Zoekresultaat: 183 artikelen

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Artikel

Boulevard Zuid in Rotterdam: een onderzoek naar het vertrouwen van winkeliers in politie en gemeente

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden shopkeepers, procedural justice, the Netherlands, ethnic minorities, performance theory
Auteurs Marc Schuilenburg, Laura Messie en Darnell de Vries
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, we analyze which aspects of performance theory and the procedural justice-based model are explaining the trust of shopkeepers in the police and local government. Utilizing a survey of 156 shopkeepers and 94 semi-constructed interviews with shopkeepers, which are located at the South Shopping Boulevard in Rotterdam (The Netherlands), the study finds that shopkeepers have a relatively high trust in the police and local government. This is surprising because various attempts in the past 30 years to revive the high street by the government have failed to improve its bad image, as dwindling visitor numbers, poor turnover, limited range of retailers, empty shops and high crime and offence levels show only too plainly. The findings also highlight that ethnic minority respondents have more trust in local government than Dutch shopkeepers. The explanation therefor is sought in the dual frame of reference theory.


Marc Schuilenburg
Marc Schuilenburg is universitair docent Strafrecht en Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Laura Messie
Laura Messie, MSc was ten tijde van het initiële onderzoek masterstudente aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Darnell de Vries
Darnell de Vries, MSc was ten tijde van het initiële onderzoek masterstudente aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Chimpanseepolitie?

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2020
Trefwoorden mens-diervergelijking, politie, chimpansee, gedragsonderzoek
Auteurs Prof. dr. Otto Adang
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    People like to make comparisons between humans and other animals when they think a comparison helps them to make a point (e.g. that some human behavior can or cannot be considered to be ‘natural’) or to have a laugh when animals act in ways that are seen as funny or cute. There are a lot of misunderstandings about the feasibility of these kinds of comparisons and this chapter deals with the way in which meaningful use can be made of studies into animal behavior, using research into chimpanzee behavior (and specifically research into chimpanzee conflict regulation) as an example. The conclusion is that there are three ways in which ethological studies into non-human animal behavior can be relevant for an increased understanding of human behavior: by using ethological methods of systematic observation, by asking relevant research questions and by generating new hypotheses.


Prof. dr. Otto Adang
Prof. dr. Otto M.J. Adang is lector Openbare orde & gevaarbeheersing aan de Politieacademie en bijzonder hoogleraar Veiligheid en Collectief Gedrag aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.
Artikel

Access_open Teaching Comparative Law, Pragmatically (Not Practically)

Special Issue on Pragmatism and Legal Education, Sanne Taekema & Thomas Riesthuis (eds.)

Tijdschrift Law and Method, oktober 2020
Trefwoorden comparative legal studies, legal education, pragmatism
Auteurs Alexandra Mercescu
Auteursinformatie

Alexandra Mercescu
Alexandra Mercescu, Ph.D is lecturer at the Department of Public Law, University of Timisoara, Romania.
Artikel

De herstelrechtelijke reactie op extremistisch geweld

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden extremisme, terrorisme, Spanje, Italië, Noord-Ierland
Auteurs Evelien Rens, Katrien Lauwaert en Ivo Aertsen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Organizing restorative justice practices around crimes involving extremist violence remains a difficult task. It is not self-evident to bring perpetrators with very specific and radical ideas into contact with their victims. Nevertheless, interesting initiatives have been made in a number of European countries. In Spain, Italy and Northern Ireland, among others, initiatives were taken in response to the extremist violence that these countries experienced at the end of the 20th century. These initiatives have a very specific context and praxis, initiated ad hoc with attention to the specific needs of those involved. In no case can they be considered standard models or generalized practices. This contribution describes some of these initiatives in Spain, Italy and Northern Ireland and reflects on the potential uses of these dialogues in general.


Evelien Rens
Evelien Rens is studente criminologische wetenschappen aan de KU Leuven en stagiaire bij Moderator Forum voor Herstelrecht en Bemiddeling vzw.

Katrien Lauwaert
Katrien Lauwaert is beleidscoördinator bij Moderator Forum voor Herstelrecht en Bemiddeling vzw en bijzonder hoogleraar restorative justice aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Ivo Aertsen
Ivo Aertsen is emeritus hoogleraar aan de KU Leuven, Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie en hoofdredacteur van The International Journal of Restorative Justice.
Artikel

Access_open Waarom melden burgers?

Individuele, sociale en institutionele drijfveren voor meldgedrag in het verleden en toekomstige meldingsbereidheid

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2-3 2020
Trefwoorden reporting behavior, crime, citizen participation, psychological drivers, response efficacy
Auteurs Wendy Schreurs
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Reports by citizens are a great source of information for the police. Local residents often know well what is going on in their neighborhood and which situations are suspicious. In this study, an online survey was conducted to investigate what drives citizens to report to the police. A wide range of individual, social and institutional drivers were explored. The results show that the more often people have reported anything to the police in the past, the higher their risk perception, self-efficacy, citizen participation and police legitimacy. Furthermore, participants with a higher degree of self-efficacy, response efficacy, trust in the police and police legitimacy appeared to be more willing to report in the future. An open question regarding what motivates people the most to report show that response efficacy (the idea to what extent reporting has an effect on increasing safety and reducing crime) and altruistic values (justice, to help society and punish the perpetrators) were mentioned most frequently.


Wendy Schreurs
Wendy Schreurs is werkzaam bij de Politieacademie.
Artikel

Heel Holland spoort op

Naar een afwegingsmodel voor de politie in de omgang met burgers die zelfstandig onderzoek doen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2-3 2020
Trefwoorden Participation, citizen, police, investigation, reciprocity
Auteurs Arnout de Vries, Shanna Wemmers, Stan Duijf e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Citizens investigating crimes themselves is a growing trend, because of democratization of information (e.g. social media), tools (e.g. apps) and knowledge (e.g. explanimations on YouTube). More and more citizens do their own research as modern Sherlocks. The police has to handle these trends in line with participant wishes and the law, but does not yet have concrete tools to do so. This article explores how the police participate in contemporary citizen criminal investigations, including the difficulties and benefits experienced. The obtained insights of the presented research serve as guidance, which can help police officers understand how to participate with citizens who have started, or want to start, a criminal investigation. The presented model explains how police can use it to better guide and stimulate, but also stop or protect citizens in their investigative activities. An app with professional guidance was piloted in four police units to participate with citizens that do their own research and learn from expectations and experiences. Citizens need guidance, but more importantly expect a certain degree of reciprocity in collaborating with police in criminal investigations.


Arnout de Vries
Arnout de Vries is werkzaam bij TNO Groningen.

Shanna Wemmers
Shanna Wemmers is werkzaam als scientist innovator bij TNO.

Stan Duijf
Stan Duijf won als masterstudent Science in Policing en in 2019 de scriptieprijs van de Politieacademie.

Victor Kallen
Victor Kallen klinisch psychofysioloog bij TNO Behavioural & Societal Sciences.
Artikel

Is digitale buurtpreventie een goed instrument voor burgeropsporing?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2-3 2020
Trefwoorden digital neighborhood watch, community crime prevention, crime reduction, surveillance, social control
Auteurs Jossian Zoutendijk en Krista Schram
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    It is often assumed that digital neighbourhood watch groups lead to more emergency calls and more arrests by the police. This article revolves around the question whether or not these groups actually contribute to reducing crime in the Netherlands. It does so by looking at recent studies and the results of researchers’ own ‘realist evaluation’ of the city of Rotterdam’s policy on digital neighbourhood watch. The latter includes a reconstruction of the program theory and ten case studies with different types of groups. The reconstruction of program theory revealed two main routes to crime reduction: 1) more emergency calls and more arrests by the police and 2) more social control. Chat histories have been studied and moderators, participants, non-participants and professionals were interviewed on their perception of active mechanisms and on the efficacy of their group. None of the respondents believed their group led to an increased number of arrests, but interviews and chat histories show that crime can be reduced by means of social control. Social control by neighbours limits the opportunity for crime and disturbs criminal acts. Other studies in the Netherlands support this finding. The article closes by putting digital neighbourhood watch in a citizen’s perspective with suggestions to improve the efficacy of digital neighbourhood watch groups and the notion that for citizens, crime reduction is not the only or principal goal.


Jossian Zoutendijk
Jossian Zoutendijk is werkzaam bij Hogeschool Inholland Rotterdam.

Krista Schram
Krista Schram is werkzaam bij Hogeschool Inholland Rotterdam.
Artikel

De kracht van verbinding

Een kwalitatief onderzoek naar de rol van lotgenotencontact voor nabestaanden van zware verkeersdelicten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden peer support, co-victims, traffic offenses, Big Two, narratives
Auteurs Dr. Pauline Aarten, Pien van de Ven MSc en Rik Ceulen MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    For co-victims of severe traffic offenses in the Netherlands, peer support is offered. However, no research into the meaning of peer support for this specific group of victims has been conducted. In this study, nineteen narrative interviews with co-victims of traffic offenses were collected. These interviews show that through dialogue and the sharing of experiences, as well as the care and support for each other, peer support offers the possibility to work on the meaning-making of the traffic offense and its aftermath. The article ends with policy implications and steps for follow-up research.


Dr. Pauline Aarten
Dr. P.G.M. Aarten is universitair docent bij het Institute of Security and Global Affairs van de Universiteit Leiden.

Pien van de Ven MSc
P. van de Ven MSc is promovenda bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) & Slachtofferhulp Nederland

Rik Ceulen MSc
R. Ceulen MSc is criminoloog bij gemeente Tilburg.
Artikel

Access_open Een mentaliteitsgeschiedenis van slachtofferemancipatie

Tijdschrift Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Strafrecht, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden slachtofferrechten, spreekrecht, genoegdoening, slachtofferemancipatie, benadeelde partij
Auteurs Prof. mr. Y. (Ybo) Buruma
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Naar aanleiding van een door socioloog Bas van Stokkom georganiseerde conferentie over de grenzen van slachtofferemancipatie schetst de auteur een korte mentaliteitsgeschiedenis van de versterkte positie van het slachtoffer in strafrecht en samenleving sinds de Tweede Wereldoorlog. Het woord slachtoffer heeft niet alleen in verschillende tijden maar ook in verschillende contexten een andere lading gekregen. De auteur behandelt de vraag waar de theoretische en praktische grenzen van de emancipatie van het slachtoffer in het strafrecht liggen.


Prof. mr. Y. (Ybo) Buruma
Prof. mr. Y. Buruma is raadsheer in de Hoge Raad en hoogleraar Rechtsstaat aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.
Artikel

Restorative justice en normconform gedrag: een systematische review

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden Herstelrecht, Regelnaleving, normconform gedrag, restorative justice
Auteurs Dr Marieke Kluin en Dr Selma Albayrak
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Restorative justice has developed into a recognized sanction or intervention in several countries. Literature shows that restorative justice is experienced as a procedural just approach by participants. Furthermore, a strong rejection of the behavior of the violators would reinforce reintegrative shaming in the process. Finally, stopping crime (desistance) could be achieved if the restorative justice approach would include reconstructing the self-image of the participants. This systematic literature review examines to what extent restorative justice contributes to compliant behavior by individuals and corporations. Although direct effects of restorative justice on compliance and recidivism fail to appear, procedural justice and reintegrative shame are positively affected. The results offer practical implementations and challenges for further research.


Dr Marieke Kluin
Dr. Marieke Kluin is als universitair docent Criminologie verbonden aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr Selma Albayrak
Selma Albayrak studeert criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden en de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

    Juliet Stumpf is de Robert E. Jones Professor of Advocacy and Ethics aan de Lewis & Clark Law School. Stumpf onderzoekt het fenomeen crimmigratie door een interdisciplinaire lens, waarbij ze inzichten uit het (immigratie- & straf-) recht in verband brengt met inzichten uit de sociale en geesteswetenschappen. Haar werk is gepubliceerd in een indrukwekkende reeks tijdschriften en boeken, waaronder een serie van ‘crimmigratie-artikelen’ waarvan haar inmiddels breed bekende artikel ‘The Crimmigration Crisis: Immigrants, Crime, and Sovereign Power’ (56 Am. U. L. Rev. 367) de eerste was.

Artikel

Tussen wal en schip

Etnografische inzichten in lokale havenbeveiliging

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2019
Trefwoorden ethnography, ports of Rotterdam and Hamburg, security personnel, customs, global commerce
Auteurs Dr. Yarin Eski
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This ethnography of everyday policing realities in the European ports of Rotterdam and Hamburg presents an understanding of policing spaces where protecting and supporting global commerce dominate. In undertaking this research, the author participated in the daily activities of 85 participants in Rotterdam (N=52) and Hamburg (N=33), consisting of 30 operational port police officers, 31 security officers, 10 customs officers and 14 others involved in port security-related matters (e.g. shipping agents, port authorities, boatmen and maritime engineers). These participants were collectively responsible for protecting the vulnerability of the just-in-time logistics by becoming the intervention, through which they become the very local threat to global commerce itself. A struggle that reveals itself in their (narrated) policing struggles with management, colleagues and multi-agency partners, as well as with the maritime business community and dangerous others.


Dr. Yarin Eski
Dr. Y. Eski is als universitair docent verbonden aan de afdeling Bestuurswetenschap en Politicologie van de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

De toekomst is aan de surfende criminoloog

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden criminology, artificial intelligence, research methods, research funding, causality
Auteurs Prof. dr. Jeroen Maesschalck
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    If, as criminologists, we really want to contribute to solutions for the great challenges of our time, we should be…surfing more. In a dynamic environment full of contradictions, we should be constantly in motion, moving left and right between different theoretical-normative perspectives as well as between methodological perspectives. This paper clarifies that surfing movement with some illustrations. It then proposes three goals for a criminological research agenda that should help us address the great challenges: actual (as opposed to superficial) relevance for practice, causal ambitions and multidisciplinarity. The paper concludes with some reflections about the organization and funding of criminological research.


Prof. dr. Jeroen Maesschalck
Prof. dr. J. Maesschalck is verbonden aan het Leuven Instituut voor Criminologie aan de KU Leuven.
Article

Access_open Levying VAT in the EU Customs Union: Towards a Single Indirect Tax Area? The Ordeal of Indirect Tax Harmonisation

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden single indirect tax area, VAT action plan, quick fixes, e-commerce package, definitive VAT system
Auteurs Ben Terra
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution deals with the latest proposals regarding levying VAT in the European Union (EU) Customs Union. The present system, which has been in place since 1993 and was supposed to be transitional, splits every cross-border transaction into an exempted cross-border supply and a taxable cross-border acquisition. It is like a customs system, but lacks equivalent controls and is therefore the root of cross-border fraud. After many years of unsuccessful attempts, the Commission abandoned the objective of implementing definitive VAT arrangements based on the principle of taxing all cross-border supplies of goods in the Member State of their origin, under the same conditions that apply to domestic trade including VAT rates. The European Parliament and the Council agreed that the definitive system should be based on the principle of taxation in the Member State of the destination of the goods. After a brief discussion of the VAT Action Plan of 2016 (Section 1), the e-commerce package in the form of Directive (EU) 2017/2455 is dealt with (Section 2), followed by the proposal to harmonise and simplify certain rules in the VAT system and introduce the definitive system, only partially adopted (Section 3). Section 4 deals with the proposal to introduce detailed measures of the definitive VAT system. The proposed harmonisation and simplification of certain rules were meant to become applicable on 1 January 2019, but will become only partially applicable on 2020. It is proposed to make the detailed measures of the definitive VAT system applicable in 2022. It remains to be seen whether the Member States are willing to accept the definitive VAT system at all; hence the subtitle ‘the ordeal of indirect tax harmonisation’.


Ben Terra
Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Ben Terra was a professor of tax law at the universities of Amsterdam and Lund and visiting professor at the Universidade Católica in Lisbon.
Artikel

De emotionele beleving van kwalitatief onderzoekers bij onderzoek naar kwetsbare groepen en gevoelige thema’s

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden narrative review, qualitative research, emotions, sensitive topics, vulnerable groups
Auteurs Ciska Wittouck en Gwen Herkes
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A narrative review was conducted to develop more coherent awareness and knowledge regarding emotional experiences of qualitative researchers studying sensitive topics or vulnerable groups, as discussions about this topic are currently fragmented and scattered. Qualitative researchers experience many painful as well as enjoyable emotions, which can influence their personal, social and professional lives. These emotions are recurrently reported in relation to the unpredictability of qualitative research and the different roles of qualitative researchers. More structural and individual attention for emotional experiences of qualitative researchers is necessary, for instance, in academic (doctoral) training and general handbooks on qualitative research.


Ciska Wittouck
Ciska Wittouck is werkzaam bij de Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht, Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP), Universiteit Gent, België.

Gwen Herkes
Gwen Herkes is werkzaam bij de Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht, Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP), Universiteit Gent, België.
Artikel

Conflict narratives and conflict handling strategies in intercultural contexts

Reflections from an action research project based on restorative praxis

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden action research, conflict, restorative justice, intercultural contexts
Auteurs Brunilda Pali
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A rapidly growing field of research and practice, restorative justice has primarily found its gravitational centre within the criminal justice system, as an alternative of dealing with the aftermath of crime. Less explored remains the application of restorative justice in complex, urban, or intercultural contexts, an application which raises a whole set of conceptual and practical challenges. This article is based on an action project which aimed to research conflict narratives in intercultural contexts and transform them through restorative praxis. Mostly used in educational, organizational, and health care settings, action research remains an underused but a highly interesting methodology for criminology and criminal justice research. Its alternative epistemology makes it particularly apt for scientific projects that aim both at investigating crime and justice related issues and at engendering change, either at the level of criminal justice or communities. Although action research has focused mostly on creating change at the level of practical knowledge, when conceived in a critical manner, action research aims not only at improving the work of practitioners, but also at assisting them to arrive at a critique of their social or work settings. Practice concerns at the same time problem setting or problem framing. By zooming into one of the case studies of the project, more specifically the social housing estates in Vienna, I focus in this article specifically on the tensions and dilemmas created by processes of engagement in a problematizing approach to the context and to practice. During these processes, together with other social actors, such as inhabitants and professionals, we named problems (in our case social conflicts) and framed the context in which we addressed them. I argue that participatory forms of inquiry, such as action research, should actively reframe rather than merely describe contexts and problems they work with.


Brunilda Pali
Brunilda Pali is FWO Postdoctoral researcher, Leuven Institute of Criminology, Leuven, Belgium.
Article

Access_open The Foundations of the Internal Market: Free Trade Area and Customs Union under Articles 28-31 TFEU

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden free trade area, EU Customs Union, internal market, European Union, Brexit
Auteurs Stefan Enchelmaier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution places the provisions of the Treaty creating a free trade area and customs union between the Member States (Articles 28-31 TFEU) in their wider context. It then focuses on the interpretation of Article 30 in the jurisprudence of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU). Throughout, it casts sideways glances at corresponding provisions of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). As it turns out, the abolition of customs duties and charges having equivalent effect, and the establishment of a customs union between Member States, were important milestones in the development of European unification. They became overshadowed later by more spectacular developments in the case law on the free movement of goods, persons and services. As a consequence, the importance of the customs provisions is widely underrated. Brexit concentrates the minds in this respect, as an important economy is about to rearrange and even recreate the basic building blocks of its international trading relations.


Stefan Enchelmaier
Stefan Enchelmaier, Dr iur (Bonn) habil (Munich) LLM (Edinb) MA (Oxon) is Professor of European and Comparative Law at Lincoln College, University of Oxford.
Artikel

Access_open Detentie van asielzoekers: een kwestie van gevoel?

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden street-level bureaucrats, aliens detention, asylum seekers, emotions, intuition
Auteurs Mr. drs. Wouter van der Spek en Dr. Anita Böcker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper analyses how street-level bureaucrats in the Netherlands decide on detaining asylum seekers. The paper is based on interviews with officers of the national police and the military police who take these decisions as part of their job. The relevant Dutch and European legal rules are not clear and unambiguous and the officers are given wide margins of discretion in making these decisions. Many interviewees said that they ultimately rely on their ‘feelings’. The paper therefore pays special attention to whether and how gut feelings and emotions of the officers influence their decision-making. In addition, the paper examines whether and how the increased use of ICTs and the Europeanisation of migration and asylum law have reduced the officers’ discretion and autonomy.


Mr. drs. Wouter van der Spek
Wouter van der Spek is junior docent bestuursrecht en promovendus aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.

Dr. Anita Böcker
Anita Böcker is universitair hoofddocent rechtssociologie aan de Radboud Universiteit.
Artikel

Bericht uit een fluwelen kooi

Over het onbehagen van een politieonderzoeker

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden history of police studies, police history, societal perspective, creativity, interpassivity
Auteurs Dr. Guus Meershoek
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Dutch police research is predominantly of a policy supporting or evaluative nature. Significant publications, such as those that started police research in the 1970s, are rare. This loss is analyzed in this article. Firstly, the author describes how the research community has changed: police officers who were disillusioned with the organization and mastered scientific competencies were succeeded by university-educated researchers who had to earn a position in the police. Secondly, the police integrated the societal urge for change, transformed it into a style of management and immunized themselves in this way against innovation. Thirdly, researchers exchanged social scientific theories for policy concepts, focusing on efficiency and excluding a societal perspective on the police. Finally, by recognizing the impact of research as a criterion of success, researchers relinquished their judgment on the quality of their research to police managers. Improvement of the situation depends first of all on the creativity and boldness of researchers.


Dr. Guus Meershoek
Dr. G. Meershoek is als lector Politiegeschiedenis verbonden aan de Politieacademie en is tevens werkzaam als docent Safety Governance bij de afdeling Bestuurskunde van de Universiteit Twente.
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