Zoekresultaat: 19 artikelen

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Artikel

Access_open Populism, the Kingdom of Shadows, and the Challenge to Liberal Democracy

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Populism, Liberal democracy, Political representation, Société du spectacle, Theatrocracy
Auteurs Massimo La Torre
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Populism is a somehow intractable notion, since its reference is much too wide, comprising phenomena that are indeed in conflict between them, and moreover blurred, by being often used in an instrumental, polemical way. Such intractability is then radicalized through the two alternative approaches to populism, one that is more or less neutral, rooting in the political science tradition, and a second one, fully normative, though fed by political realism, founding as it does on a specific political theory and project. In the article an alternative view is proposed, that of populism as the politics that is congruent with the increasing role played by ‘screens’, icons, and images in social relationships and indeed in political representation. In this way populism is approached as the specific way politics is done within the context of a digitalized société du spectacle.


Massimo La Torre
Massimo La Torre is Professor of Philosophy of Law, ‘Magna Graecia’ University of Catanzaro, Italy, and Visiting Professor of European Law, University of Tallinn, Estonia.
Artikel

Access_open Leges Artis

De kunst van het herstelrecht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2021
Trefwoorden kunst, zachte vaardigheden, oordeelsleer, leges artis
Auteurs Claudia Mazzucato
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article was written by Claudia Mazzucato for The International Journal of Restorative Justice 21(2) and translated for our thematic issue. Mazzucato explains that there is something in restorative justice that resembles art. In her view restorative justice is made of the same fabric. Both deal with ‘creativity and rigour, imagination and insight, preparation and improvisation, vocation and inclination, talent and skill’. Both trigger innovation and have a political dimension when identifying problems and look for transformations or cultural change. The use of art in the restorative field is growing and visible in literature, paintings, theatre and films. Art can become a sort of mediator of restorative encounters or can give a concrete shape to stories that otherwise cannot be told. The author asks questions about liaisons between restorative justice, law and art. The leges artis of restorative justice are values and standards as drafted by the United Nations and Council of Europe. Do they nourish criminal justice in terms of beauty? To a certain extent yes. A challenging task of the art of restorative justice is in her view: ‘to approach the complexity of the quest for justice in the real world, combining hard and soft skills harmonically, and complying rigorously with the proper restorative leges artis, in order to amend in democratic ways what has proved wrong and harmful, and to prospectively avoid its reoccurrence’.


Claudia Mazzucato
Claudia Mazzucato is Associate Professor (universitair hoofddocent) Strafrecht aan de Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milaan, Italië. Contact auteur: claudia.mazzucato@unicatt.it.
Article

Access_open Invisible before the law

The legal position of persons with intellectual disabilities under the Dutch Care and Compulsion Act (Wzd) in light of Article 12 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD)

Tijdschrift Family & Law, juni 2021
Trefwoorden dicrimination, guardianship, incapacitated adults, legal (in)capacity
Auteurs F. Schuthof LLM
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands, the use of involuntary treatment in the mental health care sector is governed by the Dutch Care and Compulsion Act (Wzd). This study examines the legal position of persons with intellectual disabilities under this Act. The Wzd is analyzed in light of the human rights standards of Article 12 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). The findings of this study show that the Wzd does not meet the standards of Article 12 in several cases. The Wzd does not recognize the legal capacity of persons with intellectual disabilities, it continues to allow for substituted decision-making and support measures are not complemented by adequate safeguards. From a theoretical point of view, an imbalance between the protection of and the respect for the autonomy of persons with intellectual disabilities can be observed. This article formulates several recommendations in order to restore this balance.
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    De Nederlandse Wet zorg en dwang (Wzd) ziet toe op de rechten van mensen met een verstandelijke beperking bij onvrijwillige zorg of onvrijwillige opname. Dit artikel onderzoekt de juridische positie van mensen met een verstandelijke beperking ten aanzien van deze wet. De Wzd wordt geanalyseerd in relatie tot artikel 12 van het Verdrag inzake de Rechten van Personen met een Handicap (VRPH). De bevindingen van dit onderzoek laten zien dat de Wzd in verschillende gevallen niet voldoet aan de normen van artikel 12 VRPH. Zo wordt onder andere de handelingsbekwaamheid, ofwel ‘legal capacity’, van mensen met een verstandelijke beperking niet erkend en blijft plaatsvervangende besluitvorming mogelijk. Vanuit theoretisch oogpunt is er sprake van een disbalans tussen de bescherming van en het respect voor de autonomie van mensen met een verstandelijke beperking. Dit artikel doet daarom meerdere aanbevelingen om dit evenwicht te herstellen.


F. Schuthof LLM
Fiore Schuthof conducts research into better empowerment and protection of the elderly as a PhD student at Utrecht University (UU).
Artikel

The Crimmigration Trend in the Netherlands: Some Critical Reflections

Tijdschrift Crimmigratie & Recht, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden crimmigration, immigration control, irregular migrants, the Netherlands, crimmigration critique
Auteurs Richard Staring en Ruben Timmerman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Over the past decade, the concept of crimmigration has dominated legal and criminological understanding of contemporary immigration control. Drawing on the Netherlands as case study, this article provides a critical reflection on ‘crimmigration’ as both a policy trend and a scholarly trend. We argue that much of the existing scholarship has presented a one-dimensional understanding of crimmigration as a unilateral process singularly trending towards increasing punitiveness, securitization and exclusion. We examine a number of concrete examples illustrating the need for a more complex understanding that incorporates an analysis of the full range of actors and (counter)processes within the field of crimmigration.


Richard Staring
Prof. dr. R.H.J.M. Staring, sectie Criminologie, Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Ruben Timmerman
R.I. Timmerman LLM, MA, PhD candidate, sectie Criminologie, Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Addressing Problems Instead of Diagnoses

Reimagining Liberalism Regarding Disability and Public Health

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden Vulerability Theory, Liberalism, Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), Public Health, Capabilities Approach
Auteurs Erwin Dijkstra
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The public health systems of liberal states systematically fail to meet the goals and obligations of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, which aims to facilitate full societal participation and independent life choices by all impaired persons, as well as the unburdening of their private caretakers. This failure does not stem from a lack of money or effort by governments and other societal institutions, but flaws in the anatomy of these systems. As these systems confine institutional assistance to the needs of persons with certain delineated disabilities, they neglect the needs of other persons, whose disabilities do not fit this mould. The responsibility for the latter group thus falls to their immediate social circle. These private caretakers are in turn seldom supported. To remedy this situation, I will present the alternative paradigm of vulnerability theory as the possible foundation for a more inclusive approach to public health.


Erwin Dijkstra
Erwin Dijkstra LLM MA is lecturer and researcher at the Department of Jurisprudence of the Leiden Law School of Leiden University.
Artikel

Empiricism as an ethical enterprise. On the work of Erhard Blankenburg

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Empiricism, Erhard Blankenburg, mobilization of law, legal instruments, problems and disputes
Auteurs Prof. dr. Pieter Ippel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article gives an interpretation of the empirical work of the well-known sociologist of law Erhard Blankenburg, who passed away in the Spring of 2018. He conducted interesting and intelligent research on the process of ‘mobilization of law’. The thesis of this article is that Blankenburg’s empirical approach is actually guided and stimulated by normative considerations. A complete and coherent picture of the concrete utilization of legal instruments shows that ‘alternative’ ways of dealing with problems and disputes are often morally preferable as they are inspired by a realistic assessment of persons-in-a-social-context.


Prof. dr. Pieter Ippel
Pieter Ippel is professor of law at University College Roosevelt (Middelburg) and Utrecht University. He studied philosophy, criminology and Dutch Law. From 1981-1987 he worked as an assistant with Erhard Blankenburg and finished his PhD in 1989. From 1989-1995 he worked as a civil servant in The Hague and from 1995-2005 he was professor of jurisprudence in Utrecht.
Redactioneel

Access_open Editorial Special Issue - Comparative Law

Tijdschrift Law and Method, november 2018
Auteurs Irene Broekhuijse en Sofia Ranchordás
Auteursinformatie

Irene Broekhuijse
Dr. I.L.A. Broekhuijse is Assistant Professor Legal Theory at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and Research Fellow at the University of Johannesburg.

Sofia Ranchordás
Prof. Dr. Sofia Ranchordás is Professor of Law, Chair of European and Comparative Public Law and Rosalind Franklin Fellow at the University of Groningen.
Artikel

De afnemende rol van de rechtspraak: is vervanging van de rechter mogelijk en wenselijk?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden judges, marginalization, administrative bodies, truth finding, legal protection
Auteurs Mr. dr. Marijke Malsch
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The last decades have shown a tendency in which tasks are transferred from the judge to other authorities, such as the police and public prosecutor, administrative bodies, administrative procedures, or private parties. The central question in this article is whether these authorities can really replace the court. A comparison is made between legal proceedings and procedures for other authorities on the following aspects: truth finding, openness and legal protection of the (vulnerable) citizen. The author also discusses a recent legislative proposal for an own budget for the Judiciary, which aims to strengthen the independence of the judge towards the two other state powers. It is argued that the courts should be also accessible in the case of relatively small offenses and for vulnerable citizens.


Mr. dr. Marijke Malsch
Mr. dr. M. Malsch is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR), raadsheer-plaatsvervanger in het Hof ’s-Hertogenbosch en rechter-plaatsvervanger bij de Rechtbank Noord-Holland.
Artikel

Het verontschuldigingsritueel en herstelrecht

Het slachtofferperspectief

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden apology ritual, The victim perspective, Sincerity, Physical aspect of apology, symbolic meaning of apology
Auteurs Inge Vanfraechem, Daniela Bolívar en Ivo Aertsen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Empirical research on restorative justice shows that offenders can apologise to victims. Because of the ritual component of restorative justice and the possible influence on the justice system, certain questions arise: how do victims perceive these apologies? Is it important for victims that these apologies are sincere? The aim of the article is to discuss these questions through three topics, namely the physical aspect of the ritual, the symbolic meaning for victims and the relation between the offender’s apologies and the victim’s reaction.


Inge Vanfraechem
Inge Vanfraechem is consultant (Libra), senior vrijwillig wetenschappelijk medewerkers KU Leuven en redactielid van dit tijdschrift.

Daniela Bolívar
Daniela Bolívar is assistant professor aan de School of Social Work, Catholic University of Chile. Ze is board member van de International Journal of Restorative Justice en heeft een onderzoeksproject rond bemiddeling en jeugddelinquenten in Chili afgerond.

Ivo Aertsen
Ivo Aertsen is professor herstelrecht en victimologie aan de KU Leuven en redactielid van dit tijdschrift.

    Indigenous claims have challenged a number of orthodoxies within state legal systems, one of them being the kinds of proof that can be admissible. In Canada, the focus has been on the admissibility and weight of oral traditions and histories. However, these novel forms are usually taken as alternative means of proving a set of facts that are not in themselves “cultural”, for example, the occupation by a group of people of an area of land that constitutes Aboriginal title. On this view, maps are a neutral technology for representing culturally different interests within those areas. Through Indigenous land use studies, claimants have been able to deploy the powerful symbolic capital of cartography to challenge dominant assumptions about “empty” land and the kinds of uses to which it can be put. There is a risk, though, that Indigenous understandings of land are captured or misrepresented by this technology, and that what appears neutral is in fact deeply implicated in the colonial project and occidental ideas of property. This paper will explore the possibilities for an alternative cartography suggested by digital technologies, by Indigenous artists, and by maps beyond the visual order.


Kirsten Anker Ph.D.
Associate Professor, McGill University Faculty of Law, Canada. Many thanks to the two anonymous reviewers for their frank and helpful feedback.

    In the last few decades, we have witnessed the renaissance of Comparative Constitutional law as field of research. Despite such a flourishing, the methodological foundations and the ultimate ratio of Constitutional comparative law are still debated among scholars. This article starts from the definition of comparative constitutional law given by one of the most prominent comparative constitutional law scholars in Italy, prof. Bognetti, who defined comparative constitutional law as the main joining ring between the historical knowledge of the modern law and the history of the humankind in general and of its various civil realizations. Comparative constitutional law is in other words a kind of mirror of the “competing vision of who we are and who we wish to be as a political community” (Hirschl), reflecting the structural tension between universalism and particularism, globalization and tradition.
    The article aims at addressing the main contemporary methodological challenges faced by the studies of the field. The article argues that contemporary comparative constitutional studies should address these challenges integrating the classical “horizontal” comparative method with a vertical one - regarding the international and supranational influences on constitutional settings - and fostering an interdisciplinary approach, taking into account the perspective of the social sciences.


Antonia Baraggia
Emile Noël Fellow, Jean Monnet Center for International and Regional Economic Law & Justice, NYU School of Law and Post-doc Fellow in Constitutional Law, University of Milan. For helpful comments on an earlier draft I am grateful to Luca Pietro Vanoni, Sofia Ranchordas and two anonymous reviewers.
Artikel

Veiligheid en welzijn van Eritreeërs in het geding?

Onderzoek naar zorgen rondom veiligheid en welzijn van Eritrese vluchtelingen en asielzoekers in Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2-3 2017
Trefwoorden Veiligheid en welzijn Eritreeërs, Integratie, religie en rituelen, Mensenhandel
Auteurs Desiree Horbach en Conny Rijken
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The rationale behind refugee law is that people who fear persecution in their home country can seek and find a safe haven in another country. The situation in Eritrea with its national service and wide-spread human rights violations is reason why many Eritreans flee their country. A vast number of them want to apply for asylum in European countries. After a risky journey over the African continent where they face risks of kidnappings, trafficking for ransom, and situations of inhuman and degrading treatment, they reach Europe. Some of them continue their journey to the Netherlands. The central question in this article is whether or not their safety and well-being are at stake once they arrive in the Netherlands. Situations of involvement of and intimidation by the Eritrean regime in the Netherlands, diaspora tax that is forcibly collected, involvement of the Orthodox Church and indications of human trafficking have been reported in media and reports, by individuals and organisations. In this article the outcomes of a research on the concerns about the well-being of Eritrean asylum seekers in reception centres among employers of organisations responsible for their safety and well-being are presented and discussed. Data were collected and discussed during four focus group meetings with a total of 33 professionals. The concerns are divided in three groups: 1) Concerns about the capacities and possibilities to integrate in Dutch society, 2) Concerns about religion and rituals, and 3) Concerns about indications of human trafficking. These concerns are further elaborated based on which the conclusion is drawn that more tailored support and assistance is required for successful integration of Eritreans in Dutch society, their empowerment and resilience against threats and challenges in Dutch society.


Desiree Horbach
Desiree Horbach is beleidsadviseur bij de Unit Uitvoeringsprocessen van het Centraal Orgaan opvang asielzoekers. Zij schreef haar bijdrage op persoonlijke titel.

Conny Rijken
Conny Rijken is professor Mensenhandel en Globalisering bij INTERVICT, Tilburg University.
Artikel

Cannabis Social Clubs through the lens of the drug user movement

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden Cannabis Social Clubs, supply, cannabis policy, self-organization, drug user movement
Auteurs Mafalda Pardal MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Cannabis Social Clubs (CSCs) are a model of non-profit production and distribution of cannabis among a closed circuit of adult cannabis users. The CSC model can thus be seen as a middle-ground option between prohibition and full (legal) commercialization. Initially founded in Spain during the 1990s, this form of collectives has emerged elsewhere in Europe (notably in Belgium), mainly as a result of grassroots initiatives and self-regulation. Uruguay remains the only jurisdiction to have legalized and regulated the CSC model. This paper discusses the goals and practices of CSCs against the backdrop of the drug user movement. Our goal is to draw a comparison to other drug users’ organizations and to identify knowledge gaps to be addressed in future research into CSCs. In this analysis, we rely on a review of the relevant literature in this field and on preliminary findings from an ongoing study examining CSCs in Belgium. A preoccupation with reducing the harms associated with drug use seems to be an underlying guiding principle for CSCs and other drug users’ organizations, but further research into CSCs’ practices is needed to understand whether and how those are implemented. We found other common points between the broader drug user movement and the efforts of CSCs, both in terms of potential pitfalls and areas for positive impact. We suggest that the model warrants additional attention from both the research and policy-making community.


Mafalda Pardal MSc
Mafalda Pardal, MSc, is onderzoekster en doctoraatskandidate aan het Instituut voor Sociaal Drugsonderzoek, Universiteit Gent, België). Momenteel werkt zij aan een driejarig onderzoeksproject rond de cannabis social clubs in België. Daarvoor werkte zij als analiste bij RAND Europe, waar ze onderzoek deed rond drugsbeleid, migratie en strafrechtelijk beleid.
Artikel

The Other: een introductie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden outsiders, marginalization, social sciences, othering, criminology
Auteurs Dr. mr. Fiore Geelhoed en Prof. dr. Dina Siegel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This introductory article describes who ‘the other’ is and what the place of ‘the other’ is in social scientific studies. The concept of ‘the other’ became the central object of study with the emergence of anthropology. In sociology and criminology the focus of study has been on ‘the other’ in ‘our’ midst. Although there are ‘positive others’, such as significant others, the other is more often perceived as unwanted, dangerous, threatening and even as an enemy. The other is socially constructed, usually on the basis of cultural and socio-economic differ­ences that set ‘the other’ apart from the powerful. Critical and cultural criminologists have therefore since the 1960s focused on ‘the other’ and how they are created in processes of marginalization and how they are subjected to criminalization.


Dr. mr. Fiore Geelhoed
Dr. mr. Fiore Geelhoed is universitair docent bij de Afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Prof. dr. Dina Siegel
Prof. dr. Dina Siegel is hoogleraar criminologie bij het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Wetgeving, empirisch-juridisch onderzoek en Legal Big Data

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden legislation, big data, empirical legal research, nudging
Auteurs Frans L. Leeuw
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A second empirical revolution in law is in full swing: legal big data have made their entrance and will play an increasingly important role in the legal field. Legal big data, for example, increase the accessibility and transparency of files. They make it easier for legislators to find out how society views proposed legislation. Using big data, all jurisprudence can be processed very easily and judicial decisions can be predicted with a high degree of certainty. The contribution concludes with a number of legal and ethical issues and methodological challenges in relation to legal big data, such as ownership, privacy and representativeness.


Frans L. Leeuw
Frans L. Leeuw is directeur van het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) bij het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie. Tevens is hij hoogleraar Recht, openbaar bestuur en sociaalwetenschappelijk onderzoek aan de universiteit van Maastricht. Eerder was hij onder meer directeur Doelmatigheidsonderzoek bij de Algemene Rekenkamer. Hij publiceerde vele artikelen en boeken, vooral op het terrein van evaluatie.
Artikel

Waar zijn toch al die ondeugende kinderen gebleven?

Diagnose en behandeling van ADHD ter voorkoming van ernstig en gewelddadig crimineel gedrag

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2014
Auteurs Prof. dr. Willem de Haan
Auteursinformatie

Prof. dr. Willem de Haan
Prof. dr. W.J.M. de Haan is senior research fellow bij de Afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Apple’s APPA

Nieuwe wijn in oude zakken of oude wijn in nieuwe zakken? Een economisch commentaar

Tijdschrift Markt & Mededinging, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden online verticale restricties, netwerkeffecten, most favoured nation clauses, across-platforms parities agreement, transactiekosten
Auteurs Drs. Matthijs Visser en Dr. Jan Kees Winters
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Bij online transacties is vaak sprake van platforms die transactiekosten tussen aanbieders en vragers van producten verlagen. Om investeringen in platforms tegen free riding te beschermen, kunnen platforms met de aanbieders die actief zijn op het platform een across-platforms parities agreement (APPA) afspreken: aanbieders beloven hun producten of diensten niet voor een lagere prijs aan te bieden via een ander platform/distributiekanaal. Mededingingsautoriteiten zien APPAs’ nogal eens als mededingingsbelemmerend. De Apple-casus illustreert juist hoe toetreding mogelijk kan worden door middel van een APPA. Onze conclusie is dat (verticale) afspraken een beoordeling van een concrete casusspecifieke theory of harm vereisen.


Drs. Matthijs Visser
Drs. M. Visser is partner bij RBB Economics.

Dr. Jan Kees Winters
Dr. J.K. Winters is principal bij RBB Economics.
Artikel

Access_open David C. Brotherton

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden Critical ethnography, engagement, activism, resistance
Auteurs Drs. Robby Roks
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    David Brotherton – professor of Sociology at John Jay College of the City University of New York – was named Critical Criminologist of the year in 2011 and is known for his work on the Almighty Latin King and Queen Nation and his research on Dominican deportees. By using excerpts of a lengthy interview with Brotherton, a personal and detailed account is presented which sheds light on the roots of his work, his (scientific) influences and especially his highly engaged methods of critical ethnography.


Drs. Robby Roks
Drs. Robby Roks is als promovendus verbonden aan de sectie criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. E-mail: roks@law.eur.nl
Discussie

Access_open The Destruction and Reconstruction of the Tower of Babel

A Comment to Gunther Teubner’s Plea for a ‘Common Law Constitution’

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden global society, constitutionalism, social systems theory, Teubner, law and order
Auteurs Bart van Klink
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article presents some critical comments concerning the conceptual, normative and institutional foundations of Teubner’s plea for a ‘common law constitution’. My comments question the desirability of the means chosen for attaining this objective as well as their efficacy. In particular, I have difficulties with the ambivalent role that is assigned to man, either as a person or as a human being; with the reduction of social problems to problems of communication; and, finally and most importantly, with the attempt to conceive of law and politics beyond established legal and political institutions, which in my view is doomed to fail. The conclusion offers some tentative suggestions for an alternative approach.


Bart van Klink
Bart van Klink is Professor of Legal Methodology at the Faculty of Law of the VU University Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
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