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Artikel

Access_open Experimental Regulations and Regulatory ­Sandboxes – Law Without Order?

Special Issue Experimental Legislation in Times of Crisis, Sofia Ranchordás & Bart van Klink (eds.)

Tijdschrift Law and Method, december 2021
Trefwoorden experimental regulations, regulatory sandboxes, methodology, regulatory quality
Auteurs Sofia Ranchordás
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article discusses the key methodological shortcomings of experimental regulations and regulatory sandboxes. I argue that the poor design and implementation of these experimental legal regimes have both methodological and legal implications. The deficient design of experimental regulations and regulatory sandboxes can have three adverse effects: First, the internal validity of experimental legal regimes is limited because it is unclear whether the verified results are the direct result of the experimental intervention or other circumstances. The limited external validity of experimental legal regimes impedes the generalizability of the experiment. Second, experimental legal regimes that are not scientifically sound make a limited contribution to the advancement of evidence-based lawmaking and the rationalization of regulation. Third, methodological deficiencies may result in the violation of legal principles which require that experimental regulations follow objective, transparent, and predictable standards. I contribute to existing comparative public law and law and methods literature with an interdisciplinary framework which can help improve the design of experimental regulations and regulatory sandboxes. I draw on social science literature on the methods of field experiments to offer novel methodological insights for a more transparent and objective design of experimental regulations and regulatory sandboxes.


Sofia Ranchordás
Sofia Ranchordás is Full Professor of EU and Comparative Public Law at the Faculty of Law of the University of Groningen, The Netherlands & Associate Professor of Public Law, Innovation, and Sustainability at the Faculty of Law, LUISS Guido Carli, Italy.
Artikel

Tussen partijautonomie en ­ongelijkheidscompensatie: hoe kantonrechters omgaan met niet-vertegenwoordigde partijen

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Self-representation, Party autonomy, Equality of arms, Judging, Civil procedure
Auteurs Jos Hoevenaars
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article focuses on the impact of the (increasing) possibility for parties in Dutch civil cases to litigate without the guidance of a legal aid provider on Dutch civil procedure. It analyses the extent to which such self-representation influences the role of the judge in the context of Dutch subdistrict court procedures, where representation is not mandatory. Through empirical data, collected through semi-structured interviews with 26 subdistrict judges, more insight is gained into the dilemmas that the lack of representation of parties presents to judges, and the ways in which they deal with these dilemmas. The interviews show how judges seek a balance between their role as neutral arbitrator in a dispute and a more active role necessitated by parties not being represented by a legal aid provider. In doing so, they navigate between process and content. Within this dynamic, judges must constantly balance the trade-off between acting more actively to gather sufficient information for a substantive handling and assessment of the case, on the one hand, and safeguarding the limits of party autonomy and their own (perceived) neutrality, on the other. Full party autonomy is viewed by judges as unrealistic and, moreover, contrary to truth-finding.


Jos Hoevenaars
Jos Hoevenaars is postdoctoraal onderzoeker aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Dit onderzoek maakt deel uit van het ERC consolidator project ‘Building EU Civil Justice: challenges of procedural innovations – bridging access to justice’ (Grant Agreement No.726032), www.euciviljustice.eu.
Article

Access_open Text-mining for Lawyers: How Machine Learning Techniques Can Advance our Understanding of Legal Discourse

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden text mining, machine learning, law, natural language processing
Auteurs Arthur Dyevre
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Many questions facing legal scholars and practitioners can be answered only by analysing and interrogating large collections of legal documents: statutes, treaties, judicial decisions and law review articles. I survey a range of novel techniques in machine learning and natural language processing – including topic modelling, word embeddings and transfer learning – that can be applied to the large-scale investigation of legal texts


Arthur Dyevre
Arthur Dyevre is Professor at the KU Leuven Centre for Empirical Jurisprudence, Leuven, Belgium. arthur.dyevre@kuleuven.be.
Article

Access_open Teaching Technology to (Future) Lawyers

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden legal education, law and technology, legal analytics, technology education, technological literacy
Auteurs Mikołaj Barczentewicz
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article offers a reflection on how applications of computer technology (including data analytics) are and may be taught to (future) lawyers and what are the benefits and limitations of the different approaches. There is a growing sense among legal professionals and law teachers that the technological changes in the practice of law are likely to promote the kind of knowledge and skills that law graduates often do not possess today. Teaching computer technology can be done in various ways and at various depths, and those different ways and levels have different cost and benefit considerations. The article discusses four models of teaching technology: (1) teaching basic technological literacy, (2) more advanced but general technology teaching, (3) teaching computer programming and quantitative methods and (4) teaching a particular aspect of technology – other than programming (e.g. cybersecurity). I suggest that there are strong reasons for all current and future lawyers to acquire proficiency in effective uses of office and legal research software and standard means of online communication and basic cybersecurity. This can be combined with teaching of numerical and informational literacy. I also claim that advanced technology topics, like computer programming, should be taught only to the extent that this is justified by the direct need for such skills and knowledge in students’ future careers, which I predict to be true for only a minority of current lawyers and law students.


Mikołaj Barczentewicz
Mikołaj Barczentewicz is the Research Director, Surrey Law and Technology Hub, as well as Senior Lecturer (Associate Professor) in Law, University of Surrey School of Law. He is also a Research Associate of the University of Oxford Centre for Technology and Global Affairs.
Article

Access_open Big Data Ethics: A Life Cycle Perspective

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden big data, big data analysis, data life cycle, ethics, AI
Auteurs Simon Vydra, Andrei Poama, Sarah Giest e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The adoption of big data analysis in the legal domain is a recent but growing trend that highlights ethical concerns not just with big data analysis, as such, but also with its deployment in the legal domain. This article systematically analyses five big data use cases from the legal domain utilising a pluralistic and pragmatic mode of ethical reasoning. In each case we analyse what happens with data from its creation to its eventual archival or deletion, for which we utilise the concept of ‘data life cycle’. Despite the exploratory nature of this article and some limitations of our approach, the systematic summary we deliver depicts the five cases in detail, reinforces the idea that ethically significant issues exist across the entire big data life cycle, and facilitates understanding of how various ethical considerations interact with one another throughout the big data life cycle. Furthermore, owing to its pragmatic and pluralist nature, the approach is potentially useful for practitioners aiming to interrogate big data use cases.


Simon Vydra
Simon Vydra is a Researcher at the Institute for Public Administration, Leiden University, the Netherlands.

Andrei Poama
Andrei Poama is Assistant Professor at the Institute for Public Administration, Leiden University, the Netherlands.

Sarah Giest
Sarah Giest is Assistant Professor at the Institute for Public Administration, Leiden University, the Netherlands.

Alex Ingrams
Alex Ingrams is Assistant Professor at the Institute for Public Administration, Leiden University, the Netherlands.

Bram Klievink
Bram Klievink is Professor of Digitization and Public Policy at the Institute for Public Administration, Leiden University, the Netherlands.
Artikel

Constructief omgaan met conflicten en ­geschillen

Inleiding in probleemoplossend onderhandelen en bemiddelen

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 2 2021
Auteurs Alain-Laurent Verbeke en Geert Vervaeke
Auteursinformatie

Alain-Laurent Verbeke
Prof. Dr. Alain-Laurent Verbeke (1964) is gewoon hoogleraar aan de KU Leuven. Hij doceert er sinds 1991 onder meer onderhandelen en bemiddelen, nationaal en internationaal familiaal vermogensrecht, bijzondere overeenkomsten, zowel in de bachelor en master rechten als in de master notariaat. Aan de rechtsfaculteit is hij directeur van het Rector Roger Dillemans Instituut Familiaal Vermogensrecht, codirecteur van het Leuvens Centrum Notariaat en van het Instituut Contractenrecht. Aan de faculteit psychologie is hij covoorzitter van het Leuven Center for Collaborative Management (LCM). Hij is mede-oprichter (in 2001), lesgever en lid van de stuurgroep van het postgraduaat bemiddeling van de KU Leuven. Ook is hij (co)promotor van talrijke doctoraten, in de rechten en in de psychologie. Hij is advocaat aan de balies van Brussel en West-Vlaanderen, partner Greenille Private Client Team @ Deloitte Legal. Hij is sinds 2007 Visiting Professor of Law aan Harvard Law School, waar hij negotiation doceert. Sinds 2008 is hij ook Professor of Law & Negotiation aan UCP Lisbon Global School of Law en sinds 1999 deeltijds gewoon hoogleraar privaatrecht en rechtsvergelijking aan Tilburg University. Hij ontving de Francqui Leerstoel (VUB, 2010-2011), de KBC Chair in Family Wealth (Antwerp Management School, 2014-2015) en de Van Oosterwyck Leerstoel notarieel recht (VUB, 2003). In Harvard is hij verbonden aan het Program on Negotiation (PON). Zie www.law.kuleuven.be/fvr/nl/pdf/cvALV.

Geert Vervaeke
Prof. Dr. Geert Vervaeke (1960) is Decaan van de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van Tilburg University. Hij is tevens deeltijds Gewoon Hoogleraar aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de KU Leuven in de criminologische en rechtspsychologie. Momenteel is hij voorzitter van de European Association on Psychology and Law (https://eapl.eu). Tevens is hij voorzitter van de stuurgroep van het postgraduaat bemiddeling aan de KU Leuven. Hij is gewezen Voorzitter van de Belgische Hoge Raad voor de Justitie (2004-2012: www.hrj.be/nl). Hij was tussen 2004 en 2012 tevens lid van het bestuur van het Europees Netwerk van Hoge Raden (www.encj.eu) en curator van het wetenschappelijk luik van het Stadsfestival Op.Recht.Mechelen (2015-2017: www.oprechtmechelen.be).
Artikel

Access_open GMO Regulation in Crisis – The Experimental Potential of Regulation (EU) 2020/1043 on Covid-19 in Addressing Both a Crisis and a ­Pandemic

Special Issue Experimental Legislation in Times of Crisis Sofia Ranchordás & Bart van Klink (eds.)

Tijdschrift Law and Method, september 2021
Trefwoorden experimental legislation, regulatory knowledge, GMO regulation, evaluation
Auteurs Lonneke Poort en Willem-Jan Kortleven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, we analyse Regulation (EU) 2020/1043 on Covid-19 against the backdrop of the current deadlock in EU-regulation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). We build on temporary and experimental legislation scholarship and employ a normative framework of regulatory knowledge. The Covid-19 Regulation aims at speeding up the development of GMO-based Covid-19 treatments or vaccines by temporarily suspending requirements that otherwise would have made for time-consuming and burdensome authorization processes. Although the Regulation lacks an explicit experimental purpose, we hypothesize that experiences with its functioning may be utilized in evaluation processes serving attempts to change the GMO legal framework. As such, it may fulfil a latent experimental function. We reflect on the types of knowledge that are relevant when evaluating experimental legislation and developing regulation more generally and argue that the inclusion of social knowledge is pertinent in dealing with complex issues such as GMO regulation. Experimental law literature focuses on gathering evidence-based knowledge about the functioning of legislation but virtually neglects knowledge about different experiences and value appreciations of various societal actors and social-contextual mechanisms. We propose that such social knowledge be included in the design of experimental legislation and that evaluation be approached bottom-up instead of top-down.


Lonneke Poort
Lonneke Poort is Associate Professor at the department of Sociology, Theory and Methodology of Law at Erasmus School of Law.

Willem-Jan Kortleven
Willem-Jan Kortleven is Assistant Professor at the department of Sociology, Theory and Methodology of Law at Erasmus School of Law, Rotterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Time and Law in the Post-COVID-19 Era: The Usefulness of Experimental Law

Special Issue Experimental Legislation in Times of Crisis, Sofia Ranchordas & Bart van Klink (eds.)

Tijdschrift Law and Method, september 2021
Trefwoorden COVID-19, time and law, law-making, parliament, government, legal certainty
Auteurs Erik Longo
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The COVID-19 pandemic swept the world in 2020 impelling us to reconsider the basic principles of constitutional law like the separation of power, the rule of law, human rights protection, etc. The two most pressing legal issues that have attracted the attention of legal scholars so far are, on the one hand, the different regulatory policies implemented by governments and, on the other, the balance among the branches of government in deciding matters of the emergency. The pandemic has determined a further and violent acceleration of the legislature’s temporal dimension and the acknowledgement that, to make legislation quicker, parliament must permanently displace its legislative power in favour of government. Measures adopted to tackle the outbreak and recover from the interruption of economic and industrial businesses powerfully confirm that today our societies are more dependent on the executives than on parliaments and, from a temporal perspective, that the language of the law is substantially the present instead of the future. Against this background, this article discusses how the prevalence of governments’ legislative power leads to the use of temporary and experimental legislation in a time, like the pandemic, when the issue of ‘surviving’ becomes dominant.


Erik Longo
Prof. Dr. Erik Longo is associate professor of Constitutional Law at the University of Florence.
Artikel

Access_open Enhanced Contact Rights for Grandparents? A Critical View from Spanish and Catalan Laws

Tijdschrift Family & Law, september 2021
Trefwoorden Contact with grandchildren, Best interest of the child, Parental responsibilities
Auteurs prof. dr. J. Ribot Igualada
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article examines how Spanish and Catalan laws deal with claims of grandparents who seek contact with their grandchildren against the will of one or both parents, and the scope given to their rights. It starts by explaining the content and the goals of the legal reforms enacted in Spain at the beginning of the 21st century to promote grandparents’ interests. Then, it presents the case law developed in the interpretation of the relevant legal rules. The resulting state of the law is assessed, taking into account the interests of all the parties involved (parents, grandparents, and grandchildren). The experience of more than twenty years of application of the specific provisions concerning grandparents’ contact rights sheds light on the impact of giving grandparents stronger legal rights. However, it also prompts the question of whether this legislative choice might have brought about useless and potentially harmful litigation.


prof. dr. J. Ribot Igualada
Jordi Ribot Igualada is Professor of Civil Law at the Institute of European and Comparative Law and Director of the Institute of European and Comparative Private Law (University of Girona).
Editorial

Access_open Computational Methods for Legal Analysis

The Way Forward?

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden computational legal analysis, empirical legal studies, natural language processing, machine learning
Auteurs Elena Kantorowicz-Reznichenko
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Computational analysis can be seen as the most recent innovation in the field of Empirical Legal Studies (ELS). It concerns the use of computer science and big data tools to collect, analyse and understand the large and unstructured data, such as for instance (legal) text. Given that the text is now the object of analysis, but the methods are (largely) quantitative, it lies in the intersection between doctrinal analysis and ELS. It brings with it not only a great potential to scale up research and answer old research questions, but also to reveal uncovered patterns and address new questions. Despite a slowly growing number of legal scholars who are already applying such methods, it is underutilised in the field of law. Furthermore, given that this method comes from social and computer sciences, many legal scholars are not even aware of its existence and potential. Therefore, the purpose of this special issue is not only to introduce these methods to lawyers and discuss possibilities of their application, but also to pay special attention to the challenges, with a specific emphasis on the ethical issues arising from using ‘big data’ and the challenge of building capacity to use such methods in law schools. This editorial briefly explains some of the methods which belong to the new movement of Computational Legal Analysis and provides examples of their application. It then introduces those articles included in this special issue. Finally, it provides a personal note on the way forward for lawyers within the movement of Computational Legal Analysis


Elena Kantorowicz-Reznichenko
Elena Kantorowicz-Reznichenko is Professor of Quantitative Empirical Legal Studies at the Rotterdam Institute of Law and Economics, Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus University, Rotterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Procedurele rechtvaardigheid in de strafrecht­keten

Hoe ervaren gedetineerden de bejegening door strafrecht­actoren?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering Online First 2021
Trefwoorden procedural justice, treatment, multiple criminal justice authorities, criminal justice system
Auteurs Matthias van Hall, Anja Dirkzwager, Peter van der Laan e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    It has been proposed that when people perceive their treatment by criminal justice actors as more procedurally just, they will be more likely to comply with the law. Existing research mainly focused on the police or the judge. This longitudinal study examined how prisoners experienced their treatment by five different criminal justice actors using data from the Prison Project. The prisoners were most positive about the procedurally fair treatment by their lawyer and least positive about the treatment by the police. Additionally, the perceived treatment by the police was associated with the treatment by other actors at subsequent moments.


Matthias van Hall
M. van Hall MSc is promovendus bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Anja Dirkzwager
Dr. A.J.E. Dirkzwager is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Peter van der Laan
Prof. P.H. van der Laan is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) en bijzonder hoogleraar reclassering aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Paul Nieuwbeerta
Prof. P. Nieuwbeerta is hoogleraar Criminologie aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Access_open We need to talk to Martha

Or: The desirability of introducing simple adoption as an option for long-term foster children in The Netherlands

Tijdschrift Family & Law, juni 2021
Trefwoorden Adoption, foster care, guardianship, parental responsibility, supervision orders for minors
Auteurs mr. dr. M.J. Vonk en dr. G.C.A.M. Ruitenberg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article you will be introduced to Martha. Martha will turn eighteen in a couple of weeks and is afraid of losing her foster family when she becomes an adult (I). You will be taken on a journey through the Dutch child protection system and recent research on the desirability of forging an additional legal instrument, such as the introduction of simple adoption, for children like Martha and her two families. The following questions will be answered: How do children like Martha end up in a foster family (II)? Who is responsible or who makes decisions about Martha’s care and future and what problems may occur? Five possible situations in long-term foster care will be discussed in this context on the basis of current law and research (III). Would simple adoption (eenvoudige adoptie) solve some of the problems discussed in the earlier section and thus be a feasible and desirable option for long-term foster children and their foster parents (IV)? At the end of this journey you will be invited to take a brief glance into the future in the hope that Martha’s voice will be heard (V).
    ---
    In dit artikel stellen we u voor aan Martha. Martha wordt over een paar weken achttien en is bang haar pleeggezin kwijt te raken als ze meerderjarig wordt. Aan de hand van het verhaal van Martha nemen we u mee op een reis langs het Nederlandse jeugdbeschermingsstelstel en langs recent onderzoek naar de wenselijkheid van de introductie van een nieuwe juridische mogelijkheid waarmee een band tussen Martha en haar beide families kan worden gevestigd: eenvoudige adoptie. De volgende vragen worden daarbij beantwoord: Hoe komen kinderen zoals Martha in een pleeggezin terecht? Wie is verantwoordelijk voor of mag beslissingen nemen over Martha’s opvoeding en toekomst en wat voor problemen kunnen zich daarbij voordoen? Zou eenvoudige adoptie een oplossing bieden voor een aantal van de problemen die worden besproken en daarmee een wenselijke oplossing zijn voor langdurige pleegkinderen en hun pleeggezinnen? Aan het einde van deze reis werpen we een korte blik op de toekomst in de hoop dat de stem van Martha gehoord zal worden.


mr. dr. M.J. Vonk
Machteld Vonk is associate professor at the Amsterdam Center for Family Law of the Private Law Department at VU University Amsterdam.

dr. G.C.A.M. Ruitenberg
Geeske Ruitenberg is assistant professor at the Amsterdam Center for Family Law of the Private Law Department at the VU University Amsterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Teaching Legal Ethics by Non-Ethical Means – With Special Attention to Facts, Roles and Respect Everywhere in the Legal Curriculum

Special Issue on Education in (Professional) Legal Ethics, ­Emanuel van Dongen & Jet Tigchelaar (eds.)

Tijdschrift Law and Method, juni 2021
Trefwoorden legal ethics, informal respect, educational integration, importance of setting examples
Auteurs Hendrik Kaptein
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Legal ethics may be taught indirectly, given resistance to ethics as a separate and presumably merely subjective subject. This may be done by stressing the importance of facts (as the vast majority of legal issues relate to contested facts), of professional role consciousness and of the importance of formal and informal respect for all concerned. This indirect approach is best integrated into the whole of the legal curriculum, in moot practices and legal clinics offering perceptions of the administration of legal justice from receiving ends as well. Basic knowledge of forensic sciences, argumentation and rhetoric may do good here as well. Teachers of law are to set an example in their professional (and general) conduct.


Hendrik Kaptein
Hendrik Kaptein is associate professor of jurisprudence em., Leiden University.
Impressies

Controlled auction in het Nederlandse rechtsbestel

De verhouding tussen de contractsvrijheid en de precontractuele fase

Tijdschrift Contracteren, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden controlled auction, contractsvrijheid, precontractuele fase
Auteurs W. Hoogeveen en Prof. mr. H. Koster
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In deze bijdrage wordt ingegaan op de controlled auction en de positie die de controlled auction heeft in het Nederlandse recht. Daarbij wordt de nadruk gelegd op de verhouding tussen de contractsvrijheid en de precontractuele fase. De auteurs stellen dat door middel van de procedurebrief en het multilaterale karakter van de controlled auction het gerechtvaardigd vertrouwen niet snel aan de orde zal zijn. De precontractuele redelijkheid en billijkheid gaan bovendien pas een prominente rol spelen bij de (uiteindelijke) bilaterale onderhandelingen. De koper in een controlled auction is niet onbeschermd. Uit de jurisprudentie volgt dat heldere communicatie over de procedure essentieel is voor de mogelijkheid om af te wijken van de op voorhand gestelde procedure. Vanuit een economisch perspectief blijkt in de praktijk het optimale aantal bieders bij de verkoop van een onderneming sterk casuïstisch te worden bepaald, wil de veiling maximaal waardegenererend zijn. Derhalve zijn de auteurs van mening dat gelijke informatieverschaffing en gestandaardiseerde regelgeving de effectiviteit van de controlled auction niet zullen bevorderen. De controlled auction krijgt daarmee in het huidige rechtsbestel een juiste behandeling.


W. Hoogeveen
W. Hoogeveen is student Ondernemingsrecht en Behavioural Economics aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Prof. mr. H. Koster
H. Koster is verbonden aan de Universiteit Leiden en aan de Universiteit van Dubai.
Artikel

De Scheldestad of Manhattan aan de Maas? Een vergelijkende analyse van de Antwerpse en Rotterdamse havens bij de in- en doorvoer van cocaïne

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden cocaine trafficking, Transnational organized crime, Corruption, public-private partnership, routine activity approach
Auteurs Richard Staring, Lieselot Bisschop, Charlotte Colman e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The ports of Rotterdam and Antwerp are among the main European ports of entry for the import and further distribution of cocaine. Earlier research underlines the interchangeability of these ports regarding the criminal networks trafficking cocaine into Europe. In this contribution, the interchange­ability of these European sea ports regarding cocaine trafficking is questioned. Based on empirical research, and applying the routine activity approach, the Port of Rotterdam and the Port of Antwerp are compared with respect to their physical characteristics, the potential, motivated offenders, as well as the existing public and private security measures.


Richard Staring
Prof. dr. R.H.J.M. Staring is hoogleraar Empirische Criminologie bij de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Lieselot Bisschop
Prof. dr. L.C.J. Bisschop is Professor of Public and Private Interests bij Department of Criminology & Erasmus Initiative on Dynamics of Inclusive Prosperity van de Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Charlotte Colman
Prof. dr. C. Colman is docent Criminologie bij de Faculteit Recht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Gent. Zij is tevens postdoctoraal onderzoeker bij het Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek.

Jelle Janssens
Prof. dr. J. Janssens is hoofddocent bij het Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy van de Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht, Sociaal Recht, Faculteit Recht en Criminologie, van de Universiteit Gent.

Robby Roks
Dr. R.A. Roks is universitair docent Criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

‘Laat je niet misleiden door afwijkende prijzen’

Een exploratieve studie naar de ambiguïteit van betrouwbaarheid van cocaïnedealers op Telegram Messenger

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden drug dealing, trust, signaling theory, social media, netnography
Auteurs Robby Roks en Joëlle Hendriksen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In order to advance our understanding of digital drug markets on social media, this article examines the trustworthiness of cocaine dealers on Telegram Messenger. Based on an exploratory netnography, we illustrate that digital dealers on Telegram Messenger use a number of sales tactics to attract potential customers, emphasizing the quality of the goods and service and (competitive) pricing strategies. These sales tactics include various signals that seem intended to appear as trustworthy as possible to potential customers. Seen from the perspective of signaling theory, our study highlights the ambiguity of these signals that, depending on the online observer, could both signal trustworthiness and untrustworthiness.


Robby Roks
Dr. R.A. Roks is universitair docent Criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Joëlle Hendriksen
J.M.C. Hendriksen MSc is projectassistent bij RIEC Midden-Nederland districtelijk team Ondermijning Flevoland. Haar scriptie ‘“Dankjewel gozer, nooit meer een andere dealer”: een netnografische studie naar risico en vertrouwen in het online vraag en aanbod van verdovende middelen via Telegram Messenger’ (2020), geschreven als masterscriptie Criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, vormde de basis van het onderhavige artikel.
Artikel

Access_open Thought Experiments in Law

Special Issue on Experimental Legislation in Times of Crisis, Sofia Ranchordas & Bart van Klink (eds.)

Tijdschrift Law and Method, mei 2021
Trefwoorden legal empirical studies, legal methodology, philosophy of law, thought experiments
Auteurs Gabriel Doménech-Pascual
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Thought experiments have been widely used in virtually all sciences and humanities. Law is no exception. We can find countless instances of such experiments in both the legal practice and the legal theory. However, this method has hardly been studied by legal scholars, which contrasts with the vast literature devoted to it in other fields of knowledge. This article analyses the role that some thought experiments – those where an imaginary legal change is made, and its social effects are observed – may play in law. In particular, we show why these empirical legal thought experiments might be useful for the practice and theory of law, the main principles for conducting them and how the law deals with them.


Gabriel Doménech-Pascual
Dr. Gabriel Doménech-Pascual, PhD is full professor of Administrative Law at the University of Valencia, Spain. I thank Bart van Klink, Sofia Ranchordas, Alba Soriano, María José Añón, Pablo de Lora, Diego Papayannis, Arturo Muñoz, Violeta Ruiz, Pedro Herrera, Viviana Ponce de León, Maximiliano Marzetti, and two anonymous referees for their useful and thoughtful comments. All remaining errors are mine.
Werk in uitvoering

Living on the Other Side: A socio-legal analysis of family law and migration in Morocco

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden family law, migration, Morocco, socio-legal studies
Auteurs Nada Heddane MA (Master in North African and Middle Eastern Studies) en Judith van Uden MSc (Master in International Development Studies)
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In our research project ‘Living on the Other Side’, we aim to understand how (ir)regular migrants from the Middle East and West/Central Africa deal with the legal and formal aspect of their lives in Morocco by focusing on major life events, such as marriage, divorce, birth and death. Life does not simply stand still when residing in a foreign country – people continue to marry, divorce, have children and die. However, there is little empirical knowledge on what migrants actually do when faced with such events. Registering major life events secures a migrant’s legal identity and protects their human rights. Having a legal identity, most likely, influences the daily lives of migrants. A migrant, who does not formally exist in the eyes of the state, might not be able to access basic services, like health care and education. From a legal pluralist perspective, we aim to investigate how migration and family law intersect by conducting online and offline ethnographic fieldwork.


Nada Heddane MA (Master in North African and Middle Eastern Studies)
Nada Heddane is promovenda bij het Van Vollenhoven Instituut voor Recht, Bestuur en Samenleving (VVI) van de Rechtenfaculteit van de Universiteit Leiden. Nada’s onderzoek verkent de relevantie van het familierecht voor West-/Centraal-Afrikaanse migranten bij belangrijke levensgebeurtenissen. Zij geeft een sociaaljuridische analyse van de strategieën van migranten op basis van online en offline veldwerk in Marokko.

Judith van Uden MSc (Master in International Development Studies)
Nada Heddane is Promovenda bij het Van Vollenhoven Instituut voor Recht, Bestuur en Samenleving (VVI) van de Rechtenfaculteit van de Universiteit Leiden. In haar onderzoek bevraagt Judith wat de rol is van het familierecht in de levens van Midden-Oosterse migranten in Marokko. Deze kwalitatieve studie bekijkt de ervaringen van migranten door een juridisch-antropologische lens.
Discussie

Empirical Legal Studies in het juridisch onderwijs: waar staat Nederland en hoe nu verder?

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden ELS, empirical legal studies, education, teaching, law school
Auteurs dr. Ekaterina Pannebakker LL.M., Dr. Helen Pluut, Mr. dr. Stijn Voskamp e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    De groeiende aandacht voor Empirical Legal Studies (ELS) in Nederland roept vragen op over het onderwijs in empirisch-juridische vaardigheden in ons land. Er gebeurt al het nodige op dit vlak, maar een nauwkeurige inventarisatie van welke ELS-vakken reeds concreet worden aangeboden in Nederland ontbreekt. Een dergelijk overzicht zou het mogelijk maken dat opleidingen van elkaar leren en kennis en kunde uitwisselen in plaats van het wiel opnieuw uit te vinden. Daarom hebben wij een uitgebreide rondgang gemaakt langs de diverse opleidingen aan rechtenfaculteiten, om in kaart te brengen welke vakken met aandacht voor empirische methoden reeds in het reguliere rechtencurriculum worden aangeboden. In dit artikel rapporteren wij de resultaten van deze landelijke inventarisatie en werpen een blik op de toekomst in het licht van recente discussies en ontwikkelingen die verband houden met ELS in Nederland.


dr. Ekaterina Pannebakker LL.M.
Ekaterina Pannebakker is als universitair docent verbonden aan het Instituut voor Privaatrecht aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden. Haar onderzoek en onderwijs richten zich op privaatrechtelijke rechtsvergelijking en harmonisatie, recht en taal, en internationaal contracteren.

Dr. Helen Pluut
Helen Pluut is als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan de afdeling Bedrijfswetenschappen van de Universiteit Leiden.

Mr. dr. Stijn Voskamp
Stijn Voskamp is als universitair docent verbonden aan het Instituut voor Privaatrecht aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden. Haar onderzoek en onderwijs richten zich onder andere op het contractenrecht en aansprakelijkheidsrecht met bijzondere aandacht voor onderwijsrecht.

Mr. dr. Wouter de Zanger
Wouter de Zanger is als universitair docent Strafrecht verbonden geweest aan de Universiteit Utrecht waar hij onder andere onderzoek verrichtte op het gebied van financieel-economisch strafrecht. Tegenwoordig is hij werkzaam als advocaat bij FvKG Advocaten te Amsterdam.
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