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Marloes van Noorloos
Mr. dr. L.A. van Noorloos is universitair hoofddocent straf(proces)recht bij Tilburg Law School en redactielid van Crimmigratie & Recht.
Artikel

Strafbaarstelling van het kwetsen van religieuze gevoelens

Is het blasfemieverbod weer terug van weggeweest?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 2 2022
Trefwoorden vrijheid van meningsuiting, vrijheid van godsdienst, kwetsen van religieuze gevoelens, blasfemie, E.S./Oostenrijk
Auteurs Erik Wouters
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2009, Mrs. Sabaditsch-Wolff, an Austrian anti-Islam activist, made ‘degrading’ statements about the Prophet Muhammad during a lecture. According to the Austrian judges, these statements could not go unpunished. In 2018, the European Court of Human Rights ruled in E.S. v. Austria that the conviction by the Austrian judges did not violate Mrs. Sabaditsch-Wolff’s freedom of expression. In this article, the author critically analyses this ruling of the European Court of Human Rights and takes a closer look at the possible criminalisation of ‘hurting religious feelings’ in Dutch law.


Erik Wouters
Mr. E. Wouters is afgestudeerd in Straf- en Strafprocesrecht aan de Universiteit van Leiden en werkzaam als interventiejurist bij het Openbaar Ministerie.
Artikel

Morele principes als remedie tegen ­individualisme

Op zoek naar normenkaders in het constitutionele recht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 2 2022
Trefwoorden natuurrecht, liberalisme, natuurrechtelijk liberalisme, common good, constitutionalism
Auteurs Hessel Boom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Patrick Deneen’s book Why Liberalism Failed states that liberalism is centered around individual autonomy, and norms, manners and morals were abolished in the name of liberation, leading to individualism and ultimately the demise of liberal democracy itself. In the search for a new moral framework, this paper evaluates the theories of natural law liberalism and common good constitutionalism as formulated by Christian Wolfe respectively Adrian Vermeule. By analysing the constitutional law of the United States, Ireland and the Netherlands, the question is answered to what extent these different moral frameworks can be weighed against individual autonomy.


Hessel Boom
Mr. H.J.D. Boom, BSc is afgestudeerd in staats- en bestuursrecht en in het bezit van een bachelordiploma Politicologie. Sinds oktober 2021 is hij werkzaam als adviseur bij Necker van Naem.
Wetenschap

Een nieuwe stap in wereldwijde belasting­harmonisatie en strijd tegen belastingontwijking: de pillar one en pillar two blueprint van de OESO

Tijdschrift Onderneming en Financiering, Aflevering 2 2022
Trefwoorden base erosion and profit shifting, Inclusive Framework OECD, internationale verdeling winstbelastinggrondslag, Minimum-winstbelastingtarief, winstbelastingbeleid EU
Auteurs J.N. Bouwman en F.P.J. Snel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Afspraken over de belastingheffing van de winst van internationaal actieve ondernemingen hebben zich lange tijd beperkt tot het overeenkomen van regelingen die dubbele heffing van belasting beoogden te voorkomen. Deze beperkte benadering leidde ertoe dat landen hun nationale belastingstelsels overigens niet op elkaar hoefden af te stemmen, met als consequentie dat belasting kon worden ontweken. In de laatste decennia is een beweging op gang gekomen die hieraan een einde beoogt te maken. Dit proces wordt in deze bijdrage vanuit het perspectief van de EU en de OESO beschreven. Er is in het bijzonder aandacht voor twee recente ontwikkelingen, namelijk de voorstellen van de OESO voor een internationale herverdeling van het recht om winstbelasting te heffen en de introductie van een minimum-winstbelastingtarief voor multinationals.


J.N. Bouwman
Prof. dr. J.N. (Jan) Bouwman is hoogleraar Belastingrecht aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.

F.P.J. Snel
Dr. F.P.J. (Freek) Snel is als docent verbonden aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen en als belastingadviseur verbonden aan Snel Corporate Tax & Law te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Access_open On Identifying Assumptions Underlying Legal Arrangements

Some Conceptual and Methodological Considerations

Tijdschrift Law and Method, mei 2022
Trefwoorden (Legislative) assumptions, legal arrangements, inference to the best explanation, theory-driven evaluations
Auteurs Frans L. Leeuw en Antonia M. Waltermann
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Legal arrangements rest on behavioural, cognitive, social, and other assumptions regarding their role and function in society and the legal system. The identification and subsequent evaluation of these assumptions is an important task for legal scholarship. In this article, we focus on the identification and categorisation of these assumptions, providing conceptual distinctions and methodological guidance. We distinguish between assumptions about the value(s), norm(s), or interest(s) underlying a legal arrangement, which can be legal or non-legal, and assumptions about the relationship between the legal arrangement and its underlying value(s), norm(s), or interest(s), which can be logical, causal, or contributory. Regarding the identification, we consider explicit references and inference to the best explanation and theory-driven evaluations as possible methods. Inference to the best explanation, we posit, functions as a manner of reconstructing the theory that the person(s) creating a legal arrangement had in mind regarding the place and function of that legal arrangement in society. Given this, we offer a step-by-step approach to reconstructing this theory in use, drawing from theory-driven evaluations and its sources in the social sciences. These distinctions and guidelines can contribute to understanding the context and untangling the complexities involved in identifying the assumptions that underlie legal arrangements.


Frans L. Leeuw
Prof. dr. Frans Leeuw, Professor emeritus, Law, Public Policy and Social Science Research, Department of Foundations and Methods of Law, Maastricht University.

Antonia M. Waltermann
Dr. Antonia Waltermann, Assistant Professor of Legal Theory, Department of Foundations and Methods of Law, Maastricht University.
Artikel

Het initiatiefvoorstel Wet verantwoord en duurzaam internationaal ondernemen in internationale context

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Ondernemingsrecht, Aflevering 3-4 2022
Trefwoorden duurzaamheid, internationaal maatschappelijk verantwoord ondernemen, ketenaansprakelijkheid
Auteurs Mr. O.J.W. Schotel en Mr. J.M. Schepel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Internationaal maatschappelijk ondernemen, in het bijzonder door corporate sustainability due diligence, staat hoog op de (internationale) agenda. In het voetspoor van enkele andere landen in Europa is in Nederland een voorstel gedaan voor een wettelijk raamwerk dat niet op specifieke hoogrisicosectoren van toepassing is, maar op een veel grotere groep ondernemingen. De auteurs plaatsen het Nederlandse wetsvoorstel in internationale context en bespreken de kritiek in de literatuur daarop.


Mr. O.J.W. Schotel
Mr. O.J.W. Schotel is advocaat bij De Roos Advocaten in Amsterdam en redacteur van dit tijdschrift.

Mr. J.M. Schepel
Mr. J.M. Schepel is advocaat bij Stibbe in Amsterdam.
Artikel

Protection against dismissal in Poland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Ontslagrecht, Aflevering 2 2022
Trefwoorden Termination with and without notice periods, Dismissal prohibitions, Remedy of defective dismissals, Dismissal protection of civil servants, Summary dismissal
Auteurs dr.hab. Michał Raczkowski en mr. dr. Beryl ter Haar
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article we introduce the main principles of the Polish dismissal protection regulation. Issues addressed include the underlying principles for the system of dismissal protection, notice periods, justifiable reasons for dismissal, consultation of trade unions and how to remedy unfair or defective dismissals. We also very briefly touch upon dismissal protection of civil servants.


dr.hab. Michał Raczkowski
Michal Raczkowski is Assistant Professor at the Department of Labour Law and Social Policy, University of Warsaw and attorney-at-law.

mr. dr. Beryl ter Haar
Beryl ter Haar is UW Professor and Head of the Centre for International and European Labour Law Studies (CIELLS) at the University of Warsaw and Endowed Professor European and Comparative Labour Law at the University of Groningen.
Artikel

Access_open De ventielfunctie van de artikel 12 Sv-procedure: van georganiseerd wantrouwen naar gezamenlijk politiek project?

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering Pre-publications 2022
Trefwoorden Article 12-procedure, principle of opportunity, liberalism, judicial activism, democratic legitimacy
Auteurs Sophie Koning
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Originally, Article 12 of the Dutch Code of Criminal Procedure was intended as a correction mechanism for the prosecution monopoly of the Public Prosecution Service. In a later stage, the private interest of complainants (or victims) became more central. This article argues that a third function now emerges: a valve function for social dissatisfaction. The social conflicts that underly the proceedings in these socially sensitive cases give rise to new democratic legitimacy problems. However, an appropriate normative framework that captures these new democratic demands has not yet been constructed. To this end, this article provides an alternative democratic vocabulary in order to bridge the gap between empirical and normative notions of legitimacy. By means of a historical and normative analysis, it will be argued that Article 12 has an important democratic potential within the characteristically autonomous Dutch system of criminal law.


Sophie Koning
Sophie Koning is promovendus aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Case Law

2022/1 EELC’s review of the year 2021

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 1 2022
Auteurs Niklas Bruun, Filip Dorssemont, Zef Even e.a.
Samenvatting

    Various of our academic board analysed employment law cases from last year.


Niklas Bruun

Filip Dorssemont

Zef Even

Ruben Houweling

Marianne Hrdlicka

Anthony Kerr

Attila Kun

Jean-Philippe Lhernould

Daiva Petrylaitė

Luca Ratti

Jan-Pieter Vos

    The Federal Labour Court of Germany has continued to specify the requirements for the legality of age limits in employer-funded pension plans under German law. In this case, according to the Court, the employer could impose a maximum age of 55 as a requirement of entry to the company pension plan.


Othmar K. Traber
Othmar Traber is a partner at Ahlers & Vogel, Bremen.

    On 1 December 2021, just prior to the transposition deadline for Directive (EU) 2019/1937 on the protection of persons who report breaches of Union law (the ‘Whistleblowing Directive’), the Irish Supreme Court delivered a judgment that may have an impact on the Protected Disclosures (Amendment) Bill, the piece of legislation intended to be enacted in order to comply with the Whistleblowing Directive. The judgment noted that, while the Oireachtas (the Irish parliament) had envisaged that most complaints for which whistleblower protection would be sought would concern matters of public interest, the actual definition of ‘protected disclosure’ in the Protected Disclosures Act 2014 (the ‘2014 Act’) extends further than that and can cover complaints in the context of employment which are personal to the reporting person. While Ireland has missed the deadline and has yet to enact the Protected Disclosures (Amendment) Bill, one of the intended amendments has been changed since this judgment was delivered.


Sarah O’Mahoney
Sarah O’Mahoney is a General Knowledge Lawyer at Mason, Hayes & Curran, Dublin.

    The Iaşi Court of Appeal in Romania has upheld a decision issued by the Vaslui Tribunal which found that an employee cannot be the subject of disciplinary action for the refusal to perform work during their weekly rest notwithstanding that a working time schedule imposed by the employer was based on the applicability of an internal company policy.


Andreea Suciu
Andreea is Managing Partner of Suciu | The Employment Law Firm

Andreea Oprea
Andreea is an attorney-at-law at Suciu | The Employment Law Firm.

    Working as a rider for the Deliveroo platform is a professional activity that can be performed as a self-employed worker, the Labour Tribunal of Brussels has decided, which also ruled out the possibility of Deliveroo riders enjoying the fiscally beneficial status available for workers active on electronic platforms of the collaborative economy (or ‘sharing economy’).


Gautier Busschaert
Gautier Busschaert is an attorney-at-law at Van Olmen & Wynant, Brussels.
Case Reports

2022/8 Port Labour Act not in conflict with the Belgian Constitution (BE)

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 1 2022
Trefwoorden Free Movement, Work and Residence Permit
Auteurs Heleen Franco en Julien Hick
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In its judgment of 25 November 2021, the Belgian Constitutional Court has upheld the obligation to call on recognised dock workers for the activity consisting of preparing trailers on a dock for shipment with a vehicle specifically intended for that purpose (known as a ‘tugmaster tractor’). The obligation to rely solely on recognised dock workers for the performance of port work is justified, among other things, by the need to improve safety in port areas and to prevent accidents at work. The identical treatment of, on the one hand, the loading and unloading of ships in the strict sense and, on the other hand, the activity of preparing trailers on a dock for shipment with a tugmaster tractor, does not breach the principle of equality and non-discrimination. Therefore, equal treatment of both types of port labour, with regard to the obligation to call on recognised dock workers, is reasonably justified.


Heleen Franco
Heleen Franco is a senior associate at AKD, Brussels.

Julien Hick
Julien Hick is a partner at AKD, Brussels.
Rulings

ECtHR 17 February 2022, app. no. 46586/14 (D’Amico v. Italy), Pension

Ms Immacolata Filomena D’Amico – v – Italian Government, Italian case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 1 2022
Trefwoorden Pension
Samenvatting

    No sufficiently compelling reason justifying retrospective application of a law determining the substance of pensions disputes in pending proceedings.

Artikel

De roddeltantes SyRI & Siri

Tijdschrift Advocatenblad, Aflevering 3 2022
Auteurs Marco de Vries

Marco de Vries
Artikel

Access_open The Development of Moral Reasoning in the Law Curriculum - An Exploration of Various Teaching Activities

Special issue on Education in (Professional) Legal Ethics, Emanuel van Dongen & Jet Tigchelaar (eds.)

Tijdschrift Law and Method, maart 2022
Trefwoorden moral reasoning, legal education, scholarship of teaching and learning, defining issues test
Auteurs Emanuel van Dongen en Steven Raaijmakers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Developing the capacity for moral judgment is an essential professional competence for lawyers. What teaching and learning activities in the law curriculum can be used in order to contribute to students’ moral reasoning and moral judgment? Four teaching methods were tried out in the period 2019 to 2021 at the Utrecht University School of Law: teaching methods that either work with (hypothetical) dilemmas (I); in-class reflection papers (II); experiential learning based on own experiences in a simulation situation (III); or clinical teaching in a real law firm (IV). The effects of these methods on the development of moral reasoning were measured using the Defining Issues Test (DIT). Additional information on the effectiveness and utility of the method was gathered using semi-structured interviews with teachers. The DIT results were compared at the beginning and at the end of the courses and related to the teaching methods. This article presents the outcomes of this study and formulates some recommendations for further research on the topic.


Emanuel van Dongen
Dr. Emanuel van Dongen is Associated Professor Private Law at the Molengraaff Institute for Private Law, researcher at the Utrecht Centre for Accountability and Liability Law and the Montaigne Centre for Rule of Law and Administration of Justice, Utrecht School of Law.

Steven Raaijmakers
Dr. Steven Raaijmakers is an educational consultant with Educational Consultancy & Professional Development, Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Utrecht University.
Artikel

Homofobe en transfobe haatuitingen onder het IVBPR en EVRM

Ontwikkelingen en reflecties

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 1 2022
Trefwoorden homofobe haatuitingen, lhbtiq-rechten, transfobe haatuitingen, vrijheid van meningsuiting, IVBPR en EVRM
Auteurs Jeroen Temperman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article investigates if and in what manner international human rights treaties provide a mandate for state parties to combat hateful homophobic and transphobic speech. It is concluded that under the ICCPR, the path to inclusive readings of its incitement provision is principally paved by state parties. The UN Human Rights Committee welcomes states’ going beyond the codified (Art. 20) prohibition grounds of ‘national, racial or religious hatred’, thus including such grounds as sexual orientation and gender identity. Within the regional context of the ECHR, it is the European Court of Human Rights that functions as a catalyst. In recent jurisprudence, the latter court has developed a positive duty to investigate instances of hateful homophobic speech. Under both regimes a similarly steadfast approach to combating transphobic speech cannot yet be detected.


Jeroen Temperman
Prof. J.D. Temperman is hoogleraar International Recht & Religie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en lid van het OSCE Panel of Experts on Freedom of Religion or Belief.
Artikel

De nieuwe (langverwachte) toelichting op FIFA’s transferreglement: FIFA Commentary 2021

Tijdschrift Voetbal- & Sportjuridische Zaken, Aflevering 1 2022
Trefwoorden transferreglement, CAS, FIFA Commentary, contractuele stabiliteit, schadevergoeding
Auteurs Frans de Weger
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Eind vorig jaar heeft FIFA de nieuwe FIFA Commentary on the Regulations on the Status and Transfer of Players (FIFA Commentary) gepubliceerd. Een 532 pagina’s tellend document waarin FIFA’s transferreglement wordt voorzien van een uitgebreide toelichting onder verwijzing naar relevante rechtspraak van FIFA’s geschilbeslechtende instanties (DRC en PSC) en het hoogste onafhankelijke internationale arbitragehof in de sport, het Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS). In dit artikel staat de FIFA Commentary centraal, waarbij bijzondere nadruk ligt op de bepalingen over de contractuele stabiliteit. Tevens komen de relevante artikelen die de arbeidsrelatie tussen spelers en clubs raken uitgebreid aan bod.


Frans de Weger
Mr. F.M. (Frans) de Weger is advocaat en oprichter van BMDW Advocaten te Haarlem. Frans is auteur van twee edities van The Jurisprudence of the FIFA Dispute Resolution Chamber en publiceert op regelmatige basis. Daarnaast is hij sinds 2015 arbiter bij het CAS en vanaf 1 oktober 2021 is hij benoemd als voorzitter van de FIFA Dispute Resolution Chamber van de Football Tribunal, de geschilbeslechtende instantie van FIFA die onder meer oordeelt over de arbeidsrechtelijke geschillen tussen spelers en clubs met een internationale dimensie. De auteur is tevens redactielid van het tijdschrift Voetbal- & Sportjuridische Zaken.
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