Zoekresultaat: 95 artikelen

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Article

Access_open Age Barriers in Healthcare

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden age discrimination, age equality, health care
Auteurs Rachel Horton
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Age limits, minimum and maximum, and both explicit and ‘covert’, are still used in the National Health Service to determine access to a range of health interventions, including infertility services and cancer screening and treatment. Evidence suggests that chronological age is used as a proxy for a host of characteristics in determining access to healthcare: as a proxy for the capacity of an individual to benefit from an intervention; for the type of harm that may result from an intervention; for the likelihood of such benefit or harm occurring; and, in some cases, for other indicators used to determine what may be in the patient’s interest. Age is used as a proxy in this way in making decisions about both individual patients and wider populations; it may be used where no better ‘marker’ for the relevant characteristic exists or – for reasons including cost, practicality or fairness – in preference to other available markers. This article reviews the justifications for using age in this way in the context of the existing legal framework on age discrimination in the provision of public services.


Rachel Horton
Lecturer University of Reading.
Article

Access_open Giving Children a Voice in Court?

Age Boundaries for Involvement of Children in Civil Proceedings and the Relevance of Neuropsychological Insights

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden age boundaries, right to be heard, child’s autonomy, civil proceedings, neuropsychology
Auteurs Mariëlle Bruning en Jiska Peper
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the last decade neuropsychological insights have gained influence with regard to age boundaries in legal procedures, however, in Dutch civil law no such influence can be distinguished. Recently, voices have been raised to improve children’s legal position in civil law: to reflect upon the minimum age limit of twelve years for children to be invited to be heard in court and the need for children to have a stronger procedural position.
    In this article, first the current legal position of children in Dutch law and practice will be analysed. Second, development of psychological constructs relevant for family law will be discussed in relation to underlying brain developmental processes and contextual effects. These constructs encompass cognitive capacity, autonomy, stress responsiveness and (peer) pressure.
    From the first part it becomes clear that in Dutch family law, there is a tortuous jungle of age limits, exceptions and limitations regarding children’s procedural rights. Until recently, the Dutch government has been reluctant to improve the child’s procedural position in family law. Over the last two years, however, there has been an inclination towards further reflecting on improvements to the child’s procedural rights, which, from a children’s rights perspective, is an important step forward. Relevant neuropsychological insights support improvements for a better realisation of the child’s right to be heard, such as hearing children younger than twelve years of age in civil court proceedings.


Mariëlle Bruning
Professor of Child Law at Leiden Law Faculty, Leiden University.

Jiska Peper
Assistant professor in the Developmental and Educational Psychology unit of the Institute of Psychology at Leiden University.
Artikel

Samenwerken in de forensische keten

De investering waard

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden samenwerken, forensische zorg, interprofessioneel, continuïteit van zorg, interprofessional collaboration, forensic mental health care, continuity mental care
Auteurs Dr. Vivienne de Vogel, Dr. Petra Schaftenaar en Drs. Ellen van den Broek
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Interprofessional collaboration in the treatment and supervision of clients in forensic mental health care is of great importance. However, collaboration between professionals within and between settings is not always easy. In this article, different forms of collaboration within the forensic mental health care system are described as well as the most important pitfalls and success factors. Finally, some recommendations are provided for practitioners, organizations and policy-makers to design and facilitate collaboration in forensic mental health care.


Dr. Vivienne de Vogel
Dr. Vivienne de Vogel is lector Werken in justitieel kader, Hogeschool Utrecht, en onderzoeker bij De Forensische Zorgspecialisten, Utrecht.

Dr. Petra Schaftenaar
Dr. Petra Schaftenaar is opleider en projectmanager in de forensische ggz en eigenaar van Metis Zorg.

Drs. Ellen van den Broek
Drs. Ellen van den Broek is gz-psycholoog, in opleiding tot specialist, en hoofd behandeling Van der Hoeven Kliniek, De Forensische Zorgspecialisten.
Artikel

Misverstanden over trauma

Een illustratie aan de hand van ervaringen van professionals

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden Trauma, Professionals
Auteurs Dr. mr. Elisa van Ee en Prof. dr. Janine Janssen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Previously we have published an article about misunderstandings regarding trauma and PTSS. In this contribution we deal with other popular beliefs regarding trauma. We focus on trauma among professionals as a consequence of their work. It is explained that a professional does not have to witness violence or another severe case directly in order to develop some form of trauma. Next to that we focus on the misconception that professionals suffering from trauma can receive treatment without support of their loved ones and social network. It is explained that social support is not only relevant but necessary in treating trauma effectively.


Dr. mr. Elisa van Ee
Dr. mr. Elisa van Ee is klinisch psycholoog en onderzoeker bij het Psychotraumacentrum Zuid-Nederland, Reinier van Arkel en Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud Universiteit. Tevens is zij als extern deskundige op het gebied van trauma verbonden aan het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld van de Nationale Politie.

Prof. dr. Janine Janssen
Prof. dr. Janine Janssen is hoofd onderzoek van het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld van de Nationale Politie, lector Veiligheid in Afhankelijkheidsrelaties aan Avans Hogeschool, bijzonder hoogleraar Rechtsantropologie aan de Open Universiteit en voorzitter van de redactie van PROCES.

    This article engages in a comparison of the regulation of PR in the Netherlands and the UK (specifically England and Wales). The latter is a good comparator as it operates a similar regulatory approach to the Netherlands, that of conditional acceptance of PR, the condition being (prior) consent. Furthermore, the UK boasts a more detailed and mature legal framework that continues to be tested through caselaw, and thus offers insight into how a regulatory approach conditional upon the (prior) consent of the deceased can fare.
    The article starts with a brief exposition of the new Dutch guidelines and the current legislative position in the Netherlands vis-à-vis posthumous reproduction (part II). Likewise, the relevant UK guidelines and legislative position are summarized (part III). This article draws out the similarities and differences between the two regimes, as well as engaging in a critical analysis of the regulations themselves. It then looks at how the UK regime has been challenged in recent years through caselaw in anticipation of the issues that might confront the Netherlands in future (part IV). The article concludes (part V) that the key lesson to be drawn from the UK experience is that clarity and consistency is crucial in navigating this ethically, emotionally, and time sensitive area. Further, that both the UK and the Netherlands can expect demand for more detailed and precise regulatory guidance as requests for the procedure increase, and within evermore novel circumstances.

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    Dit artikel vergelijkt de regulering van postume reproductie (PR) in Nederland en het Verenigd Koninkrijk (in het bijzonder Engeland en Wales). Laatstgenoemde is daarvoor zeer geschikt, aangezien het VK een vergelijkbare reguleringsbenadering heeft als Nederland, namelijk de voorwaardelijke acceptatie van PR, waarbij (voorafgaande) toestemming de voorwaarde is. Bovendien beschikt het VK over een gedetailleerder en volwassener juridisch kader dat continu wordt getoetst door middel van rechtspraak. Dit kader biedt daarmee inzicht in hoe een regulerende benadering met als voorwaarde (voorafgaande) toestemming van de overledene kan verlopen.
    Het artikel vangt aan met een korte uiteenzetting van de nieuwe Nederlandse richtlijnen en de huidige positie van de Nederlandse wetgever ten opzichte van postume reproductie (deel II). De relevante Britse richtlijnen en het wetgevende standpunt worden eveneens samengevat (deel III). Vervolgens worden de overeenkomsten en verschillen tussen de twee regimes naar voren gebracht, met daarbij een kritische analyse van de regelgeving. Hierop volgt een beschrijving van hoe het VK de afgelopen jaren is uitgedaagd in de rechtspraak, daarmee anticiperend op vraagstukken waarmee Nederland in de toekomst te maken kan krijgen (deel IV). Tot slot volgt een conclusie (deel V) waarin wordt aangetoond dat de belangrijkste les die uit de Britse ervaring kan worden getrokken, is dat duidelijkheid en consistentie cruciaal zijn bij het navigeren door dit ethische, emotionele en tijdgevoelige gebied. En daarnaast, at zowel het VK als Nederland een vraag naar meer gedetailleerde en precieze regelgeving kunnen verwachten naarmate verzoeken om deze procedure toenemen, met daarbij steeds weer nieuwe omstandigheden.


Dr. N. Hyder-Rahman
Nishat Hyder-Rahman is a Post-doctoral Researcher at the Utrecht Centre for European Research into Family Law, Molengraaff Institute for Private Law, Utrecht University.
Artikel

Gezamenlijke reflectie op de werkalliantie in het reclasseringstoezicht

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden Werkalliantie, Cliëntfeedback, Reclassering, gezamenlijke reflectie
Auteurs Widya de Bakker MSc, Dr. Andrea Donker, Barbara Keuning e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Joint reflection of practitioners and clients appears beneficiary for the effectiveness of their working alliance in, for instance, psychotherapy. This study aims to find out whether a similar beneficiary effect is experienced by practitioners and clients in probation supervision, a mandated setting. Over thirty dyads of Dutch probation officers and probationers participated into structured joint reflection, using the working alliance monitor, specifically designed for this purpose. The majority of probation officers reported the reflection as useful. Probationers reported a more mixed experience. Probationers with an intellectual disability more often needed help to understand the working alliance monitor.


Widya de Bakker MSc
Widya de Bakker MSc is docent-onderzoeker.

Dr. Andrea Donker
Dr. Andrea Donker is lector bij het lectoraat Kennisanalyse Sociale Veiligheid aan het Kenniscentrum Sociale Innovatie, Hogeschool Utrecht.

Barbara Keuning
Barbara Keuning is policy advisor bij Reclassering Nederland en tevens gastdocent bij de Hogeschool Utrecht.

Drs. Anneke Menger
Drs. Anneke Menger is lector bij het lectoraat Werken in Justitieel Kader van de Hogeschool Utrecht.
Artikel

Misverstanden over trauma: een illustratie aan de hand van ervaringen met geweld uit naam van de familie-eer

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden Trauma, eergerelateerd geweld
Auteurs Dr. mr. Elisa van Ee en Prof. dr. Janine Janssen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch police has noticed that in cases of honour-based violence often people are involved that might suffer from some form of trauma. Over the last years the police has dealt with cases from, for example, refugees that have fled from with war infected regions. Next to that, the road to the north of Europe was also involved with serious safety issues. Therefore the police works together with specialists in the treatment of trauma. In this article some frequently encountered misunderstandings about trauma are described, illustrated with cases of honour-based violence. The first misunderstanding is that all trauma is PTSS; the second is that PTSD explains all the mis happenings in an individual’s life; the third misunderstanding is that EMDR is the effective treatment for all sorts of trauma.


Dr. mr. Elisa van Ee
Dr. mr. Elisa van Ee is klinisch psycholoog en onderzoeker bij het Psychotraumacentrum Zuid-Nederland, Reinier van Arkel en Behavioural Science Intitute, Radboud Universiteit. Tevens is zij als extern deskundige op het gebied van trauma verbonden aan het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld van de Nationale Politie.

Prof. dr. Janine Janssen
Prof. dr. Janine Janssen is hoofd onderzoek van het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld van de Nationale Politie, lector Veiligheid in Afhankelijkheidsrelaties aan Avans Hogeschool, bijzonder hoogleraar Rechtsantropologie aan de Open Universiteit en voorzitter van de redactie van PROCES.
Article

Access_open Changes in the Medical Device’s Regulatory Framework and Its Impact on the Medical Device’s Industry: From the Medical Device Directives to the Medical Device Regulations

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden Medical Device Directive, Medical Device Regulation, regulatory, European Union, reform, innovation, SPCs, policy
Auteurs Magali Contardi
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Similar to pharmaceutical products, medical devices play an increasingly important role in healthcare worldwide by contributing substantially to the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases. From the patent law perspective both, pharmaceutical products and a medical apparatus, product or device can be patented if they meet the patentability requirements, which are novelty, inventiveness and entail industrial applicability. However, regulatory issues also impact on the whole cycle of the innovation. At a European level, enhancing competitiveness while ensuring public health and safety is one of the key objectives of the European Commission. This article undertakes literature review of the current and incoming regulatory framework governing medical devices with the aim of highlighting how these major changes would affect the industry at issue. The analysis is made in the framework of an on-going research work aimed to determine whether SPCs are needed for promoting innovation in the medical devices industry. A thorough analysis the aforementioned factors affecting medical device’s industry will allow the policymakers to understand the root cause of any optimal patent term and find appropriate solutions.


Magali Contardi
PhD candidate; Avvocato (Italian Attorney at Law).
Article

Access_open Access and Reuse of Machine-Generated Data for Scientific Research

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden machine-generated data, Internet of Things, scientific research, personal data, GDPR
Auteurs Alexandra Giannopoulou
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Data driven innovation holds the potential in transforming current business and knowledge discovery models. For this reason, data sharing has become one of the central points of interest for the European Commission towards the creation of a Digital Single Market. The value of automatically generated data, which are collected by Internet-connected objects (IoT), is increasing: from smart houses to wearables, machine-generated data hold significant potential for growth, learning, and problem solving. Facilitating researchers in order to provide access to these types of data implies not only the articulation of existing legal obstacles and of proposed legal solutions but also the understanding of the incentives that motivate the sharing of the data in question. What are the legal tools that researchers can use to gain access and reuse rights in the context of their research?


Alexandra Giannopoulou
Institute for Information Law (IViR) – University of Amsterdam.
Artikel

Gekkenhuis of poppenkast

Over de rol van de psychiatrische behandeling in het veilig houden van de toekomstige maatschappij

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden forensic psychiatry, risk assessment, risk management, re-socialization, mental health treatment
Auteurs Prof. dr. Joke Harte
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Forensic psychiatric treatment plays a mayor role in keeping society safe. However, the expectations about what can be achieved with forensic treatment do not seem to be realistic. This complicates the chances of a successful re-socialization. It is foreseen that the number of patients will increase significantly in the upcoming years.
    More effective treatment programs and instruments for risk assessment are needed. For this, the causal relationship between psychopathology and delinquency must be better understood. This requires more criminological research.


Prof. dr. Joke Harte
Prof. dr. J.M. Harte is hoogleraar bij de afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Walk this way

The impact of mobile interviews on sensitive research with street-based sex workers

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden mobile and walking methods, multisensory methods, ethnography, sex work, prostitution, ethical and sensitive research
Auteurs Dr Lucy Neville en Dr Erin Sanders-McDonagh
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article draws on a piece of ethnographic research carried out with outreach workers in London working with street-based sex workers (SBSWs). The aim of the research was to determine the efficacy of the services offered to this hard-to-reach client group. The charitable organization has a long history (20+ years) working with SBSWs in the Kings Cross area; we evaluated their drop-in and outreach services for this client group, many of whom have high-level needs due to substance misuse and mental health issues. We initially conducted semi-structured interviews with women at the drop-in services, but encountered a number of ethical and logistical issues that prompted us to consider alternative methodological approaches. This article explores our use of mobile interviews with SBSWs and the outreach team who encounter them, which we argue gives us unique insights into the realities and lived experiences of both women who work (and sometimes live) on the street and the outreach team members who engage with this hard-to-reach group. We argue that mobile interviews offer a highly effective way of conducting research with a vulnerable population, and enabled us to gain a unique perspective into best practice around effectively and ethically researching hard-to-reach groups. Critically, we maintain that these walking interviews gave detailed insights into the lives of SBSWs that would not have been possible using more traditional methods. We provide empirical data in this article from these walking interviews, including fieldnote excerpts, and consider the value of using mobile and innovative methods for criminological research with hard-to-reach populations.


Dr Lucy Neville
Dr Lucy Neville is Lecturer in Criminology, University of Leicester.

Dr Erin Sanders-McDonagh
Dr Erin Sanders-McDonagh is Senior Lecturer in Criminology, University of Kent.
Artikel

En toch is het prachtig werk: weerbaarheid bij forensisch sociale professionals

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden mentale weerbaarheid, Veerkracht, forensisch sociale professionals
Auteurs Vivienne de Vogel en Dr. Jacqueline Bosker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Working in the forensic social field is interesting and fulfilling and many professionals deliberately choose to do this work. However, it can also be a very demanding job. Experiencing aggressive incidents by forensic clients, continuous tensions in contact with clients and the confrontation with narratives about shocking events are specific characteristics of working in the forensic field that appeal to the resilience of professionals. This article discusses which characteristics of organisations, teams and individual professionals impact on resilience and how it can be enhanced.


Vivienne de Vogel
Vivienne de Vogel is lector Werken in justitieel kader bij Hogeschool Utrecht en onderzoeker bij De Forensische Zorgspecialisten, Utrecht.

Dr. Jacqueline Bosker
Dr. Jacqueline Bosker is hogeschoolhoofddocent bij het Instituut voor Recht en onderzoeker bij het lectoraat Werken in Justitieel kader van Hogeschool Utrecht. Tevens is zij redacteur van PROCES.
Artikel

Artsen en moreel ondernemerschap. De casus van de normalisering van verslavende opioïde pijnstillers in de Verenigde Staten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Opioid crisis, Addictive painkillers, Medical doctors, Moral entrepreneurs, Big Pharma
Auteurs Dr. Thaddeus Müller
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, I am using Becker’s concept of moral entrepreneur to analyse the role of pain specialists in the labelling process, which has led to the normalisation of the use of opioid painkillers in the United States and ultimately to the death over 200.000 Americans. In general, the literature on labelling centres on crusading reformers, and the criminalisation and stigmatisation of transgressive behaviour. Here I will focus on the moral entrepreneurship of medical experts. What was their role in the normalisation process of opioid painkiller use and are there any similarities with the strategies of crusading reformers? My findings, based on qualitative analysis of documents such as newspaper articles and academic publications, show that, with two exceptions, pain specialists use the strategies of moral crusaders. First, in their narratives, pain specialists represented themselves as neutral objective experts without the emotional stance of moral crusaders. The second exception, which is related to the first, is that there was less emphasis in their narrative on creating villains, as they could not blame openly standard medical practice because they needed the support of the established medical world in order to normalise and legalise opioid painkillers.


Dr. Thaddeus Müller
Thaddeus Müller Docent criminologie, Lancaster University t.muller@lancaster.ac.uk
Artikel

Aandacht voor vaderschap in de gevangenis

Evaluatie van de Exodus-workshop Vrij Verantwoord Vaderschap

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Vaderschap, Detentie, Interventie, Evaluatie
Auteurs Dr. Joni Reef, Naomi Ormskerk MSc en Lisa van Es MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Around 36.000 men enter Dutch prisons every year. Nearly half of them are father. Imprisonment is destructive to father involvement. Many prisoners involuntary fail to stay connected with their family and are unable to reconnect with family after release. However, father involvement protects fragile families, children and fathers themselves from collateral consequences of imprisonment and even reduces recidivism. One of the first Dutch initiatives for fathers in prison came from voluntary organization Exodus. Since 2014, they run an 8-week workshop on fatherhood in a number of Dutch penal institutions. Fathers work on the restoration or reconstruction of their relationship with their children and parenting partners. In this article, we review participating fathers’ perceptions of the workshop and the changes in their attitude towards fatherhood.


Dr. Joni Reef
Dr. J. Reef is universitair docent Criminologie bij het Instituut Strafrecht en Criminologie, Universiteit Leiden.

Naomi Ormskerk MSc
N.R.S. Ormskerk is (Junior) onderzoeker en docent aan de Universiteit van Leiden.

Lisa van Es MSc
Lisa van Es is psycholoog en onderzoeker bij Exodus.

Dr. Tamar Fischer
Dr. T.F.C. Fischer is universitair hoofddocent bij de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Praktijk

Suïcide bij gedetineerden in België: een dossierstudie

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden Zelfdoding, Suïcidepreventie, Detentie, België, suicide, prevention, prison, Belgium
Auteurs Louis Favril, Ciska Wittouck, Kurt Audenaert e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Reducing the number of suicides in prison has been highlighted as an international priority. To date, however, studies examining prison suicides in Belgium are lacking. Therefore, adopting a retrospective record-based approach, we sought to investigate all suicides occurring in the whole Belgian prison estate during a 17-year period. The results underline the need for suicide prevention among prisoners in Belgium, and echo prior findings that restrictive preventive measures should be combined with psychosocial interventions in order to address the causes of prisoners being suicidal. Such strategies are ideally embedded within a comprehensive suicide prevention policy on a national level.


Louis Favril
Louis Favril is klinisch psycholoog en criminoloog van opleiding en voert momenteel een doctoraatsonderzoek uit aan de Universiteit Gent.

Ciska Wittouck
Ciska Wittouck is klinisch psycholoog en criminoloog van opleiding en voert momenteel een doctoraatsonderzoek uit aan de Universiteit Gent.

Kurt Audenaert
Kurt Audenaert is buitengewoon hoogleraar Psychiatrie en hoofddocent Criminologie, en is verbonden aan de Universiteit Gent.

Freya Vander Laenen
Freya Vander Laenen is buitengewoon hoogleraar Psychiatrie en hoofddocent Criminologie, en is verbonden aan de Universiteit Gent.
Artikel

ERM-Vroegsignalering opent de deur naar risicomanagementobservaties en dialoog met gedetineerden

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden Risicomanagement, Vroegsignalering, Agressiehantering, Incidentpreventie
Auteurs Dr. Frans Fluttert en Gunnar Eidhammer MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Prison staff is exposed to aggression of prisoners which evokes work stress. In forensic psychiatry risk management principles, such as the Risk-Needs-Responsivity-model (RNR), assist staff to manage aggression by means applying risk management strategies. The Early Recognition Method (ERM) is such an evidence based strategy, developed and tested in forensic psychiatry. In ERM, staff gradually try to attune to aggressive behavior by means of the identification of early warning signs of aggression and systematically evaluated these in predetermined intervals. In this article it is explained and discussed how ERM could be applied meaningfully in prison services.


Dr. Frans Fluttert
Dr. Frans Fluttert is senior onderzoeker bij FPC Dr. S. van Mesdag, Associate Professor aan zowel de Molde University College in Noorwegen als de University of Southern Denmark, en Research Supervisor bij het Centre for Research and Education in Forensic Psychiatry, Oslo University Hospital, Noorwegen.

Gunnar Eidhammer MSc
Gunnar Eidhammer MSc is onderzoeker bij het Centre for Research and Education in Forensic Psychiatry, Oslo University Hospital in Noorwegen, en verpleegkundige en onderzoeker bij de Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Trust Vestre Viken Hospital, Drammen, Noorwegen.
Artikel

Jeugdigen en jongvolwassenen met licht verstandelijke beperkingen en criminaliteit

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2017
Trefwoorden Youth, mild intellectual disability, Criminality, Diagnosis, Prevention
Auteurs Prof. dr. X. Moonen en Dr. H. Kaal
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In criminological literature there is an ongoing discussion about the relation between intellectual disability and criminality. Because of differences of definitions and measurement methods prevalence figures may vary. Recent assessment of prevalence in the Netherlands using a valid Dutch screener (the SCIL) reveals a relatively high percentage of people with mild intellectual disability and borderline intelligence in the Dutch criminological system. People with mild intellectual disability and borderline intelligence cannot be considered as belonging to one group. Five typologies with even more subtypes based on mixed characteristics can be distinguished. A need for early detection and personalized interventions is stressed as is treatment based on the specific characteristics of these subtypes.


Prof. dr. X. Moonen
Prof. dr. Xavier Moonen is als bijzonder hoogleraar Kennisontwikkeling over kinderen en jongvolwassenen met licht verstandelijke beperkingen en gedragsproblemen verbonden aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Hij is tevens bijzonder lector Inclusie van mensen met verstandelijke beperkingen aan de Zuyd Hogeschool Heerlen en werkt als beleidsadviseur voor Koraal te Sittard.

Dr. H. Kaal
Dr. Hendrien Kaal is als lector Licht Verstandelijke Beperking en Jeugdcriminaliteit verbonden aan de Hogeschool Leiden en het Expertisecentrum William Schrikker.

    Ongeveer 20% van de echtscheidingen loopt uit op een zogenaamde conflict- of vechtscheiding. Om deze complexe echtscheidingszaken effectief aan te pakken, dienen professionals in het veld te beschikken over wetenschappelijk onderbouwde kennis over werkzame interventies. Mediation wordt vaak beschouwd als dé oplossing voor conflictscheidingen. Wetenschappelijk onderzoek laat echter een beperkte effectiviteit zien van mediation bij conflictscheidingen. Dit heeft onder andere te maken met de hoge prevalentie (rond 40%) van huiselijk geweld in conflictscheidingsgezinnen.
    In dit onderzoek is de visie van Nederlandse professionals over conflictscheidingen onderzocht en vergeleken met de kennis uit de wetenschappelijke literatuur. Met behulp van een online vragenlijst testten we het kennisniveau van 863 professionals die werken met conflictscheidingsgezinnen. Dit waren advocaten, professionals uit de jeugdzorg/-bescherming, mediators en professionals uit de GGZ.
    Professionals behaalden een gemiddelde score van 6,5 correcte antwoorden op een totaal van 11, waarbij juridische professionals significant beter scoorden dan sociale professionals. Slechts 17% van de professionals wist dat in bijna de helft van de conflictscheidingen huiselijk geweld een rol speelt. 55% van de professionals adviseerde in een geval van een al 7 jaar durende conflictscheiding mediation als effectieve interventie. 46% van de respondenten overschatte de prevalentie van valse beschuldigingen van huiselijk geweld en kindermishandeling bij conflictscheidingen.
    In opleidingen voor Nederlandse juridische en sociale professionals die werken met conflictscheidingsgezinnen dient meer aandacht besteed te worden aan wetenschappelijke kennis, zodat professionals handelen op basis van kennis in plaats van persoonlijke opvattingen en mythen.
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    High conflict divorces are among the 20% of divorce cases that continue to escalate over time. In order to help solve these complex divorce cases, it is important that professionals in the field possess evidence-based knowledge to provide effective interventions. One of these possible interventions is mediation, which is often seen as a panacea for high-conflict divorce (HCD) cases. However, scientific research has shown limited effectiveness of mediation in HCD cases. This is partially associated with the high prevalence (around 40%) of domestic violence in HCD.
    The present study examined professionals’ perspectives on high conflict-divorce cases and compared their views with the available scientific evidence. By means of a web-survey, we tested the knowledge of different professional groups (N = 863) who work with HCD families. The sample consisted of lawyers, child welfare/child protection professionals, mediators and mental health professionals.
    The results showed that professionals on average gave 6.5 correct responses out of 11 questions in total and that legal professionals scored significantly better than social professionals. Only 17% of the professionals were aware that in almost half of all high-conflict divorce cases domestic violence is a problem. For a high-conflict divorce case spanning 7 years, mediation was advised as an effective intervention by 55% of professionals. 46% of respondents overestimated the prevalence of false allegations of child abuse in HCD cases.
    More attention to scientific knowledge on HCD in the educational curricula for Dutch legal and social professionals is needed, in order to assure that their professional activities and decision making are based on scientific evidence instead of personal biases and myths.


Prof. dr. Corine de Ruiter
Prof. dr. Corine de Ruiter is a licensed clinical psychologist (BIG) in The Netherlands. She serves as professor of Forensic Psychology at Maastricht University. She also has a private practice. Her research focuses on the interface between psychopathology and crime. She has a special interest in the prevention of child abuse and intimate partner violence because they are both very common and often overlooked in practice.

Brigitte van Pol Msc
Brigitte van Pol studied Psychology and Law at Maastricht University. Her involvement in this research dates from her Master’s thesis on the role of mediation in high conflict divorce. The authors would like to thank the participants for their time and effort in completing our websurvey.
Artikel

Effecten van een training cognitieve vaardigheden voor justitiabelen onderzocht

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2016
Trefwoorden Cognitieve vaardigheden, Justitiële gedragsinterventie, Volwassen daders, Effectonderzoek
Auteurs Suzan Verweij MSc LLM, dr. Wendy Buysse en dr. Bouke Wartna
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    One of the most widely implemented behavioral programs for adult offenders in the Netherlands is a cognitive skills training called CoVa. The training is an adapted version of the Enhanced Thinking Skills program (ETS). This paper reports on the findings of several impact studies on the effectiveness of CoVa and ETS. Special attention is paid to a recent study on the measured change in cognitive skills before and after the training and a recent comparative recidivism study. The majority of studies on CoVa and ETS show positive indications of the effectiveness of the training programs. In the Netherlands the effect sizes are small, but some English studies on ETS reveal large effects. The paper discusses possible explanations for this outcome and examines the relevance of the research findings for the present version of the CoVa-training.


Suzan Verweij MSc LLM
Suzan Verweij MSc LLM is wetenschappelijk medewerker bij de Recidivemonitor van het WODC.

dr. Wendy Buysse
Dr. Wendy Buysse is senior onderzoeker bij DSP-groep in Amsterdam.

dr. Bouke Wartna
Dr. Bouke Wartna is senior wetenschappelijk medewerker en programmaleider bij de Recidivemonitor van het WODC.
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