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Artikel

Sirowa: kon de Ondernemingskamer wel anders?

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Ondernemingsrecht, Aflevering 11 2021
Trefwoorden uitkoop, artikel 1 EP EVRM, waardebepaling, artikel 2:201a BW, aandeelhoudersgeschil
Auteurs Mr. M.H.J. van Rest
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In dit commentaar behandelt de auteur de Sirowa-uitspraak. Zij stelt zich de vraag of de Ondernemingskamer wel anders kon oordelen dan zij heeft gedaan. Haar conclusie is van niet en zij geeft een tip voor de praktijk die (advocaten van) uitkopers kunnen gebruiken in toekomstige procedures.


Mr. M.H.J. van Rest
Mr. M.H.J. van Rest werkt als advocaat bij BarentsKrans Coöperatief U.A. te Den Haag.
Artikel

Kanttekeningen bij een instrumentele waar­dering van procedurele rechtvaardigheid

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2021
Trefwoorden Procedural justice, Empirical-legal research, Fact-value distinction, Consequentialism, Deontology
Auteurs Vincent Geeraets
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Procedural justice has been at the forefront of empirical legal research in the Netherlands in past years. One of the major goals of this research is to find out what the effects are of the perception of procedural justice. In this article, I argue that the notion of procedural justice is deontological in nature. It has an intrinsic value, which means that it cannot be weighed against other interests. This is recognized in law: people have a right to a fair trial. However, since in social scientific research the focus is on the effects of procedural justice, researchers treat this concept (also) as a consequentialist notion. It is thought of as a means which can serve some useful end. My aim is to assess whether this way of valuing procedural justice can be considered acceptable. An important upshot of my discussion is that conducting research into procedural justice implies a normative stance. Finally, I suggest ways in which an all too instrumental approach to procedural justice can be avoided.


Vincent Geeraets
Vincent Geeraets is als universitair docent verbonden aan de afdeling Rechtstheorie en rechtsgeschiedenis van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. Hij is gepromoveerd in de rechtsfilosofie en houdt zich onder andere bezig met het thema feiten en normen in empirisch-juridisch onderzoek.

    Een moedermaatschappij kan na de intrekking van haar 403-verklaring de overblijvende aansprakelijkheid beëindigen als zij voldoet aan de cumulatieve vereisten ex art. 2:404 lid 3 BW. De huidige regeling voor de beëindiging van de overblijvende aansprakelijkheid en de uitleg daarvan in de jurisprudentie zijn echter nodeloos belastend en werken in de hand dat een moedermaatschappij zal proberen om de procedure zo veel mogelijk onder de radar te doorlopen. In deze bijdrage wordt ervoor gepleit dat de regeling op bepaalde punten wordt aangepast of anders wordt uitgelegd in de jurisprudentie.


E.A. van Dooren
Mr. dr. E.A. van Dooren is universitair docent Ondernemingsrecht bij het Molengraaff Instituut voor Privaatrecht van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Access_open Global Solidarity and Collective Intelligence in Times of Pandemics

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Global solidarity, Pandemics, Global Existential Threats, Collective Intelligence, CrowdLaw
Auteurs José Luis Martí
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Some of the existential threats we currently face are global in the sense that they affect us all, and thus matter of global concern and trigger duties of moral global solidarity. But some of these global threats, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, are global in a second, additional, sense: discharging them requires joint, coordinated global action. For that reason, these twofold global threats trigger political – not merely moral – duties of global solidarity. This article explores the contrast between these two types of global threats with the purpose of clarifying the distinction between moral and political duties of global solidarity. And, in the absence of a fully developed global democratic institutional system, the article also explores some promising ways to fulfill our global political duties, especially those based on mechanisms of collective intelligence such as CrowdLaw, which might provide effective solutions to these global threats while enhancing the democratic legitimacy of public decision-making.


José Luis Martí
José Luis Martí is Associate Professor of Legal and Political Philosophy, Department of Law, Pompeu Fabra University of Barcelona.
Artikel

Access_open Dividing the Beds: A Risk Community under ‘Code Black’?

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Cosmopolitan solidarity, COVID-19, Health care regulation, Risk society, Argumentative discourse analysis
Auteurs Tobias Arnoldussen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    During the COVID-19 crisis a risk of ‘code black’ emerged in the Netherlands. Doctors mentioned that in case of code black, very senior citizens might not receive intensive care treatment for COVID-19 due to shortages. Sociologist Ulrich Beck argued that palpable risks lead to the creation of new networks of solidarity. In this article this assumption is investigated by analyzing the different storylines prevalent in the public discussion about ‘code black’. Initially, storylines showing sympathy with the plight of the elderly came to the fore. However, storylines brought forward by medical organizations eventually dominated, giving them the opportunity to determine health care policy to a large extent. Their sway over policymaking led to a distribution scheme of vaccines that was favourable for medical personnel, but unfavourable for the elderly. The discursive process on code black taken as a whole displayed a struggle over favourable risk positions, instead of the formation of risk solidarity.


Tobias Arnoldussen
Tobias Arnoldussen is Assistant Professor of Jurisprudence at Tilburg Law School.
Artikel

Access_open Welcoming the Other in a Pandemic Society

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Discourse, Solidarity, Poststructuralism, Levinas, Derrida
Auteurs Thomas Jacobus de Jong en Carina van de Wetering
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution explores the meaning and scope of solidarity with the emergence of the coronavirus discourse as formulated by politicians in order to make sense of the virus. It offers a poststructuralist account drawing on discourse theory together with insights from Levinas and Derrida. This leads to a critical reflection on the prevailing view of solidarity as secondary and derivative to corona policies, because solidarity is often subjugated to hegemonic meanings of efficiency. Instead, the argument is made that solidarity refers to the unique responsibility to which the other as wholly other commands me. This appeal for responsibility, that is presented in the face of the other, is to be assumed in the distance between the rules and the singularity of the situation. Accordingly, solidarity is described as a paradox of dependence (calculability) and independence (beyond calculation), that appears in a moment of undecidability, for it can never be overcome.


Thomas Jacobus de Jong
Thomas Jacobus de Jong is senior parketsecretaris at the Netherlands Public Prosecution Service (OM).

Carina van de Wetering
Carina van de Wetering is Lecturer in International Relations at the Institute of Political Science at Leiden University.
Artikel

Access_open The Exceptionality of Solidarity

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Solidarity, COVID-19, Crisis, Normalcy, Exceptionality
Auteurs Amalia Amaya Navarro
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In times of crisis, we witness exceptional expressions of solidarity. Why does solidarity spring in times of crisis when it wanes in normal times? An inquiry into what may explain the differences between the expression of solidarity in crisis vs. normalcy provides, as I will argue in this article, important insights into the conditions and nature of solidarity. Solidarity requires, I will contend, an egalitarian ethos and state action within and beyond the state. It is neither a momentary political ideal, nor an exclusionary one, which depends for its sustainment on formal, legal, structures. Transient, sectarian, and informal conceptions of solidarity unduly curtail the demands of solidarity by restricting its reach to times of crisis, to in-group recipients, and to the social rather than the legal sphere. The article concludes by discussing some aspects of the dynamics of solidarity and its inherent risks that the analysis of the exceptionality of solidarity helps bring into focus.


Amalia Amaya Navarro
Amalia Amaya Navarro is British Academy Global Professor of Legal Philosophy at the University of Edinburgh.
Artikel

Access_open Populism, the Kingdom of Shadows, and the Challenge to Liberal Democracy

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Populism, Liberal democracy, Political representation, Société du spectacle, Theatrocracy
Auteurs Massimo La Torre
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Populism is a somehow intractable notion, since its reference is much too wide, comprising phenomena that are indeed in conflict between them, and moreover blurred, by being often used in an instrumental, polemical way. Such intractability is then radicalized through the two alternative approaches to populism, one that is more or less neutral, rooting in the political science tradition, and a second one, fully normative, though fed by political realism, founding as it does on a specific political theory and project. In the article an alternative view is proposed, that of populism as the politics that is congruent with the increasing role played by ‘screens’, icons, and images in social relationships and indeed in political representation. In this way populism is approached as the specific way politics is done within the context of a digitalized société du spectacle.


Massimo La Torre
Massimo La Torre is Professor of Philosophy of Law, ‘Magna Graecia’ University of Catanzaro, Italy, and Visiting Professor of European Law, University of Tallinn, Estonia.
Artikel

Access_open What Solidarity?

A Look Behind the Veil of Solidarity in ‘Corona Times’ Contractual Relations

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Mechanical solidarity, Organic solidarity, Contract, Good faith, Punishment
Auteurs Candida Leone
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article uses three prominent examples from the Dutch context to problematize the relationship between contractual and social solidarity during the coronavirus crisis. The social science ideal types of ‘mechanical’ and ‘organic’ solidarity, and their typified correspondence with legal modes of punishment and compensation, are used to illuminate the way in which solidarity language in private relationships can convey and normalize assumptions about the public interest and economic order.


Candida Leone
Candida Leone is Assistant Professor at the, Amsterdam Centre for Transformative Private Law.
Artikel

Access_open Suffering from Vulnerability

On the Relation Between Law, Contingency and Solidarity

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Vulnerability, Contingency, Freedom and Anxiety, Solidarity, Legal concept of inclusion
Auteurs Benno Zabel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The COVID-19 crisis has produced or amplified disruptive processes in societies. This article wants to argue for the fact that we understand the meaning of the COVID-19 crisis only if we relate it to the fundamental vulnerability of modern life and the awareness of vulnerability of whole societies. Vulnerability in modernity are expressions of a reality of freedom that is to some extent considered contingent and therefore unsecured. It is true that law is understood today as the protective power of freedom. The thesis of the article, however, boils down to the fact that the COVID-19 crisis has resulted in a new way of thinking about the protection of freedom. This also means that the principle of solidarity must be assigned a new social role. Individual and societal vulnerability refer thereafter to an interconnectedness, dependency, and a future perspective of freedom margins that, in addition to the moral one, can also indicate a need for legal protection. In this respect, law has not only a function of delimitation, but also one of inclusion.


Benno Zabel
Benno Zabel is Professor of Criminal Law and Philosophy of Law at the University of Bonn.
Artikel

Access_open Sick and Blamed

Criminal Law in the Chilean Response to COVID-19

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Solidarity, Punishment, Legitimacy, Inequality, COVID-19
Auteurs Rocío Lorca
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Chilean government called upon ideas of social solidarity to fight the pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 and it relied heavily on the criminal law in order to secure compliance with sanitary restrictions. However, because restrictions and prosecutorial policy did not take into account social background and people’s ability to comply with the law, prosecutions soon created groups of people who were being both over-exposed to disease and death, and over-exposed to control, blame and punishment. The configuration of this overpoliced and underprotected group became so visibly unjust that appealing to social solidarity to justify the criminal enforcement of sanitary restrictions became almost insulting. This forced the Fiscal Nacional to develop a ‘socially sensitive’ prosecutorial strategy, something that we have not often seen despite Chile’s inequalities. The changes in policy by the Fiscal Nacional suggest that perhaps, at times, penal institutions can be made accountable for acting in ways that create estrangement rather than cohesion.


Rocío Lorca
Rocío Lorca is Assistant Professor at Universidad de Chile’s School of Law.
Artikel

Dismissal protection in Denmark

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Ontslagrecht, Aflevering 4 2021
Trefwoorden protection against dismissal, flexicurity, industrial relations, social security, dynamic and adjustable labour market
Auteurs mr. dr. Natalie Munkholm
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article gives an overview of the protection against dismissal according to Danish statutory acts and collective agreements.


mr. dr. Natalie Munkholm
Natalie Munkholm is werkzaam als associate professor Labour Law aan de Aarhus Universiteit, Denemarken.
Article

Access_open Hardship and Force Majeure as Grounds for Adaptation and Renegotiation of Investment Contracts

What Is the Extent of the Powers of Arbitral Tribunals?

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden contract adaptation, hardship, force majeure, investment contracts, arbitration
Auteurs Agata Zwolankiewicz
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The change of circumstances impacting the performance of the contracts has been a widely commented issue. However, there seems to be a gap in legal jurisprudence with regard to resorting to such a remedy in the investment contracts setting, especially from the procedural perspective. It has not been finally settled whether arbitral tribunals are empowered to adapt investment contracts should circumstances change and, if they were, what the grounds for such a remedy would be. In this article, the author presents the current debates regarding this issue, potential grounds for application of such a measure and several proposals which would facilitate resolution of this procedural uncertainty.


Agata Zwolankiewicz
Agata Zwolankiewicz is an advocate trainee, graduated from the University of Silesia in Katowice (M.A. in law), and the University of Ottawa (LL.M. with concentration in international trade and foreign investment).
Article

Access_open The Influence of Strategic Culture on Legal Justifications

Comparing British and German Parliamentary Debates Regarding the War against ISIS

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden strategic culture, international law, ISIS, parliamentary debates, interdisciplinarity
Auteurs Martin Hock
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article presents an interdisciplinary comparison of British and German legal arguments concerning the justification of the use of force against the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS). It is situated in the broader framework of research on strategic culture and the use of international law as a tool for justifying state behaviour. Thus, a gap in political science research is analysed: addressing legal arguments as essentially political in their usage. The present work questions whether differing strategic cultures will lead to a different use of legal arguments. International legal theory and content analysis are combined to sort arguments into the categories of instrumentalism, formalism and natural law. To do so, a data set consisting of all speeches with regard to the fight against ISIS made in both parliaments until the end of 2018 is analysed. It is shown that Germany and the UK, despite their varying strategic cultures, rely on similar legal justifications to a surprisingly large extent.


Martin Hock
Martin Hock is Research Associate at the Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.

    By a majority of 4-3, the Supreme Court of Ireland has held that the Workplace Relations Commission’s power to adjudicate disputes between employers and employees was not unconstitutional. However, the majority of the Supreme Court did find that certain aspects of the Commission’s procedures were unconstitutional, namely the blanket ban on public hearings and the lack of capacity for taking evidence on oath. The Workplace Relations Act 2015 and the Workplace Relations Commission procedures have consequently been amended to address these issues. This case report is a follow-up on EELC 2020/34.


Laura Ryan
Laura Ryan is an Associate at Mason Hayes & Curran.

    The Employment Appeal Tribunal (EAT) has ruled that ‘gender critical’ beliefs are protected philosophical beliefs for equality law purposes, while confirming that a belief in ‘gender identity’ is also a protected characteristic. This means that it is unlawful to discriminate against someone because they do or do not hold either of those beliefs.


Bethan Carney
Bethan Carney is a Managing Practice Development Lawyer, Lewis Silkin LLP.
Artikel

De opsporing en vervolging van seksueel geweld door de jaren heen vanuit een genderperspectief

Tijdschrift Boom Strafblad, Aflevering 5 2021
Trefwoorden Gender en strafrecht, Seksueel geweld tegen vrouw, Genderdiscriminatie, Gelijke behandeling, Feminisme
Auteurs Dr. K.M. (Kelly) Pitcher en mr. dr. M. (Mojan) Samadi
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    De vanzelfsprekendheid waarmee in huidige internationale instrumenten en zelfs nationale parlementaire stukken geweld tegen vrouwen wordt gekoppeld aan emancipatiebeleid en patriarchale machtsverhoudingen, verhult dat achter dit besef een jarenlange maatschappelijke, politieke en juridische strijd schuilgaat. Deze bijdrage brengt de ontwikkeling van de opsporing en vervolging van seksueel geweld tegen vrouwen in kaart en reflecteert op de onderliggende redenen die ten grondslag liggen aan de knelpunten die hierbij spelen.


Dr. K.M. (Kelly) Pitcher
Kelly Pitcher is universitair docent straf- en strafprocesrecht bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

mr. dr. M. (Mojan) Samadi
Mojan Samadi is universitair docent straf(proces)recht bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden en tevens redactiesecretaris bij Boom Strafblad.
Artikel

De hervinding van het statutaire doel van de vennootschap

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Ondernemingsrecht, Aflevering 9-10 2021
Trefwoorden purpose, strategie, eigenlijk doel, doeloverschrijding, doelomschrijving
Auteurs Mr. J.J. Meppelink
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Door het voorzichtigheidshalve ruim omschrijven van het statutaire doel ter voorkoming van de sanctie op doeloverschrijding, gaat een kans verloren om via de statutaire doelomschrijving bij de vennootschap betrokkenen duiding te geven wat de vennootschap en de daarmee verbonden onderneming nastreeft. De auteur bepleit om artikel 2:7 BW te laten vervallen.


Mr. J.J. Meppelink
Mr. J.J. Meppelink is group legal counsel bij FirstWave Group B.V. te Amsterdam en co-founder van Legal Innovation for Sustainable Investments (LISI).
Peer-reviewed artikel

Access_open Vernieuwing van het intern toezicht in de zorgsector?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Toezicht, Aflevering 3 2021
Trefwoorden Wtza, WBTR, taak, bevoegdheden, aansprakelijkheid
Auteurs Ageeth Klaassen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In deze bijdrage wordt een overzicht gegeven van de wijzigingen voor het interne toezicht door de WBTR en de Wtza. Het blijkt niet alleen te draaien om een wijziging van de regels, maar ook om de invulling van die regels. Dit kan worden gezien als modernisering van het intern toezicht.


Ageeth Klaassen
Mr. dr. A.G.H. Klaassen is universitair docent ondernemings- en gezondheidsrecht aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en zij was lid van een raad van commissarissen van een stichting in de eerstelijnszorg.
Artikel

Digital investigation powers and privacy

Recent ECtHR case law and implications for the modernisation of the Code of Criminal Procedure

Tijdschrift Boom Strafblad, Aflevering 4 2021
Trefwoorden Right to respect for private life, European Court of Human Rights, Digital investigation powers, Modernisation of the Code of Criminal Procedure, Regulation
Auteurs Prof. mr. M.F.H. (Marianne) Hirsch Ballin en Dr. mr. M. (Maša) Galič
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    With the Modernisation of the Code of Criminal Procedure, certain digital investigation powers will for the first time be given a specific statutory basis, such as the search of data carriers, open-source investigation and network searches. Nevertheless, considering the high degree of intrusiveness of such techniques, particularly with the right to privacy, it remains important to take note of the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights, which continues to set minimum safeguards for the interference with private life. In this paper, we therefore conduct a brief overview of recent ECtHR case law concerning five types of digital investigation powers. We then consider the implications of this case law for the regulation of such powers in the draft Code of Criminal Procedure and for the Modernisation process more broadly.


Prof. mr. M.F.H. (Marianne) Hirsch Ballin
Marianne Hirsch Ballin is professor of Criminal Law and Criminal Procedure at Vrije Univeristeit Amsterdam and member of the editorial board of this journal.

Dr. mr. M. (Maša) Galič
Maša Galič is assistant professor Criminal Law and Criminal Procedure at Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
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