanisation of migration and asylum law have reduced the officers’ discretion and autonomy.


Mr. drs. Wouter van der Spek
Wouter van der Spek is junior docent bestuursrecht en promovendus aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.

Dr. Anita Böcker
Anita Böcker is universitair hoofddocent rechtssociologie aan de Radboud Universiteit.
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