Zoekresultaat: 14 artikelen

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Artikel

Social engineering: digitale fraude en misleiding

Een meta-analyse van studies naar de effectiviteit van interventies

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden awareness, cybercrime, intervention, meta-analysis, social engineering
Auteurs Dr. Jan-Willem Bullée en Prof. dr. Marianne Junger
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The prevalence of online crime increases. Social engineering, such as email phishing, is often an important element in an attack. Several interventions have been developed to reduce the success of these types of attacks. The current study investigates whether interventions can help reduce vulnerability to social engineering attacks. The authors investigate which types of interventions and specific elements are most successful. They selected studies with an experimental design that tested at least one intervention. A total of 19 studies with 37 effect sizes, based on a total sample of N=23,146 subjects, were found. The available training courses, intervention materials and effect sizes were analysed. Overall, positive effects of interventions were found. However, there are substantial differences in effect for the different types of interventions. Effective interventions are relatively intensive and have a specific focus. The authors conclude with the design of the best possible intervention given the results of their research.


Dr. Jan-Willem Bullée
Dr. J.-W. Bullée is werkzaam bij Awareways, Computer & Network Security. Hij promoveerde in 2017 op het proefschrift Experimental social engineering aan de Universiteit Twente.

Prof. dr. Marianne Junger
Prof. dr. M. Junger is hoogleraar Cyber Security en Business Continuity aan de Universiteit Twente.
Artikel

Ons cybergedrag is veel onveiliger dan we zelf denken

Implicaties voor effectief beïnvloedingsbeleid door de overheid

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden cyber hygiene, security behavior, human vulnerability, COM-B, policy implications
Auteurs Dr. Rick van der Kleij, Dr. Susanne van ’t Hoff-de Goede, Dr. Steve van de Weijer e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The aim of this research was to examine how Dutch citizens behave online and to explain their online behavior. The results of an experimental survey (N=2,426) show that unsafe behavior is highly prevalent. For example, nearly 40% of the respondents use a weak password. However, it appears that there are major differences between self-reported behavior and objective behavior. The objective measurements in the survey show that people behave more unsafely than they self-report. The research further shows that there is no silver bullet for promoting more safe online behavior. Different online behaviors seem to stem from different sources. Nevertheless, the authors do see a lot of value in interventions that focus on adaptations to the technology that people use for online activities, such that the possibility of unsafe behavior is reduced and the possibility of safe behavior is increased – also known as security by design. There is a role here for policy measures encouraging technology manufacturers to make these adjustments.


Dr. Rick van der Kleij
Dr. R. van der Kleij werkt als senior onderzoeker bij het lectoraat Cybersecurity in het mkb aan de Haagse Hogeschool en als senior onderzoeker bij TNO.

Dr. Susanne van ’t Hoff-de Goede
Dr. S. van ’t Hoff-de Goede is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het lectoraat Cybersecurity in het mkb aan de Haagse Hogeschool.

Dr. Steve van de Weijer
Dr. S. van de Weijer is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het NSCR.

Dr. Rutger Leukfeldt
Dr. E.R. Leukfeldt werkt als lector Cybersecurity in het mkb aan de Haagse Hogeschool en als senior onderzoeker bij het NSCR.
Artikel

Over een grens: Nederlandse vondelingen uit of naar het buitenland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden Vondeling, migratie, Nederland, rationelekeuzetheorie, gelegenheidstheorie
Auteurs Kerstin van Tiggelen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Within the group of Dutch foundlings, 28% are migratory foundlings: children coming from abroad to the Netherlands (inbound foundlings), and children going abroad from the Netherlands (outbound foundlings). According to the rational choice theory, there is at some point a rational decision behind human action, based on consideration of costs and benefits – terminology reminiscent of the origins within economic science. When viewed from that perspective, cross-border abandonment may be regarded to be a conscious effort to hinder detection. After all, abandonment of foundlings has been a criminal offence in the Netherlands since at least the Middle Ages. There is therefore also a vested interest in not attracting attention. Anyone abandoning a child and wishing to protect their identity will be attracted to locations that lack effective supervision, defined as guardianship within the criminological routine activities theory. However, the less familiar a location, the trickier it is to avoid visibility. Does the rational consideration of costs and benefits result in migratory foundlings being abandoned just over the border (in order that the perpetrators attract the least possible attention) or actually further inland (in order to detract from the cross-border activity, for example)? Is there a comparable choice in terms of distance when people abandon native foundlings – children found in their country of birth? Relevant questions indeed, as greater insight into such variables can support the direction taken by detection activities. This study is an exploratory analysis of the distance between the domicile or birth location and the abandonment location of cross-border foundlings. The results will then be compared with the distances in the case of domestic foundlings.


Kerstin van Tiggelen
Kerstin van Tiggelen is gepromoveerd in de Humanistiek en voorzitter van stichting Nederlands Instituut voor de Documentatie van Anoniem Afstanddoen (NIDAA).
Artikel

An Introduction to the Singapore Convention on Mediation – Perspectives from Singapore

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden Singapore Convention, Dispute resolution, Uncitral, Enforcement
Auteurs Nadja Alexander en Shouyu Chong
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Following a retrospective of the road towards the Convention, incorporating some Singaporean inside views, the authors provide a detailed analysis of the envisaged grounds for refusal of mediated settlements. The authors also highlight various issues around the very concept, and proof, of mediation. These issues are fundamental, as only settlements ensuing from mediation are covered. Another significant aspect is the absence of any provisions pertaining to the status of agreements to mediate, the contract situated at the entry side of mediation.


Nadja Alexander
Nadja Alexander is Professor of Law (Practice) at Singapore Management University School of Law and Director of the Singapore International Dispute Resolution Academy (‘SIDRA’). She may be contacted at nadjaa@smu.edu.sg.

Shouyu Chong
Shouyu Chong is a Researcher at SIDRA, and may be contacted at sychong.2013@smu.edu.sg.
Article

Access_open Fostering Worker Cooperatives with Blockchain Technology: Lessons from the Colony Project

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden blockchain, collaborative economy, cooperative governance, decentralised governance, worker cooperatives
Auteurs Morshed Mannan
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In recent years, there has been growing policy support for expanding worker ownership of businesses in the European Union. Debates on stimulating worker ownership are a regular feature of discussions on the collaborative economy and the future of work, given anxieties regarding the reconfiguration of the nature of work and the decline of standardised employment contracts. Yet, worker ownership, in the form of labour-managed firms such as worker cooperatives, remains marginal. This article explains the appeal of worker cooperatives and examines the reasons why they continue to be relatively scarce. Taking its cue from Henry Hansmann’s hypothesis that organisational innovations can make worker ownership of firms viable in previously untenable circumstances, this article explores how organisational innovations, such as those embodied in the capital and governance structure of Decentralised (Autonomous) Organisations (D(A)Os), can potentially facilitate the growth of LMFs. It does so by undertaking a case study of a blockchain project, Colony, which seeks to create decentralised, self-organising companies where decision-making power derives from high-quality work. For worker cooperatives, seeking to connect globally dispersed workers through an online workplace, Colony’s proposed capital and governance structure, based on technological and game theoretic insight may offer useful lessons. Drawing from this pre-figurative structure, self-imposed institutional rules may be deployed by worker cooperatives in their by-laws to avoid some of the main pitfalls associated with labour management and thereby, potentially, vitalise the formation of the cooperative form.


Morshed Mannan
Morshed Mannan, LLM (Adv.), PhD Candidate, Company Law Department, Institute of Private Law, Universiteit Leiden.
Article

Access_open Privatising Law Enforcement in Social Networks: A Comparative Model Analysis

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden user generated content, public and private responsibilities, intermediary liability, hate speech and fake news, protection of fundamental rights
Auteurs Katharina Kaesling
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    These days, it appears to be common ground that what is illegal and punishable offline must also be treated as such in online formats. However, the enforcement of laws in the field of hate speech and fake news in social networks faces a number of challenges. Public policy makers increasingly rely on the regu-lation of user generated online content through private entities, i.e. through social networks as intermediaries. With this privat-ization of law enforcement, state actors hand the delicate bal-ancing of (fundamental) rights concerned off to private entities. Different strategies complementing traditional law enforcement mechanisms in Europe will be juxtaposed and analysed with particular regard to their respective incentive structures and consequential dangers for the exercise of fundamental rights. Propositions for a recommendable model honouring both pri-vate and public responsibilities will be presented.


Katharina Kaesling
Katharina Kaesling, LL.M. Eur., is research coordinator at the Center for Advanced Study ‘Law as Culture’, University of Bonn.
Onderzoeksnotities

Verschillen in steekproeven verkregen via offline en online afnamemodi binnen de context van zelfrapportageonderzoek naar jeugddelinquentie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden juvenile delinquency, mode, CAWI, CAPI/CASI, self-report
Auteurs Dr. Marinus Beerthuizen, Prof. dr. Barry Schouten, Dr. Josja Rokven e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article examines whether samples obtained through offline and online modes, within the context of juvenile delinquency research, differ from one another, when in principle the same population of youths could be reached. Youths participating through a computer-assisted web interviewing mode (CAWI) report less delinquent behaviour, fewer risk factors for delinquency, and exhibit a lower prevalence in police registration, compared to youths participating through a mixed computer-assisted personal interviewing and computer-assisted self-interviewing mode (CAPI/CASI).


Dr. Marinus Beerthuizen
Dr. M.G.C.J. Beerthuizen is onderzoeker bij het WODC.

Prof. dr. Barry Schouten
Prof. dr. J.G. Schouten is methodoloog bij het CBS en hoogleraar bij de Universiteit Utrecht.

Dr. Josja Rokven
Dr. J.J. Rokven is onderzoeker bij het WODC.

Dr. Gijs Weijters
Dr. G. Weijters is senior onderzoeker bij het WODC.

Dr. André van der Laan
Dr. A.M. van der Laan is senior onderzoeker bij het WODC.
Artikel

Enforceability of mediation clauses in Belgium and the Netherlands

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden Enforceability, Mediation clauses, contracts
Auteurs Ellen van Beukering-Rosmuller en Patrick Van Leynseele
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article authors discuss (possible) legal means and methods aimed at making mediation clauses effective and/or enforceable. In particular Belgian and Dutch law are examined. In part attention is also paid to English, French and Italian law. Against the background of recent EU-legislation the validity of mediation clauses is discussed as well, with a focus on consumer related disputes. By reviewing US case law with regard to the duty to participate in good faith in the mediation process, the authors also outline the limits of this concept for the effectiveness of mediation clauses. The central theme of the enforceability of mediation clauses has been looked at both from a procedural as from a financial angle. Substantial differences can be noted between the Belgian and the Dutch approach towards what courts should do when dealing with a dispute in which parties have previously agreed to mediation. Belgian law provides in art. 1725 § 2 Judicial Code that the court, if so requested by the defendant, is in principle obliged to suspend the examination of the case until the mediation has taken place. According to current case law, the situation in the Netherlands is that mediation clauses are in principle not enforceable (Supreme Court 2006). Following the most recent legislative proposal regarding mediation (July 2016) the court should examine whether mediation can still have an added value in case one party refuses to take part in a mediation as provided for in a clause invoked by the other party, prior to (possibly) proposing mediation. Based on the plans repeatedly announced by the Belgian Minister of Justice, it is likely that there will soon be an amendment to the mediation provisions in the Judicial Code that will allow courts to ‘force’ mediation upon the parties, even in the absence of a mediation clause. If this becomes the rule, judges would be well advised to exercise this power with due care. In the authors’ opinion the Dutch approach (as suggested in the most recent legislative proposal) in connection with mediation clauses, consisting in having the court examine whether mediation may (still) have an added value for the parties, could serve as a good guideline for the Belgian judges to use.


Ellen van Beukering-Rosmuller
Ellen J.M. van Beukering-Rosmuller is Universitair Docent Burgerlijk Procesrecht, Universiteit Leiden, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid.

Patrick Van Leynseele
Patrick H. Van Leynseele is lid van de balies van Brussel en New York en partner in het Brussels advocatenkantoor DALDEWOLF, een referentie inzake ADR. Met als achtergrond het ondernemingsrecht werkt hij als litigator en arbiter in internationale zaken. Hij schreef verschillende artikels inzake mediation en Med-Arb in vooraanstaande juridische tijdschriften.
Artikel

Het effect van de politierespons in een specifieke zaak op de bereidheid tot medewerking onder slachtoffers van criminaliteit

Een vignettenexperiment

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1-2 2017
Trefwoorden mock victims, vignettenexperiment, police response, police legitimacy, cooperation
Auteurs Nathalie Koster MSc, Dr. Michèlle Bal, Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The current vignette experiment among 414 students in the Netherlands explores the effect of the police response on willingness to cooperate and examines whether this relationship is mediated by perceptions of the legitimacy of the police. This is done based on Tyler’s procedural justice theory and previous research among crime victims. The police response in the vignette was manipulated in two ways: the police offered a fair/unfair treatment and had/had not performed investigative actions. There was no police contact in a control group. The results suggest a positive effect of the police response on willingness to cooperate and imply that this relationship is mediated by perceived trust in the police.


Nathalie Koster MSc
N.N. Koster MSc is promovenda aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Michèlle Bal
Dr. M. Bal is universitair docent aan de Universiteit Utrecht.

Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun
Prof. dr. J.P. van der Leun is hoogleraar aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. mr. Maarten Kunst
Dr. mr. M.J.J. Kunst is universitair hoofddocent aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Internetbankieren: veiligheidspercepties van gebruikers

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden Risicoperceptie, Online bankfraude, Slachtofferschap, Informatiebeveiliging
Auteurs Jurjen Jansen, Nicolien Kop en Wouter Stol
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In today’s society, full use is made of online banking. This makes safety and security of online banking an important issue. Two significant threats to users of online banking in The Netherlands are phishing and malware attacks. In this study, an end-user perspective is adopted to study customers’ perceptions regarding safety and security of online banking. A unique feature to this study is that we explore – besides other predictor variables – the relationship between online banking fraud victimization and risk perception. We have made a distinction between three types of victimization: 1) self-experienced victimization, 2) victimization of acquaintances, such as family and friends, and 3) having heard of stories in the media about online banking fraud victimization. Based on a secondary analysis of data from 1200 Dutch users of online banking, collected through an online survey, we conclude that participants perceive their risk of online banking fraud to be small. In general, participants have little experience with victimization, both themselves (2.3%) and in social settings (29.6%). Three quarters of the respondents (75.6%) are aware of victimization of online banking fraud by means of media coverage. Direct and indirect victimization, however, have almost no influence on risk perception regarding online banking fraud. Risk perception is mainly determined by perceived vulnerability, that is, the estimated probability of becoming a victim of online banking fraud. Furthermore, perceived severity or impact of online banking fraud and the degree of trust in online banking contribute to some extent to risk perception. In total, 64.0% of variance in risk perception was explained by the predictors perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, locus of control, trust in online banking, (in)direct experiences with victimization (self, acquaintances and media) and demographic variables (gender, age, educational level and work status). The results of this study may help to improve communication about risks regarding online banking.


Jurjen Jansen
Jurjen Jansen is promovendus aan de Faculteit Cultuur- & Rechtswetenschappen van de Open Universiteit, Onderzoeker aan het Lectoraat Cybersafety van NHL Hogeschool en de Politieacademie.

Nicolien Kop
Nicolien Kop is lector Criminaliteitsbeheersing & Recherchekunde aan de Politieacademie.

Wouter Stol
Wouter Stol is bijzonder hoogleraar Politiestudies aan de Open Universiteit, lector Cybersafety aan de NHL Hogeschool en de Politieacademie.
Artikel

De rol van sociale media bij rampen en (mini)crises

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden Sociale media, Crises, Crisiscommunicatie, geruchten
Auteurs Menno van Duin, Vina Wijkhuijs en Jan Eberg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Professionals dealing with crises are more or less forced to a next level of crisis communication and crisis management. This is because of the influence of social media. Messages on Twitter, Facebook and other social media can have a significant impact on the course of developments during a crisis. Sometimes in a positive way, when help is mobilized quickly and people can be informed almost instantly. On other occasions the impact is more negative, when for instance rumors lead to false accusations or threats. In the past several years, crisis management authorities have built up more experience with the use and application of social media and monitoring tools. There are still cases where officials and professionals are taken by surprise because of the shift stream of messages and their impact on public opinion and crisis control. But also lessons have been learned, e.g. in terms of online and offline reactions, cooperation with the public, and rumor control.
    This article gives an overview of research results in literature and summarizes the outcomes of a case study research project.


Menno van Duin
Menno van Duin is lector crisisbeheersing (IFV).

Vina Wijkhuijs
Vina Wijkhuijs is senior onderzoeker Lectoraat Crisisbeheersing (IFV).

Jan Eberg
Jan Eberg is hoofddocent en onderzoeker integrale veiligheid (HU).
Artikel

The precaution controversy: an analysis through the lens of Ulrich Beck and Michel Foucault

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden Precautionary principle, risk society, governmentality, risk governance, environmental law
Auteurs Tobias Arnoldussen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    According to the precautionary principle lack of scientific evidence for the existence of a certain (environmental) risk should not be a reason not to take preventative policy measures. The precautionary principle had a stormy career in International environmental law and made its mark on many treaties, including the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). However it remains controversial. Proponents see it as the necessary legal curb to keep the dangerous tendencies of industrial production and technology in check. Opponents regard it with suspicion. They fear it will lead to a decrease in freedom and fear the powers to intervene that it grants the state. In this article the principle is reviewed from the perspectives of Ulrich Beck’s ‘reflexive modernisation’ and Michel Foucault’s notion of governmentality. It is argued that from Beck’s perspective the precautionary principle is the result of a learning process in which mankind gradually comes to adopt a reflexive attitude to the risks modernity has given rise to. It represents the wish to devise more inclusive and democratic policies on risks and environmental hazards. From the perspective of Michel Foucault however, the principle is part and parcel of neo-liberal tendencies of responsibilisation. Risk management and prudency are devolved to the public in an attempt to minimise risk taking, while at the same time optimising production. Moreover, it grants legitimacy to state intervention if the public does not live up to the responsibilities foisted on it. Both perspectives are at odds, but represent different sides of the same coin and might learn from each other concerns.


Tobias Arnoldussen
Tobias Arnoldussen is a socio-legal scholar affiliated with the University of Amsterdam Law School and the PPLE honours college. Next to lecturing on a variety of subjects, he focusses on interdisciplinary legal research into the possibilities of law to deal with contemporary social problems.
Artikel

Internet + bemiddeling = e-mediation

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 4 2012
Trefwoorden Online Dispute Resolution, mediation, computer mediated communication, e-mediation
Auteurs Katalien Bollen en Martin Euwema
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The rapid and ongoing development of the Internet has greatly affected new types and sources of conflict but also the ways conflicts are handled. Nowadays, more and more mediation service providers offer online tools to manage conflicts, going from fully e-supported mediations to hybrid mediations which are partly face to face (F2F) and partly computerized. Despite the increasing use of different types of e-supported mediation, practitioners and scholars know little about their effects or under which conditions different types of e-supported tools are best used. This contribution focuses on the role e-tools may play in text based mediations (mainly labor and divorce mediations) which are mediated by a human mediator. We hope to provide third parties of all sort (mediators, practitioners, consultants, managers, etc.) with practical guidelines for the use of e-supported mediation.


Katalien Bollen
Katalien Bollen maakt sinds 2007 deel uit van de onderzoekseenheid Arbeids-, Organisatie- en Personeelspsychologie van de KU Leuven (België), waar ze een doctoraatsproefschrift schrijft, getiteld ‘Mediation (of bemiddeling) van hiërarchische arbeidsconflicten’. Het gaat hier niet om collectieve conflicten, maar om interindividuele conflicten tussen mensen onderling. Specifieke aandacht wordt er geschonken aan de rol en het gebruik van macht, het uiten van emoties en het gebruik van online tools en software ter ondersteuning van mediation. Daarnaast is Katalien een gecertificeerd mediator en is ze verbonden aan het Leuven Center for Collaborative Management (LCM).

Martin Euwema
Martin Euwema is hoogleraar Organisatiepsychologie en coördinator van de onderzoekseenheid Arbeids-, Organisatie- en Personeelspsychologie van de KU Leuven. Hij doet onderzoek, geeft les en adviseert over conflictmanagement, bemiddeling, leiderschap en team- en organisatieontwikkeling. Martin is voorzitter van de International Association for Conflict Management en samen met Alain Verbeke co-director van het Leuven Center for Collaborative Management (LCM).
Artikel

Access_open Approaching Law through Conflicts

Tijdschrift Law and Method, 2011
Trefwoorden Latour, modernity of law, legal procedure, proof, qualification of facts
Auteurs Niels van Dijk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the author presents Latour’s negative analysis of modernity and his positive ethnographical studies of the modes of existence of our modern world. I will discuss the merits and disadvantages of his specific approach on law – an institutional ethnography of the French Conseil d’Etat – within this framework. The analysis will be supplemented with the results of a conflict-based approach to a case study in patent law at a law firm.


Niels van Dijk
Niels van Dijk LL.M. is onderzoeker bij het Center for Law, Science, Technology & Society (LSTS) van de Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
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