Zoekresultaat: 45 artikelen

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Artikel

Access_open Detentie van asielzoekers: een kwestie van gevoel?

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden street-level bureaucrats, aliens detention, asylum seekers, emotions, intuition
Auteurs Mr. drs. Wouter van der Spek en Dr. Anita Böcker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper analyses how street-level bureaucrats in the Netherlands decide on detaining asylum seekers. The paper is based on interviews with officers of the national police and the military police who take these decisions as part of their job. The relevant Dutch and European legal rules are not clear and unambiguous and the officers are given wide margins of discretion in making these decisions. Many interviewees said that they ultimately rely on their ‘feelings’. The paper therefore pays special attention to whether and how gut feelings and emotions of the officers influence their decision-making. In addition, the paper examines whether and how the increased use of ICTs and the Europeanisation of migration and asylum law have reduced the officers’ discretion and autonomy.


Mr. drs. Wouter van der Spek
Wouter van der Spek is junior docent bestuursrecht en promovendus aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.

Dr. Anita Böcker
Anita Böcker is universitair hoofddocent rechtssociologie aan de Radboud Universiteit.

    In legal education, criticism is conceived as an academic activity. As lecturers, we expect from students more than just the expression of their opinion; they have to evaluate and criticize a certain practice, building on a sound argumentation and provide suggestions on how to improve this practice. Criticism not only entails a negative judgment but is also constructive since it aims at changing the current state of affairs that it rejects (for some reason or other). In this article, we want to show how we train critical writing in the legal skills course for first-year law students (Juridische vaardigheden) at Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. We start with a general characterization of the skill of critical writing on the basis of four questions: 1. Why should we train critical writing? 2. What does criticism mean in a legal context? 3. How to carry out legal criticism? and 4. How to derive recommendations from the criticism raised? Subsequently, we discuss, as an illustration to the last two questions, the Dutch Urgenda case, which gave rise to a lively debate in the Netherlands on the role of the judge. Finally, we show how we have applied our general understanding of critical writing to our legal skills course. We describe the didactic approach followed and our experiences with it.


Bart van Klink
Bart van Klink is Professor of Legal Methodology, Department of Legal Theory and History, Faculty of Law, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Lyana Francot
Lyana Francot is Associate Professor of Legal Theory, Department of Legal Theory and History, Faculty of Law, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    A provision of Dutch law, according to which employees who lose their jobs upon retirement are excluded from the right to statutory severance compensation, is not in breach of the Framework Directive.


Peter C. Vas Nunes
Peter Vas Nunes is Of Counsel at BarentsKrans N.V., The Hague, the Netherlands.
Artikel

Herstelrechtvoorzieningen in het (nieuwe) Wetboek van Strafvordering: geen luxe maar noodzaak met het oog op de realisering van een humane rechtspleging

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift Modernisering Strafvordering, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden herstelrecht(voorzieningen), mediation in strafzaken, Wetboek van Strafvordering, humane rechtspleging, wetsvoorstel
Auteurs Mr. dr. J. Claessen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In deze bijdrage staat het herziene voorstel van wet centraal strekkende tot invoering van een nieuwe Titel – ‘Herstelrechtvoorzieningen’ – in het (nieuwe) Wetboek van Strafvordering. Het wetsvoorstel is in feite een ‘burgerinitiatiefwetsvoorstel’ en is geschreven door een initiatiefgroep bestaande uit medewerkers van de Universiteit Maastricht en restorative Justice Nederland in samenwerking met een denktank van vele professionals werkzaam in de strafrechtspraktijk, onder wie rechters, officieren van justitie, advocaten, mediators, politiemedewerkers en gevangenispersoneel. De auteur zet in deze bijdrage niet alleen de proeve van wetgeving uiteen, maar plaatst deze ook binnen een passende rechtshistorische context en voorziet haar voorts van zijn persoonlijke commentaar en visie.


Mr. dr. J. Claessen
Mr. dr. J. Claessen is als universitair hoofddocent straf(proces)recht verbonden aan de capaciteitsgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Maastricht. Daarnaast is hij rechter-plaatsvervanger bij de Rechtbank Limburg en bestuurslid van Stichting Mens en Strafrecht.
Article

Access_open Personal Data, Algorithms and Profiling in the EU: Overcoming the Binary Notion of Personal Data through Quantum Mechanics

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden data protection, GDPR, bigdata, algorithm, quantum mechanics
Auteurs Alessandro El Khoury
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this paper I propose to analyse the binary notion of personal data and highlight its limits, in order to propose a different conception of personal data. From a risk regulation perspective, the binary notion of personal data is not particularly fit for purpose, considering that data collection and information flows are tremendously big and complex. As a result, the use of a binary system to determine the applicability of EU data protection law may be a simplistic approach. In an effort of bringing physics and law together, certain principles elaborated within the quantum theory are surprisingly applicable to data protection law, and can be used as guidance to shed light on many of today’s data complexities. Lastly, I will discuss the implications and the effects that certain processing operations may have on the possibility of qualifying certain data as personal. In other terms, how the chances to identify certain data as personal is dependent upon the processing operations that a data controller might put in place.


Alessandro El Khoury
Alessandro El Khoury, LLM, Legal and Policy Officer, DG Health & Food Safety, European Commission.
Article

Access_open Empirical Legal Research in Europe: Prevalence, Obstacles, and Interventions

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden empirical legal research, Europe, popularity, increase, journals
Auteurs Gijs van Dijck, Shahar Sverdlov en Gabriela Buck
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Empirical Legal research (ELR) has become well established in the United States, whereas its popularity in Europe is debatable. This article explores the popularity of ELR in Europe. The authors carried out an empirical analysis of 78 European-based law journals, encompassing issues from 2008-2017. The findings demonstrate that a supposed increase of ELR is questionable (at best).
    Moreover, additional findings highlight:

    • An increase for a few journals, with a small number of other journals showing a decrease over time;

    • A higher percentage of empirical articles for extra-legal journals than for legal journals (average proportion per journal is 4.6 percent for legal journals, 18.9 percent for extra-legal journals);

    • Criminal justice journals, environmental journals, and economically oriented journals being more likely to publish empirical articles than other journals;

    • More prestigious journals being more likely to publish empirical articles than less-prestigious journals;

    • Older journals being more likely to publish empirical work than younger journals, but not at an increasing rate;

    • Journals being legal/extra-legal, journals in a specific field, journal ranking, or the age of the journal not making it more (or less) likely that the journal will publish empirical articles at an increasing (or decreasing) rate.
      Considering the lack of convincing evidence indicating an increase of ELR, we identify reasons for why ELR is seemingly becoming more popular but not resulting in more empirical research in Europe. Additionally, we explore interventions for overcoming the obstacles ELR currently faces.


Gijs van Dijck
Professor of Private Law at Maastricht University, the Netherlands.

Shahar Sverdlov
Law student at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Gabriela Buck
Law student at Maastricht University, the Netherlands.
Artikel

Access_open Onzekere risico’s en de verdeling van generieke causaliteitsonzekerheden vanuit twee paradigma’s

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Vermogensrecht, Aflevering 7-8 2018
Trefwoorden causaliteitsonzekerheid, onzekere risico’s, voorzorgverplichting, macro-effecten, risicoregulering
Auteurs Mr. dr. E.R. de Jong
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Bij aansprakelijkheid en onzekere risico’s draait het om de verdeling van wetenschappelijke onzekerheden. In dit artikel wordt besproken dat vanuit een correctief paradigma men focust op de verdeling van onzekerheden tussen de procespartijen, terwijl het reguleringsparadigma de nadruk legt op de verdeling van onzekerheden over de maatschappij. Toepassing van beide paradigma’s leidt tot verschillende uitkomsten, onder meer in het kader van de onrechtmatigheid en het CSQN-verband.


Mr. dr. E.R. de Jong
Mr. dr. E.R. de Jong is als Universitair Hoofddocent verbonden aan het Utrecht Centre for Accountability and Liability Law (Ucall) en het Molengraaff Instituut voor Privaatrecht van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Access_open A new interpretation of the modern two-pronged tests for insanity

Why legal insanity should not be a ‘status defense’

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden substantive criminal law, excuses, insanity defense, status defense
Auteurs Johannes Bijlsma
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Michael Moore has argued that modern two-pronged tests for legal insanity are wrongheaded and that the insanity defense instead should be a ‘status defense’. If Moore is right, than the laws on insanity in most legal systems are wrong. This merits a critical examination of Moore’s critique and his alternative approach. In this paper I argue that Moore’s status approach to insanity is either under- or overinclusive. A new interpretation of the modern tests for insanity is elaborated that hinges on the existence of a legally relevant difference between the mentally disordered defendant and the ‘normal’ defendant. This interpretation avoids Moore’s criticism as well as the pitfalls of the status approach.


Johannes Bijlsma
Johannes Bijlsma is assistant professor of criminal law at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

‘I know certainty freaks you out’

Het nut en de noodzaak van decision analysis in de procespraktijk

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Ondernemingsrecht, Aflevering 3-4 2018
Trefwoorden decision analysis, kwantitatieve analyse, procesrisico, schikkingsonderhandelingen, Daniel Kahneman
Auteurs Mr. L.A. van Amsterdam en Mr. Y. Steeg-Tijms
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Juridische procedures zijn naar hun aard complex en onzeker. De auteurs bespreken een manier van werken, decision analysis, die advocaten daarop laat anticiperen door met meer structuur en minder ruimte voor misverstanden over procesrisico’s en schikkingsonderhandelingen te adviseren. Zij gaan daarbij onder meer in op de wetenschappelijke achtergrond van decision analysis en de vijf stappen die samen in een deugdelijke analyse resulteren.


Mr. L.A. van Amsterdam
Mr. L.A. van Amsterdam is als advocaat werkzaam op een procespraktijk van NautaDutilh.

Mr. Y. Steeg-Tijms
Mr. Y. Steeg-Tijms is als advocaat werkzaam op een procespraktijk van NautaDutilh.
Artikel

Selectieve ‘culturalisering’ in de praktijk van de jeugdbescherming in België

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden youth justice, Roma, Caucasian migrants, refugees, selectivity, deviance
Auteurs dr. Olga Petintseva
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper focuses on the practice of youth justice (termed ‘youth protection’ in Belgium) in which professional actors ascribe deviant behaviour of youngsters to different cultural and migration backgrounds. Intra-European Roma migrants and refugees from the Northern Caucasus in Belgium are chosen as case studies. Discourse analysis of 55 youth court files and 41 expert interviews with professional actors show that deviant behaviour of these young people is explained in different manners. Two discourses are identified: ‘criminal vagabonds’ and ‘war torn children’. These discourses and their effects in practice differ tremendously for both groups. The broader discussion this article touches upon is the selective inclusion and exclusion in the institutions of formal social control, through social practices of culturalisation.


dr. Olga Petintseva
dr. Olga Petintseva is doctor-assistent aan de vakgroep criminologie, strafrecht en sociaal recht, Universiteit Gent. Haar onderzoeksinteresse situeert zich binnen de narratieve criminologie, cultuurstudies en sociolinguïstiek. E-mail: olga.petintseva@ugent.be.

    Both H.L.A. Hart and John Searle repeatedly refer to games in their work on the concept of law and the construction of social reality respectively. We can argue that this is not a coincidence, Hart’s analysis of law as a system of primary and secondary rules bears close resemblances to Searle’s analysis of social reality as a system of regulative and constitutive rules and the comparison to games leads to interesting insights about the ontology of law and legal epistemology. The present article explores both the institutional theory of law that can be devised on the basis of the work of Hart and Searle, the method of analytical philosophy they employ and the particular consequences that can be deduced for legal research from the resulting legal theory.


Arie-Jan Kwak
Dr. A.J. Kwak, Faculty of Law, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands.
Artikel

Framing en interactie in grootschalige rechercheonderzoeken

Goffmans perspectief op de opsporing

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden criminal investigation, framing, police, Goffman
Auteurs Mr. dr. Renze Salet
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This empirical study examines how criminal investigative police officers (re)construct a criminal case and the vulnerabilities of their logic.The investigation process is analyzed through Goffman’s framing and interaction theories. While Goffman’s theories have been widely applied to other disciplines, such contributions remain rare in criminology. Here, they shed light on how detectives understand and give meaning to the situation surrounding the criminal case they encounter. The results indicate that this approach shows promise for improving our understanding of the investigative process, if complemented by other theoretical views.


Mr. dr. Renze Salet
Mr. dr. R. Salet is universitair docent bij de sectie Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.
Artikel

Hoe werkt vroegsignalering door lokale jongerenwerkers in de strijd tegen terrorisme?

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 4 2017
Trefwoorden Radicalisering, Gewelddadig extremisme, Jongerenwerker, Subjectieve oordeelsvorming
Auteurs Annemarie van de Weert MSc en Mr. dr. Quirine Eijkman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article analyses whether the local youth worker can operate on the intersection of social welfare and signalling of extremism. Although it is a rare phenomenon, there is a clear message from the government to watch out for the first signs of deviant behavior and unacceptable behavior. However, shouldn’t we ask ourselves whether youth workers are adequately equipped at local level to signal threat? The qualitative results show that in daily practice there is a lack of clear standards which make terminology for social professionals not easily distinguished. In addition their opinion depends largely on their own intuition regarding the issues. This can create side effects which form a risk that the local terrorism policy does not have the intended effect.


Annemarie van de Weert MSc
Annemarie van de Weert MSc is onderzoeker Toegang tot het recht aan het Kenniscentrum Sociale Innovatie (KSI), Hogeschool Utrecht.

Mr. dr. Quirine Eijkman
Mr. dr. Quirine Eijkman is lector Toegang tot het recht aan het Kenniscentrum Sociale Innovatie (KSI), Hogeschool Utrecht.
Artikel

Drie visies op traditie en de relatie tussen recht en religie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden recht en religie, Traditie, Tijdsbegrip, Intertekstualiteit
Auteurs Mr. dr. Carinne Elion-Valter
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article explores three perspectives of tradition and their consequences for the relationship between law and religion. A religious tradition can be seen either as a remnant of the past, separate from modern law, or as an authoritative source of moral prescriptions. The analysis of a literary tradition demonstrates that traditions influence each other and develop in a cyclical way. Tradition comes about as a construction by the present of the past. This third perspective shows the importance of the acknowledgment of law as an open platform for deliberation and recognition of religious values.


Mr. dr. Carinne Elion-Valter
Mr. dr. C. Elion-Valter is docent, onderzoeker en raadslid. Zij promoveerde bij prof. dr. W.J. Witteveen (†), prof. dr. L.H.J. Adams en mevr. mr. dr. M.G. IJzermans op het onderwerp recht & literatuur met het proefschrift De burger als ongelovige Thomas, geloofwaardigheid, legitimiteit en dialoog. Ze droeg onder andere bij aan de bundel Fundamentele verhalen, over recht, literatuur en film (Claudia Bouteligier & Afshin Ellian (red.), Boom uitgevers 2014) met een bijdrage over Victor Hugo’s roman Quatrevingt-treize.
Article

Access_open Legal Constraints on the Indeterminate Control of ‘Dangerous’ Sex Offenders in the Community: The Spanish Perspective

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden Supervised release, supervision, sex offenders, dangerousness, safety measures, societal upheaval, proportionality
Auteurs Lucía Martínez Garay en Jorge Correcher Mira
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article presents an overview of the legal regime provided in the Spanish system of criminal sanctions regarding the control of dangerous sex offenders in the community. It focuses on the introduction, in 2010, of a post-prison safety measure named supervised release. We describe the context of its introduction in the Spanish Criminal Code, considering the influence of societal upheaval concerning dangerous sex offenders in its development, and also the historical and theoretical features of the Spanish system of criminal sanctions. We also analyse the legal framework of supervised release, the existing case law about it and how the legal doctrine has until now assessed this measure. After this analysis, the main aim of this article consists in evaluating the effectiveness and the proportionality of the measure, according to the principle of minimal constraints and the rehabilitative function of the criminal sanctions in Spanish law, stated in Article 25.2 of the Spanish Constitution.


Lucía Martínez Garay
Lucía Martínez Garay is a Senior Lecturer at the University of Valencia, Department of Criminal Law.

Jorge Correcher Mira
Jorge Correcher Mira, Ph.D., is an Assistant Lecturer at the University of Valencia, Department of Criminal Law.

    The comparative discussions held during this seminar show that the different jurisdictions make use of – approximately – the same ingredients for their legislation on adult guardianship measures and continuing powers of attorney. Given the common international framework (for example the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities) and given the common societal context (cfr. the strong increase of the ageing population) this may not come as a surprise. Despite these common ingredients, the different jurisdictions have managed to arrive at different dishes spiced with specific local flavours. Given that each jurisdiction bears its own history and specific policy plans, this may not come as a surprise either. The adage ‘same same but different’ is in this respect a suitable bromide.
    For my own research, the several invitations – that implicitly or explicitly arose from the different discussions – to rethink important concepts or assumptions were of most relevance and importance. A particular example that comes to mind is the suggestion to ‘reverse the jurisprudence’ and to take persons with disabilities instead of healthy adult persons as a point of reference. Also, the invitation to rethink the relationship between the limitation of capacity and the attribution of a guard comes to mind as the juxtaposition of the different jurisdictions showed that these two aspects don’t need to be automatically combined. Also the discussion on the interference between the continuing powers of attorney and the supervision by the court, provoked further reflection on hybrid forms of protection on my part. Finally, the ethical and medical-legal approaches may lead to a reconsideration of the traditional underlying concepts of autonomy and the assessment of capacity.


Veerle Vanderhulst Ph.D.
Veerle Vanderhulst works at the Faculty of Law and Criminology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel
Artikel

Procederen of schikken?

Lessen voor de procespraktijk uit Thinking, fast and slow van Daniel Kahneman

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Ondernemingsrecht, Aflevering 8-9 2016
Trefwoorden procederen, schikken, Kahneman, besluitvorming, onderhandelen
Auteurs Mr. R.J. Philips
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In Thinking, fast and slow toont Nobelprijswinnaar Daniel Kahneman aan de hand van tientallen jaren psychologisch onderzoek de verborgen gebreken in ons oordeelsvermogen. In de proces(advies)praktijk zijn beoordelingsfouten vaak kostbaar. In dit artikel worden veel voorkomende valkuilen besproken en suggesties gedaan om deze te vermijden.


Mr. R.J. Philips
Mr. R.J. Philips is medeoprichter en bestuurder van Redbreast, een procesfinancier in Amsterdam.

    This paper provides a dialectical-historical description of the EU's constitutional discourse. It is argued that the early Community's member state blind principle of justice implied the notion of a European political community and led to the establishment of fair procedures for decision making. This coming of age of an encompassing European constitutional narrative of justice and fairness prompted the question of the demarcation between the political role of the European political community and that of member states' political communities. The answer proved to be subsidiarity. However, subsidiarity has introduced national conceptions of justice in the Union's constitutional discourse, at the risk of making European justice dependent on national conceptions of justice.


Dries Cools
Dries Cools works at the National Bank of Belgium and holds a Master of Laws and a Master in Philosophy of the KU Leuven and an LL.M. of Harvard Law School.
Artikel

Access_open On Experiments in Empirical Legal Research

Tijdschrift Law and Method, maart 2016
Auteurs Prof. dr. Kees van den Bos en Mr. Liesbeth Hulst B.Sc., M.Sc.
Samenvatting

    The current paper presents some observations on experiments in empirical legal research. The paper notes some strengths and weakness of the experimental method. The paper distinguishes between experiments run in controlled laboratory settings and experiments conducted in field settings and notes the different goals the different types of experiments generally have. The paper identifies important stumbling blocks that legal researchers who are new to setting up experiments may face and proposes that focusing the research in a constructive and independent way is important to overcome these problems. The necessity of running multiple studies to overcome other problems are discussed as well. When conducted in this way, experiments may serve an important role in the field of empirical legal studies and may help to further explore the exciting issues of law, society, and human behavior.


Prof. dr. Kees van den Bos

Mr. Liesbeth Hulst B.Sc., M.Sc.

    Central to this contribution is the question whether Dworkin’s theory of constructive interpretation as a method of applying law for the judge, can be used as a method of legal-dogmatic research. Constructive interpretation is a method of legal interpretation that aims to find a normative unity in the diversity of rules that characterize a legal system. In order to find an answer to this question, the key elements of Dworkin’s theory are explained and applied to the author’s PhD research. Methodological difficulties that could give rise to problems when applying Dworkin’s theory, are investigated. In the end, the author concludes that since the judge and the scholar use quite the same methods when interpreting law, the principles of constructivism should fit legal research well, even though some aspects of Dworkin’s theory are difficult to operationalize in practice. As a leading notion however, constructivism constitutes a workable method of legal research.


Francisca Christina Wilhelmina de Graaf LL.M
Fanny de Graaf is a PhD candidate at the Faculty of Law, VU University.
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