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    This article engages in a comparison of the regulation of PR in the Netherlands and the UK (specifically England and Wales). The latter is a good comparator as it operates a similar regulatory approach to the Netherlands, that of conditional acceptance of PR, the condition being (prior) consent. Furthermore, the UK boasts a more detailed and mature legal framework that continues to be tested through caselaw, and thus offers insight into how a regulatory approach conditional upon the (prior) consent of the deceased can fare.
    I begin with a brief exposition of the new Dutch guidelines and the current legislative position in the Netherlands vis-à-vis posthumous reproduction (part II). Likewise, I summarize the relevant UK guidelines and legislative position (part III). I draw out the similarities and differences between the two regimes, as well as engaging in a critical analysis of the regulations themselves. I then look at how the UK regime has been challenged in recent years through caselaw in anticipation of the issues that might confront the Netherlands in future (part IV). I conclude (part V) that the key lesson to be drawn from the UK experience is that clarity and consistency is crucial in navigating this ethically, emotionally, and time sensitive area. Further, that both the UK and the Netherlands can expect demand for more detailed and precise regulatory guidance as requests for the procedure increase, and within evermore novel circumstances


Dr. N. Hyder-Rahman
Nishat Hyder-Rahman is a Post-doctoral Researcher at the Utrecht Centre for European Research into Family Law, Molengraaff Institute for Private Law, Utrecht University.
Digitale markten

De Richtlijn elektronische handel en de platformeconomie

Noot bij HvJ 19 december 2019, zaak C-390/18, ECLI:EU:C:2019:1112 (Airbnb Ireland)

Tijdschrift Nederlands tijdschrift voor Europees recht, Aflevering 1-2 2020
Trefwoorden online platformen, vrij verkeer van diensten, aansprakelijkheid, Digital Single Market
Auteurs Prof. dr. V. Mak
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    De uitspraak van het Hof van Justitie in de zaak Airbnb Ireland geeft aanleiding tot een herbezinning op de Richtlijn elektronische handel. Deze richtlijn uit 2000 lijkt onvoldoende toegerust om het hoofd te bieden aan de complexe problemen die ontstaan door de groeiende aanwezigheid van grote online platformen op Europese consumentenmarkten. Deze noot bespreekt de kwalificatie van platformdiensten als ‘dienst van de informatiemaatschappij’ en de daaraan gekoppelde regels voor aansprakelijkheid en mogelijke beperkingen van het vrij verkeer van diensten door nationale regelgeving.
    HvJ EU zaak C-390/18, Airbnb Ireland, ECLI:EU:C:2019:1112


Prof. dr. V. Mak
Prof. dr. V. (Vanessa) Mak M.Jur is hoogleraar privaatrecht aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Gezamenlijke reflectie op de werkalliantie in het reclasseringstoezicht

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden Werkalliantie, Cliëntfeedback, Reclassering, gezamenlijke reflectie
Auteurs Widya de Bakker MSc, Dr. Andrea Donker, Barbara Keuning e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Joint reflection of practitioners and clients appears beneficiary for the effectiveness of their working alliance in, for instance, psychotherapy. This study aims to find out whether a similar beneficiary effect is experienced by practitioners and clients in probation supervision, a mandated setting. Over thirty dyads of Dutch probation officers and probationers participated into structured joint reflection, using the working alliance monitor, specifically designed for this purpose. The majority of probation officers reported the reflection as useful. Probationers reported a more mixed experience. Probationers with an intellectual disability more often needed help to understand the working alliance monitor.


Widya de Bakker MSc
Widya de Bakker MSc is docent-onderzoeker.

Dr. Andrea Donker
Dr. Andrea Donker is lector bij het lectoraat Kennisanalyse Sociale Veiligheid aan het Kenniscentrum Sociale Innovatie, Hogeschool Utrecht.

Barbara Keuning
Barbara Keuning is policy advisor bij Reclassering Nederland en tevens gastdocent bij de Hogeschool Utrecht.

Drs. Anneke Menger
Drs. Anneke Menger is lector bij het lectoraat Werken in Justitieel Kader van de Hogeschool Utrecht.
Artikel

Europese Hof? Ervaring gewenst!

Tijdschrift Advocatenblad, Aflevering 2 2020
Auteurs Petra Jonkers

Petra Jonkers
Artikel

Access_open Legal Philosophy as an Enrichment of Doctrinal Research Part I: Introducing Three Philosophical Methods

Tijdschrift Law and Method, januari 2020
Trefwoorden interdisciplinary research, reflective equilibrium, argumentation, philosophical analysis
Auteurs Sanne Taekema en Wibren van der Burg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, we discuss a particular form of interdisciplinary legal research. We focus on a discipline that may be fruitfully combined with doctrinal research, namely philosophy. The aim of this article is to give an account of the methods of philosophy that are most relevant and useful for doctrinal legal scholars. Our focus is therefore mostly on legal philosophy and the philosophical subdisciplines closely related to it, such as political philosophy and ethics. We characterize legal philosophy in three complementary ways: as an activity, as insights, and as theories. We then discuss three methods of legal philosophy: argumentation analysis and construction, author analysis and reflective equilibrium. In the practice of research these three methods are usually combined, as we will show with various examples.


Sanne Taekema
Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Wibren van der Burg
Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Legal and Political Concepts as Contextures

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering Pre-publications 2020
Trefwoorden Concepts, Contextualism, Essentially Contested Concepts, Legal Theory, Freedom
Auteurs Dora Kostakopoulou
Samenvatting

    Socio-political concepts are not singularities. They are, instead, complex and evolving contextures. An awareness of the latter and of what we need to do when we handle concepts opens up space for the resolution of political disagreements and multiplies opportunities for constructive dialogue and understanding. In this article, I argue that the concepts-as-contextures perspective can unravel conceptual connectivity and interweaving, and I substantiate this by examining the ‘contexture’ of liberty. I show that the different, and seemingly contested, definitions of liberty are the product of mixed articulations and the development of associative discursive links within a contexture.


Dora Kostakopoulou

Kees Pijnappels
Article

Access_open On the Eve of Web-Harvesting and Web-Archiving for Libraries in Greece

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden web harvesting, data analysis, text & data mining, TDM: Proposal EU Copyright Directive
Auteurs Maria Bottis, Marinos Papadopoulos, Christos Zampakolas e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This conference paper submitted on the occasion of the 8th International Conference on Information Law and Ethics (University of Antwerp, December 13-14, 2018) that focused on modern intellectual property governance and openness in Europe elaborates upon the Text and Data Mining (TDM) issue in the field of scientific research, which is still-by the time of composition of this paper-in the process of discussion and forthcoming voting before the European Parliament in the form of provision(s) included in a new Directive on Copyright in the Digital Single Market. TDM is included in the proposal for a Directive of the European parliament and of the Council on copyright in the Digital Single Market-Proposal COM(2016)593 final 2016/0280(COD) that was submitted to the European Parliament.


Maria Bottis
Associate Professor, Department of Archives, Library Science and Museology, Ionian University, Corfu, Greece.

Marinos Papadopoulos
Attorney-at-Law, Independent Researcher, PhD, MSc, JD, Athens, Greece.

Christos Zampakolas
Archivist/Librarian, Independent Researcher, PhD, MA, BA, Ioannina, Greece.

Paraskevi Ganatsiou
Educator, MA, BA, Prefecture of Ionian Islands, Corfu, Greece.
Article

Access_open The Potential of Public Policy on Open Access Repositories

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden public policy, dissemination, governance, open access, repositories
Auteurs Nikos Koutras
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    To address the potential of public policy on the governance of OARs it is necessary to define what is meant by public policy and the importance of public policy in designing an efficient governance framework. Critical components are the subject matter of public policy and its objectives. Hence, it is useful to consider declarations, policies and statements in relation to open access practice and examine the efficiency of these arrangements towards the improvement of stakeholders’ engagement in governance of OARs. Secondly, policies relating to dissemination of scientific information via OARs should be examined. In this regard, it is relevant to consider the public policy basis for Intellectual Property (IP) laws that concerning the utility of OARs. Therefore, economic theories relevant with the role of IP laws should be examined. Such examination depicts to what extend these laws facilitate the utility of OARs. In order to specify justifications for the desirability of OARs the objectives of social theories should be also considered. Thus, there is consternation that without legal protection against copying the incentive to create intellectual property will be undermined. As scholarly communication infrastructure evolves, it is necessary to recognize the efforts of the relationship between Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) and communication technologies in the context of public policy and after engagement with it. After employing such multilevel approach, the paper argues about a socio-economic framework to enhance the governance of OARs through public policy.


Nikos Koutras
Postdoctoral Researcher, Faculty of Law, University of Antwerp.
Article

Access_open Changes in the Medical Device’s Regulatory Framework and Its Impact on the Medical Device’s Industry: From the Medical Device Directives to the Medical Device Regulations

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden Medical Device Directive, Medical Device Regulation, regulatory, European Union, reform, innovation, SPCs, policy
Auteurs Magali Contardi
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Similar to pharmaceutical products, medical devices play an increasingly important role in healthcare worldwide by contributing substantially to the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases. From the patent law perspective both, pharmaceutical products and a medical apparatus, product or device can be patented if they meet the patentability requirements, which are novelty, inventiveness and entail industrial applicability. However, regulatory issues also impact on the whole cycle of the innovation. At a European level, enhancing competitiveness while ensuring public health and safety is one of the key objectives of the European Commission. This article undertakes literature review of the current and incoming regulatory framework governing medical devices with the aim of highlighting how these major changes would affect the industry at issue. The analysis is made in the framework of an on-going research work aimed to determine whether SPCs are needed for promoting innovation in the medical devices industry. A thorough analysis the aforementioned factors affecting medical device’s industry will allow the policymakers to understand the root cause of any optimal patent term and find appropriate solutions.


Magali Contardi
PhD candidate; Avvocato (Italian Attorney at Law).
Article

Access_open Access and Reuse of Machine-Generated Data for Scientific Research

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden machine-generated data, Internet of Things, scientific research, personal data, GDPR
Auteurs Alexandra Giannopoulou
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Data driven innovation holds the potential in transforming current business and knowledge discovery models. For this reason, data sharing has become one of the central points of interest for the European Commission towards the creation of a Digital Single Market. The value of automatically generated data, which are collected by Internet-connected objects (IoT), is increasing: from smart houses to wearables, machine-generated data hold significant potential for growth, learning, and problem solving. Facilitating researchers in order to provide access to these types of data implies not only the articulation of existing legal obstacles and of proposed legal solutions but also the understanding of the incentives that motivate the sharing of the data in question. What are the legal tools that researchers can use to gain access and reuse rights in the context of their research?


Alexandra Giannopoulou
Institute for Information Law (IViR) – University of Amsterdam.
Article

Access_open Text and Data Mining in the EU ‘Acquis Communautaire’ Tinkering with TDM & Digital Legal Deposit

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden Web harvesting, data analysis, text & data mining, TDM, computational text
Auteurs Maria Bottis, Marinos Papadopoulos, Christos Zampakolas e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Text and Data Mining (hereinafter, TDM) issue for the purpose of scientific research or for any other purpose which is included in the provisions of the new EU Directive on Copyright in the Digital Single Market (hereinafter, DSM). TDM is a term that includes Web harvesting and Web Archiving activities. Web harvesting and archiving pertains to the processes of collecting from the web and archiving of works that reside on the Web. In the following analysis we will elaborate briefly upon provisions in EU Copyright law which were discussed during the proposal for a new Directive on Copyright in the DSM as well as provisions which are included in the text of art.3 and art.4 of the new Directive 2019/790/EU per TDM. In addition, the following analysis presents legislation in very few EU Member States which pertains to TDM and preceded the rulings of Directive 2019/790/EU. Digital legal deposit remarkable examples from EU Member States are also presented in this paper. The example of Australia is also presented below hereto because it is one of the oldest and most successful worldwide. The National Library of Australia’s digital legal deposit is state-of-the-art.


Maria Bottis
Associate Professor, Department of Archives, Library Science and Museology, Ionian University, Corfu, Greece.

Marinos Papadopoulos
Attorney-at-Law, PhD, MSc, JD, Independent Researcher, Athens, Greece.

Christos Zampakolas
Archivist/Librarian, PhD, MA, BA, Independent Researcher, Ioannina, Greece.

Paraskevi Ganatsiou
Educator, MA, BA, Coordinator of Educational Projects in the Prefecture of Ionian Islands, Corfu, Greece.

    This article relies on the premise that to understand the significance of Open Access Repositories (OARs) it is necessary to know the context of the debate. Therefore, it is necessary to trace the historical development of the concept of copyright as a property right. The continued relevance of the rationales for copyright interests, both philosophical and pragmatic, will be assessed against the contemporary times of digital publishing. It follows then discussion about the rise of Open Access (OA) practice and its impact on conventional publishing methods. The present article argues about the proper equilibrium between self-interest and social good. In other words, there is a need to find a tool in order to balance individuals’ interests and common will. Therefore, there is examination of the concept of property that interrelates justice (Plato), private ownership (Aristotle), labour (Locke), growth of personality (Hegel) and a bundle of rights that constitute legal relations (Hohfeld). This examination sets the context for the argument.


Nikos Koutras
Postdoctoral Researcher, Faculty of Law, University of Antwerp.
Artikel

Triangulaire arbeidsrelaties in de platformeconomie: een voorstel tot een vermoeden van uitzendbureau

Tijdschrift Arbeidsrechtelijke Annotaties, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden Platformen, Platformwerk, Arbeidsbemiddeling, Uitzendarbeid, Terbeschikkingstelling
Auteurs Prof. dr. V. De Stefano en Mr. M. Wouters
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    De opkomst van de platformeconomie, met als prominente voorbeelden Uber en Deliveroo, deed de discussies omtrent de aard van de arbeidsrelatie heropleven. Zijn deze platformwerkers in werkelijkheid werknemers, en is het arbeidsrecht aan hervorming toe indien ze het wel of niet zijn? Deze bijdrage heeft eveneens tot doel om de werkingssfeer van het arbeidsrecht ter discussie te stellen door de regelgeving omtrent private arbeidsbemiddeling en uitzendarbeid toe te passen op platformen. Dienaangaande bepleit deze bijdrage om ten eerste de regelgeving omtrent private arbeidsbemiddeling aan te wenden om ook de bemiddeling van dienstverleningsovereenkomsten tussen werkzoekenden en opdrachtgevers te omkaderen. Ten tweede wijst de bijdrage op de mogelijke totstandkoming van ‘verdoken’ uitzendarbeid door middel van digitale platformen. Om dit te voorkomen stellen de auteurs een ‘vermoeden van uitzendbureau’ voor.


Prof. dr. V. De Stefano
Prof. dr. V. De Stefano is BOF-ZAP onderzoekprofessor aan de KU Leuven.

Mr. M. Wouters
Mr. M. Wouters is doctoraatsonderzoeker aan de KU Leuven.
Hongarije

The Legal Status of the Surviving Spouse and the Compulsory Share in the Hungarian Succession Law

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift Erfrecht, Aflevering 6 2019
Trefwoorden Hungarian Succession Law, surviving spouse, usufruct rights, disinheritance, compulsory share
Auteurs Prof. Dr. Orsolya Szeibert
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Hungarian succession law is regulated by the Hungarian Civil Code (HCC), Act No V of 2013 which contains certain new rules in comparison to the former Hungarian Civil Code, Act IV of 1959. The article gives a short overview on the law of intestacy succession in Hungary and a broad introduction into two important fields of Hungarian succession law. The legal status of the surviving spouse is analysed in details while explaining the content of the widow’s usufruct rights, the surviving spouse’s succession with the decedent’s descendants and with the parents of the decedent. The spouse’s debarment is discussed such as the spouse’s usufruct right in the legal order of lineal succession and the legal position of partners outside marriage. The compulsory share’s meaning, its traditional character, the disinheritance, and the basis and extent of compulsory share are also discussed.


Prof. Dr. Orsolya Szeibert
Professor Dr. Orsolya Szeibert Full Professor of Civil Law Department of Civil Law , Faculty of Law , Eötvös Lorand University.

    In this article, the author discusses mediation law and practice in Australia, with a focus on commercial disputes. Statistical data collected in several Australian jurisdictions suggest that mandatory referral works out positively. The author concludes with some observations as to the potential usefulness of the Australian model for court-referred mediation in Europe.


Justus Hoefnagel
Justus Hoefnagel is advocaat bij Linklaters LLP in Amsterdam en werkte van eind 2017 tot eind 2019 in Australië bij Allens, een advocatenkantoor in Perth, West-Australië, in het kader van een tweejarig secondment. Hij werkte daar mee aan de behandeling van procedures ter zake commerciële geschillen bij Australische rechtbanken.
Artikel

Access_open Het aanpassingsdilemma online: een verkennend onderzoek naar extreemrechts op social media

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden far-right, online extremism, ideology, resistance, social media
Auteurs Dr. Robby Roks en Jolijn van der Schoot MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article focuses on the ways the NVU, Pegida and Voorpost - three far-right groups from the Netherlands - make use of social media platforms in the year 2017. Our results show that these extreme right-wing groups use social media to spread their ideology, to construct a group identity, and to call for (democratic) forms of resistances. In addition, our findings illustrate that these far-right groups seem to adjust to their digital surroundings: they do not change or conceal their extremist ideas, but rather manage their online content to ensure that their ideologies can be disseminated through social media.


Dr. Robby Roks
Dr. R.A. Roks is universitair docent Criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Jolijn van der Schoot MSc
J.M.W.A. van der Schoot MSc is Sociotherapeut bij de Forensische Zorgspecialisten. Haar scriptie ‘Extreemrechts Online’ (2018), geschreven als masterscriptie Criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit vormde de basis van het onderhavige artikel.
Artikel

The concept of violence in (times of) crisis

On structural, institutional and anti-institutional violence

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden structural violence, institutional violence, anti-institutional violence, economic crisis, Greece
Auteurs Marilena Drymioti
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Attempting to understand the Greek narrative of crisis, this paper examines the most prominent forms of violence that emerged in the period of acute economic recession and political upheaval in Greece namely structural, institutional and anti-institutional violence. This paper aims to highlight existing theoretical gaps and avoid common fallacies of the current body of knowledge. In contrast to some of the more common features of the discussion on violence, this note sets out to: a) acknowledge that violence is not necessarily a physical act, b) acknowledge that the outcomes of violence performances might not be physical either, c) specify and adequately distinguish agency and structural dynamics and d) address the cultural and contextual aspects of violence. Vital to this endeavor is to acknowledge, identify and understand the interactive relation between different forms of violence that emerge during the same period of time in a context in which conflict escalates.


Marilena Drymioti
Marilena Drymioti is promovendus aan de Sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Top-down and out?

Reassessing the labelling approach in the light of corporate deviance

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden labelling, corporate crime, moral entrepreneurs, peer group, late modernity
Auteurs Anna Merz M.A.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Multi-national corporations are increasingly facing attention and disapproval by different actors, including authorities, public and (non-) commercial organizations. Digital globalization and especially social media as a low-cost, highly interactive and multidirectional platform shape a unique context for this rising attention. In the literature, much attention has been devoted to top-down approaches and strategies that corporations use to avoid stigmatization and sanctioning of their behaviour. Reactions to corporate harm are, however, seldom researched from a labelling perspective. As a result, corporations are not considered as objects towards whom labelling is targeted but rather as actors who hamper such processes and who, as moral entrepreneurs, influence which behaviour is labelled deviant. Based on theoretical analysis of literature and case studies, this article will discuss how the process of labelling has changed in light of the digitalized, late-modern society and consequently, how the process should be revisited to be applicable for corporate deviance. Given a diversification of moral entrepreneurs and increasingly dependency of labelling and meaning-making on the online sphere, two new forms of labelling are introduced that specifically target institutions; that is bottom-up and horizontal labelling.


Anna Merz M.A.
Anna Merz is promovendus aan de Sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

De toekomst is aan de surfende criminoloog

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden criminology, artificial intelligence, research methods, research funding, causality
Auteurs Prof. dr. Jeroen Maesschalck
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    If, as criminologists, we really want to contribute to solutions for the great challenges of our time, we should be…surfing more. In a dynamic environment full of contradictions, we should be constantly in motion, moving left and right between different theoretical-normative perspectives as well as between methodological perspectives. This paper clarifies that surfing movement with some illustrations. It then proposes three goals for a criminological research agenda that should help us address the great challenges: actual (as opposed to superficial) relevance for practice, causal ambitions and multidisciplinarity. The paper concludes with some reflections about the organization and funding of criminological research.


Prof. dr. Jeroen Maesschalck
Prof. dr. J. Maesschalck is verbonden aan het Leuven Instituut voor Criminologie aan de KU Leuven.
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