Zoekresultaat: 466 artikelen

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Artikel

Access_open Grensoverschrijdende misdaad. Wanneer moeten opsporing en vervolging de grens over?

Tijdschrift Boom Strafblad, Aflevering 3 2022
Trefwoorden EU-strafrecht, Grensoverschrijdende samenwerking, Formeel strafrecht, Positieve verplichtingen, Internationalisering strafrecht
Auteurs Mr. B. (Boudewijn) de Jonge
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Internationaal en Europees recht vergen een actieve houding van politie en justitie ten aanzien van de bestrijding van grensoverschrijdende misdaad. Dit artikel beschrijft de bestaande verplichtingen die nopen tot een internationaal georiënteerde opsporing en vervolging, en verkent de fundamenten van die verplichtingen. Daarnaast komt de vraag aan de orde in welke mate Nederland op dit moment aan haar internationale verplichtingen voldoet en wat nodig is om dat te versterken.


Mr. B. (Boudewijn) de Jonge
Boudewijn de Jonge is officier van justitie bij het Landelijk Parket. Daarnaast doet hij als buitenpromovendus bij de Universiteit Leiden vergelijkend onderzoek naar de wijze waarop onderzoeksrechters en officieren van justitie grensoverschrijdende georganiseerde criminaliteit benaderen. Dit artikel is op persoonlijke titel geschreven.
Artikel

Verantwoording door toezichthouders

Lessen voor Nederland uit internationaal onderzoek

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Toezicht, Aflevering 2-3 2022
Trefwoorden verantwoording, internationaal onderzoek toezicht, onafhankelijkheid, netwerken gedrag
Auteurs Machiel van der Heijden, Sjors Overman en Thomas Schillemans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Toezichthouders hebben onafhankelijkheid nodig om deskundig en ongebonden toezicht te kunnen uitoefenen. Deze noodzaak staat op enigszins gespannen voet met principes van de democratische rechtsstaat, waardoor passende vormen van verantwoording nodig zijn om de uitvoering van publieke taken door toezichthouders inzichtelijk te maken en op de noodzakelijke democratische controle toe te zien. Dit artikel bespreekt de kernthema’s en kerninzichten uit internationaal onderzoek naar verantwoording door inspecties en (markt)toezichthouders. Allereerst laten we zien dat er achter het schijnbaar eenduidige begrip ‘verantwoording’ een baaierd aan gerelateerde subbetekenissen schuil gaat. Door dit conceptuele landschap te doorgronden geeft het artikel een aantal handvatten waarmee actuele beleidsvragen over de positionering van toezicht, en passende verantwoording door toezichthouders, kunnen worden bezien. Op die basis bieden we vervolgens een overzicht van conceptuele aangrijpingspunten en empirische vraagstukken die in de internationale literatuur over toezicht en verantwoording naar voren komen. Drie thema’s staan hierin centraal: de spanning tussen verantwoording en onafhankelijkheid; de positionering van nationale toezichthouders in internationale netwerken en regelsystemen; en de groeiende inzichten in gedragseffecten en gedragsprocessen van (verantwoording door) toezicht.


Machiel van der Heijden
Dr. M van der Heijden is universitair docent publiek management aan de Utrechtse School voor Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap, Universiteit Utrecht.

Sjors Overman
Dr. S. Overman is universitair docent bestuurskunde aan de Utrechtse School voor Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap, Universiteit Utrecht.

Thomas Schillemans
Prof. dr. T. Schillemans is hoogleraar Verantwoording, gedrag en instituties aan de Utrechtse School voor Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap, Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Access_open De strafbaarstelling van straatintimidatie en het risico van etnisch profileren

Een pragmatische ‘sociologie van kritiek’

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2022
Trefwoorden Street Harassment, Feminism, Ethnic profiling, Gender-based violence, Criminalization
Auteurs Mischa Dekker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since 2014, several countries have introduced legislation to criminalize ‘street harassment.’ In France, this criminalization was framed within a feminist perspective, by conceiving of street harassment as the first level of a ‘continuum of violence against women.’ In the Netherlands, on the other hand, proposals to criminalize these behaviors came from right-wing political parties. They framed ordinances as protecting public order and focused on racialized loitering youth as the main problem group. Despite these differences, proponents of penalization in both countries encountered a similar criticism: according to left-wing politicians, feminists, and anti-racist activists, criminalizing street harassment could lead to disproportionate punishment of racialized men from disadvantaged backgrounds. This article argues for a pragmatic ‘sociology of critique’ within the sociology of law, which provides insight into how actors involved in the introduction of regulation develop reflexivity about the risks of legislation, as well as their blind spots.


Mischa Dekker
Mischa Dekker is socioloog aan het Laboratoire interdisciplinaire d’études sur les réflexivités, École des hautes études en sciences sociales in Parijs. Zijn onderzoek gaat over publieke problemen, gendergerelateerd geweld, rechtssociologie en sociale bewegingen. Voor zijn proefschrift deed hij onderzoek naar de opkomst van straatintimidatie als publiek probleem in Nederland en Frankrijk.
Artikel

Access_open On Identifying Assumptions Underlying Legal Arrangements

Some Conceptual and Methodological Considerations

Tijdschrift Law and Method, mei 2022
Trefwoorden (Legislative) assumptions, legal arrangements, inference to the best explanation, theory-driven evaluations
Auteurs Frans L. Leeuw en Antonia M. Waltermann
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Legal arrangements rest on behavioural, cognitive, social, and other assumptions regarding their role and function in society and the legal system. The identification and subsequent evaluation of these assumptions is an important task for legal scholarship. In this article, we focus on the identification and categorisation of these assumptions, providing conceptual distinctions and methodological guidance. We distinguish between assumptions about the value(s), norm(s), or interest(s) underlying a legal arrangement, which can be legal or non-legal, and assumptions about the relationship between the legal arrangement and its underlying value(s), norm(s), or interest(s), which can be logical, causal, or contributory. Regarding the identification, we consider explicit references and inference to the best explanation and theory-driven evaluations as possible methods. Inference to the best explanation, we posit, functions as a manner of reconstructing the theory that the person(s) creating a legal arrangement had in mind regarding the place and function of that legal arrangement in society. Given this, we offer a step-by-step approach to reconstructing this theory in use, drawing from theory-driven evaluations and its sources in the social sciences. These distinctions and guidelines can contribute to understanding the context and untangling the complexities involved in identifying the assumptions that underlie legal arrangements.


Frans L. Leeuw
Prof. dr. Frans Leeuw, Professor emeritus, Law, Public Policy and Social Science Research, Department of Foundations and Methods of Law, Maastricht University.

Antonia M. Waltermann
Dr. Antonia Waltermann, Assistant Professor of Legal Theory, Department of Foundations and Methods of Law, Maastricht University.
Redactioneel

Relaties tussen politie en burgers in een veranderende context

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2022
Trefwoorden Interaction, Police-citizen, Police organization, Societal developments, Organizational developments
Auteurs Jan Terpstra, Antoinette Verhage en Lisa van Reemst
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the past years important changes have occurred in police work in the Netherlands and Belgium. These developments, and new questions that arose because of these developments, are the reason we dedicate a special issue to ‘the police and citizen in a changing context’. In this introduction of this issue, we describe a number of developments and new questions. We address the changing distance between police officers and citizens, authority and trust, the role of citizens, technology and digitization and growing complexity and diversity. In addition, the articles in this special issue are introduced.


Jan Terpstra
Prof. dr. ir. J. Terpstra is emeritus hoogleraar criminologie aan de Radboud Universiteit te Nijmegen en fellow aan de Vrije Universiteit te Brussel (Crime & Society Research Group).

Antoinette Verhage
Prof. dr. A. Verhage is hoofddocent aan de Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht en lid van het IRCP (Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy), Universiteit Gent.

Lisa van Reemst
Dr. L. van Reemst is Universitair docent aan de afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

A comparative law analysis of no-fault comprehensive compensation funds: international best practice & contemporary applications

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Vergoeding Personenschade, Aflevering 1 2022
Trefwoorden no-fault, alternative compensation system, tort remedies, socio-legal frameworks, access to justice
Auteurs K. Watts
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Compensation funds in different jurisdictions have varying functions and objectives to remedy loss. This doctoral research addresses the significant knowledge gap in relation to no-fault comprehensive compensation funds. These are a single publicly-managed structure that provides a wide, compulsory and complete replacement for tort remedies.
    The research identifies the hallmarks of these funds’ successful establishment, administration, operation and further development. This includes analysis of the functional harms covered, compensation quantum and funding. There is also a novel first principles analysis of the interaction between large funds and human rights law. These analyses inform concrete recommendations for the legislative improvement of existing funds, new funds, and the framework’s application to contemporary liability problems.


K. Watts
K. Watts (PhD in Law) is Postdoctoral Researcher at the University of Antwerp.
Artikel

Access_open Verkeersveiligheidsontwikkelingen: over modellen van de mens voor het bepalen van letselrisico’s, veilige snelheden en whiplash

Tijdschrift Afwikkeling Personenschade, Aflevering 1 2022
Trefwoorden Verkeersonveiligheid, Letselbiomechanica, Ongevalsreconstructie, Whiplash, Delta-v
Auteurs Prof. dr. ir. J.S.H.M. Wismans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Een overzicht wordt gegeven van een aantal ontwikkelingen op het gebied van de verkeersveiligheid. Ingegaan wordt op recente ongevalscijfers in Nederland, de letselbiomechanica met betrekking tot de bepaling van letselrisico’s in botssituaties met behulp van mensmodellen (o.a. voor reconstructie van ongevallen), veilige snelheden en whiplashrisico als functie van Delta-v.


Prof. dr. ir. J.S.H.M. Wismans
Jac Wismans is eigenaar van het SAFETEQ in Son en Breugel, een adviesbureau op het gebied van voertuigveiligheid en ongevalsanalyse en Professor Emeritus Voertuigveiligheid Chalmers University of Technology in Gotenburg (Zweden) en de Technische Universiteit Eindhoven. Hij staat geregistreerd in het Landelijk Register van Gerechtelijk Deskundigen (LRGD) en het register van Landelijke Deskundigheidsmakelaar (LDM) van de Politie.
Peer reviewed

Meerpersoonscelgebruik in Nederlandse penitentiaire inrichtingen

Bevindingen van de Life in Custody Study

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2022
Trefwoorden meerpersoonscellen, Life in Custody Study, leefklimaat, wangedrag, detentie
Auteurs Esther van Ginneken en Hanneke Palmen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since 2004, cell sharing in Dutch correctional institutions has increased to nearly 30%. In contrast to many other countries, the use of double cells is a policy measure to cut costs, rather than a measure to deal with overcrowding of correctional institutions. This article examines individuals’ experiences of sharing a cell, and the association between cell sharing, wellbeing, misconduct, and prison climate, using survey data from the Life in Custody Study collected in 2019. The sample comprises 3408 participants (in regular prison regimes, pre-trial detention, and short-stay custody). The results show that most respondents report a good relationship with their cellmate, but still prefer a single cell. There is no evidence for positive effects of cell sharing on the researched domains; some negative effects are found when individuals prefer a single cell or report a poor relationship with their cellmate.


Esther van Ginneken
Dr. Esther F.J.C. Ginneken is universitair docent Criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden en projectleider van de Life in Custody Study.

Hanneke Palmen
Dr. Hanneke Palmen is universitair hoofddocent Criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden en projectleider van de Life in Custody Study.
Peer reviewed

Access_open Ondersteunen van verandering en terugkeer

Een raamwerk voor exitprogramma’s voor geradicaliseerde (ex-)­gedetineerden

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2022
Trefwoorden deradicalisering, disengagement, exitprogramma, gevangeniswezen
Auteurs Robin Christiaan van Halderen, Nanne Vosters, Janine Janssen e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article a framework is provided for the design and implementation of exit programmes used in prisons and by probation services. These programmes are targeted at violent extremist (ex-)offenders and are used for the purpose of deradicalisation or disengagement and support the successful reintegration of (ex-)offenders back into society. Based on a review of scientific and practice-oriented literature six categories of standards and practices are described. An exit programme needs to be tailored to the context in which it is used and to the risks and needs of the individual. In addition to various other aspects, earlier attention for reintegration and the active involvement of an (ex-)offender’s social environment are crucial in an exit progamme.


Robin Christiaan van Halderen
Dr. Robin Christiaan van Halderen is werkzaam als onderzoeker bij Hogeschool Saxion en was ten tijde van het project WayOut onderzoeker bij Avans Hogeschool.

Nanne Vosters
Nanne Vosters, MSc is onderzoeker bij Politie Midden-Nederland en was ten tijde van het project WayOut onderzoeker/docent bij Avans Hogeschool.

Janine Janssen
Prof. dr. Janine Janssen is hoofd onderzoek van het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld van de Nationale Politie, bijzonder hoogleraar Rechtsantropologie aan de Open Universiteit, lector Veiligheid in Afhankelijkheidsrelaties aan Avans Hogeschool en de Politieacademie, en tevens voorzitter van de redactie van PROCES.

Bart Claes
Dr. Bart Claes is lector Transmuraal Herstelgericht Werken bij Avans Hogeschool, bestuurder bij het European Forum for Restorative Justice en directeur van CAW Boom Mechelen Lier.
Artikel

Access_open Living with Others in Pandemics

The State’s Duty to Protect, Individual Responsibility and Solidarity

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, The state’s duty to protect, Duty to rescue, Responsibility, Solidarity
Auteurs Konstantinos A Papageorgiou
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article discusses a range of important normative questions raised by anti-COVID-19 measures and policies. Do governments have the right to impose such severe restrictions on individual freedom and furthermore do citizens have obligations vis-à-vis the state, others and themselves to accept such restrictions? I will argue that a democratic state may legitimately enforce publicly discussed, properly enacted and constitutionally tested laws and policies in order to protect its citizens from risks to life and limb. Even so, there is a natural limit, factual and normative, to what the state or a government can do in this respect. Citizens will also need to take it upon themselves not to harm and to protect others and in the context of a pandemic this means that endorsement of restrictions or other mandatory measures, notably vaccination, is not to be seen as a matter of personal preference concerning the supposedly inviolable sovereignty of one’s own body.


Konstantinos A Papageorgiou
Konstantinos A Papageorgiou is Professor of the Philosophy of Law at the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Law.
Artikel

Access_open Sick and Blamed

Criminal Law in the Chilean Response to COVID-19

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Solidarity, Punishment, Legitimacy, Inequality, COVID-19
Auteurs Rocío Lorca
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Chilean government called upon ideas of social solidarity to fight the pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 and it relied heavily on the criminal law in order to secure compliance with sanitary restrictions. However, because restrictions and prosecutorial policy did not take into account social background and people’s ability to comply with the law, prosecutions soon created groups of people who were being both over-exposed to disease and death, and over-exposed to control, blame and punishment. The configuration of this overpoliced and underprotected group became so visibly unjust that appealing to social solidarity to justify the criminal enforcement of sanitary restrictions became almost insulting. This forced the Fiscal Nacional to develop a ‘socially sensitive’ prosecutorial strategy, something that we have not often seen despite Chile’s inequalities. The changes in policy by the Fiscal Nacional suggest that perhaps, at times, penal institutions can be made accountable for acting in ways that create estrangement rather than cohesion.


Rocío Lorca
Rocío Lorca is Assistant Professor at Universidad de Chile’s School of Law.
Artikel

De ‘disposable army’ van georganiseerde misdaadgroepen

Onderlinge relaties en weerbaarheid in de onderwereld

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2021
Trefwoorden the underworld, vulnerable youth, securitisation, national security, research agenda
Auteurs Anna Sergi
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article considers the concept of ‘disposable army’ as a recent addition to the agendas of some policing units countering organized crime in the Western world. The idea of a disposable army comes from counterterrorism and national security languages, but it also echoes studies on disposable youth, their delinquency and vulnerability. The author sketches the main lines of arguments on both the securitisation of organized crime and the vulnerability of disadvantaged and disposable children and young people. Also, she reflects on the concept of disposable army in organized crime by presenting starting observations for a research agenda on this subject and by pointing out how unpacking this concept, and its implications, indeed means to understand how relationships, values, and resilience work in the so-called ‘underworld’.


Anna Sergi
Dr. A. Sergi is senior lecturer in Criminology aan de University of Essex.
Artikel

Drugscriminaliteit beheersbaar houden

De inspanningen van 25 jaar

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2021
Trefwoorden the Netherlands, drugs policy, history, organized crime, policing
Auteurs Manja Abraham en Toine Spapens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In international organized drug crime, the Netherlands is an important transit country (especially for cocaine and, to a lesser extent, heroin and other drugs) and an important production country (of cannabis and synthetic drugs). Drug production and trafficking have serious consequences for society. For example, in addition to possible health damage due to drug use, criminal money flows become intertwined with the regular economy. There is also an increase in new perpetrators, facilitators and bystanders who become involved in illegal activities, murders, and other violence due to conflict between criminal groups and dumping waste from drug production. Organized drug crime increasingly has a far-reaching and subversive impact on the Netherlands and its rule of law. The murders of journalist Peter R. de Vries and lawyer Derk Wiersum are painful recent examples. Despite these severe consequences, the approach to organized drug crime has long been what we can retrospectively call ‘modest’, ‘naïve’, ‘incidental’, and ‘fragmented’.


Manja Abraham
Drs. M.D. Abraham is senior onderzoeker bij onderzoek- en adviesbureau DSP-groep.

Toine Spapens
Prof. dr. A.C. Spapens is hoogleraar criminologie aan Tilburg University.
Artikel

Daders van georganiseerde misdaad: wie zijn het en hoe raken ze betrokken?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2021
Trefwoorden organized crime, criminal careers, involvement mechanisms, career criminals, adult-onset offenders
Auteurs Vere van Koppen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The complexity of organized crime activities as compared to most common crimes makes that the offender types and involvement mechanisms differ from what has been described in traditional life-course studies. This article addresses two different involvement mechanisms for organized crime: family ties and work ties. Those who become involved through family or close friends are more likely to have an early start in crime, to intentionally search for opportunities for crime, and to situate themselves in a context where these opportunities are common. Those who become involved through work ties are more likely to have a late start in crime and to have no preconceived plan to involve in crime, but they are faced with an opportunity. Both types of offenders are interesting as crime groups benefit from a certain degree of heterogeneity, providing access to different contacts, knowledge, and skills.


Vere van Koppen
Dr. M.V. van Koppen is als universitair docent verbonden aan de afdeling Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Leges Artis

De kunst van het herstelrecht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2021
Trefwoorden kunst, zachte vaardigheden, oordeelsleer, leges artis
Auteurs Claudia Mazzucato
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article was written by Claudia Mazzucato for The International Journal of Restorative Justice 21(2) and translated for our thematic issue. Mazzucato explains that there is something in restorative justice that resembles art. In her view restorative justice is made of the same fabric. Both deal with ‘creativity and rigour, imagination and insight, preparation and improvisation, vocation and inclination, talent and skill’. Both trigger innovation and have a political dimension when identifying problems and look for transformations or cultural change. The use of art in the restorative field is growing and visible in literature, paintings, theatre and films. Art can become a sort of mediator of restorative encounters or can give a concrete shape to stories that otherwise cannot be told. The author asks questions about liaisons between restorative justice, law and art. The leges artis of restorative justice are values and standards as drafted by the United Nations and Council of Europe. Do they nourish criminal justice in terms of beauty? To a certain extent yes. A challenging task of the art of restorative justice is in her view: ‘to approach the complexity of the quest for justice in the real world, combining hard and soft skills harmonically, and complying rigorously with the proper restorative leges artis, in order to amend in democratic ways what has proved wrong and harmful, and to prospectively avoid its reoccurrence’.


Claudia Mazzucato
Claudia Mazzucato is Associate Professor (universitair hoofddocent) Strafrecht aan de Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milaan, Italië. Contact auteur: claudia.mazzucato@unicatt.it.
Artikel

Het witwassen van criminele winsten

Over feiten, fabels en vragen die je eigenlijk (nog) niet zou moeten stellen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2021
Trefwoorden Roberto Saviano, Dutch tax regulations, organized crime, Brigitte Unger, money laundering size estimation
Auteurs Edwin Kruisbergen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article starts with a brief exploration of the juridical and criminological meaning of money laundering. Subsequently, the author discusses two contributions that gained momentum in the Dutch debate on money laundering. This concerns, firstly, the statements of Roberto Saviano, an Italian journalist who claims that the Dutch tax regulations facilitate organized crime. Secondly, the author discusses Unger’s application of the so-called Walker model to estimate the size of money laundering in the Netherlands (and worldwide). Finally, he argues that, due to the limited, current level of empirical knowledge on criminal money flows, a question such as ‘How much money is laundered in the Netherlands?’, is in fact not suited as a research question.


Edwin Kruisbergen
Dr. E.W. Kruisbergen is kenniscoördinator bij het directoraat-generaal Politie en Veiligheidsregio’s van het ministerie van Justitie en Veiligheid.
Artikel

Slachtofferschap en slachtoffer-daderschap in Nederlandse penitentiaire inrichtingen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2021
Trefwoorden victimization, Life in Custody Study, misconduct, routine activities, violence
Auteurs Sophie Martens, Esther van Ginneken en Hanneke Palmen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Dutch prisons are not exempt from incidents. Despite the negative impact of violence on the safety of inmates and the chances of successful reintegration, not much is known about the prevalence of victimization in Dutch prisons and the characteristics of victims. Additionally, previous research has pointed out the overlap between victim status and offender status. In this contribution, the authors will discuss the prevalence of self-reported victimization among Dutch inmates and the characteristics of victims and victim-offenders. Data from 3,485 participants from the Life in Custody Study are used for this purpose.


Sophie Martens
S.G.M.M. Martens BA was tijdens dit onderzoek aangesteld als onderzoeksassistent bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Esther van Ginneken
Dr. E.F.J.C. van Ginneken is universitair docent criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden en projectleider van de Life in Custody Study.

Hanneke Palmen
Dr. J.M.H. Palmen is universitair hoofddocent criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden en is projectleider van de Life in Custody Study.
Article

Access_open A Comparative Perspective on the Protection of Hate Crime Victims in the European Union

New Developments in Criminal Procedures in the EU Member States

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2021
Trefwoorden hate crime, victims, victim rights, procedural justice, EU Member States, criminal procedure
Auteurs Suzan van der Aa, Robin Hofmann en Jacques Claessen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Hate crime victims involved in a criminal procedure experience difficulties that are different from problems encountered by other victims. In trying to meet the specific procedural needs of hate crime victims many EU Member States have introduced protective measures and services in criminal proceedings, but the adopted approaches are widely disparate. By reporting the results of an EU-wide comparative survey into hate crime victims within national criminal procedures the authors aim to: (1) make an inventory of the national (legal) definitions of hate crime and the protection measures available (on paper) for hate crime victims; and (2) critically discuss certain national choices, inter alia by juxtaposing the procedural measures to the procedural needs of hate crime victims to see if there are any lacunae from a victimological perspective. The authors conclude that the Member States should consider expanding their current corpus of protection measures in order to address some of the victims’ most urgent needs.


Suzan van der Aa
Suzan van der Aa, PhD, is Professor of Criminal Law at Maastricht University, the Netherlands.

Robin Hofmann
Robin Hofmann is Assistant Professor at Maastricht University, the Netherlands.

Jacques Claessen
Jacques Claessen is Professor at Maastricht University, the Netherands.
Article

Access_open Litigation Funding in Ireland

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 4 2021
Trefwoorden litigation funding, direct third party funding, assignment of claims, maintenance and champerty, third party costs orders
Auteurs David Capper
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Costs are a severe barrier to access to justice in Ireland. Taxpayer support for litigation is virtually non-existent and contingency fees are not permitted. Lawyers may take cases on a speculative ‘no foal no fee’ basis but two decisions of the supreme court in recent years invalidated both direct third-party funding of another’s lawsuit (Persona Digital Telephony v. Minister for Public Enterprise [2017] IESC 27) and the assignment of a legal claim to a third-party (SPV Osus Ltd v. Minister for Public Enterprise [2018] IESC 44). This paper reviews these two decisions and challenges the supreme court’s reliance on the ancient common law principles of maintenance and champerty. This is significantly out of line with the approach of senior courts in other common law jurisdictions. The access to justice problem was acknowledged by the judges and the Irish Law Reform Commission is studying the issue. With the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union, Ireland has been presented with the opportunity to become a major common law ‘hub’ for legal services. Litigation funding would assist it to embrace this opportunity. The paper also takes a brief look at third-party costs orders in Ireland, used only in cases where altruistic funders provide funding for litigation. The paper’s basic message is that, subject to appropriate regulation, third-party litigation funding should become lawful in Ireland.


David Capper
David Capper, PhD, is a Reader at Queen's University Belfast, Ireland.
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