Zoekresultaat: 32 artikelen

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Artikel

Ondermijnende criminaliteit laat zich niet onderscheppen noch aanhouden

Over de aanpak van georganiseerde misdaad en het belang van kennis

Tijdschrift Boom Strafblad, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden Ondermijning, Georganiseerde misdaad, Criminaliteitsbestrijding, Strafrechtsbeleid
Auteurs Prof. dr. R.H.J.M. (Richard) Staring, Prof. dr. L.C.J. (Lieselot) Bisschop en dr. R.A. (Robby) Roks
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    De bestuurlijke, strafrechtelijke en integrale aanpak van georganiseerde misdaad maken overuren maakt. Aan actie van de zijde van het huidige kabinet en aandacht in de verkiezingsprogramma’s is op dit terrein geen gebrek. Enorme plannen voor versterking van de aanpak van ondermijning zagen het afgelopen jaar het licht. Maar is de focus goed? De auteurs gaan na wat er kan worden geleerd uit criminologisch onderzoek naar ondermijnende drugscriminaliteit.


Prof. dr. R.H.J.M. (Richard) Staring

Prof. dr. L.C.J. (Lieselot) Bisschop
De auteurs zijn verbonden aan de sectie criminologie van de Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

dr. R.A. (Robby) Roks
Artikel

Access_open Bescherming van derdelandmigranten tegen arbeidsuitbuiting in de EU

Tijdschrift Arbeidsrechtelijke Annotaties, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden Migratie, Derdelanders, Arbeidsuitbuiting
Auteurs Mr. drs. Gerrie Lodder
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Arbeidsmigratie is in de EU een belangrijk en actueel onderwerp. Enerzijds, omdat steeds meer landen in de EU te kennen geven dat ze voor het op peil houden van het arbeidspotentieel hun toevlucht moeten nemen tot het aantrekken van arbeidsmigranten van buiten de EU. Anderzijds blijkt dat er regelmatig sprake is van uitbuiting van deze arbeidsmigranten. In EU-wetgeving in het algemeen en de regulering van migratie van onderdanen van derde landen (derdelanders) naar de EU in het bijzonder wordt aandacht besteed aan de kwetsbare positie van derdelanders en een eerlijke behandeling. Het doel van migratiewetgeving is echter met name ook het beheersen van migratie, het bestrijden van illegale migratie en het stimuleren van economische ontwikkeling. Deze verschillende doelen kunnen met elkaar botsen. In dit artikel wordt onderzocht wat de invloed is van de EU-migratiewetgeving op de uitbuiting van arbeidsmigranten.


Mr. drs. Gerrie Lodder
Mr. drs. G.G. Lodder is werkzaam als onderzoeker en docent bij het Europa Instituut van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Misdaad of heldendaad: humanitaire mensensmokkel bezien vanuit de crimmigratietrend

Tijdschrift Crimmigratie & Recht, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden asiel, crimmigratie, mensensmokkel, humanitaire hulp, vervoerdersaansprakelijkheid
Auteurs Mr. Anna Chatelion Counet
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands, the penalization of human smuggling has become broader and more severe. This development is part of a crimmigration trend that describes an increase of immigration-related criminal offenses. Currently, the provision does not include a financial component, nor does it exclude acts with a humanitarian motive. The validity of such severe prohibitions, especially those including acts that are not morally reprehensible, is questioned through the concept of ‘humanitarian smuggling’. Moral reprehensibility is one of the criteria for criminalization that provide a framework for the reflection on the Dutch prohibition of human smuggling that is conducted in this article.


Mr. Anna Chatelion Counet
Mr. A. Chatelion Counet is Consulent Asielprocedure bij VluchtelingenWerk Nederland. Zij is recentelijk afgestudeerd in het strafrecht op het onderwerp ‘humanitaire mensensmokkel’, haar afstudeerscriptie ligt ten grondslag aan dit artikel.
Artikel

From the securitisation of migration to the criminalisation of solidarity towards migrants

The shrinking space for NGOs and volunteers in the Mediterranean Sea

Tijdschrift Crimmigratie & Recht, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden migration, securitisation, solidarity, growing pattern of criminalisation
Auteurs Fleur Boixiere
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In recent years, migration has been at the centre of European debates and the number of migrants trying to cross the Mediterranean remains alarming. To this day, hundreds of people continue to risk their lives crossing the Mediterranean on small boats in order to flee conflict zones, persecution or extreme poverty. However, due to the lack of legal alternatives, migrants engage in dangerous journeys and find themselves helpless in the hands of smugglers. This article will address the growing pattern of criminalisation of migration and humanitarian assistance throughout Europe and consider the extent to which national, European and international anti-smuggling laws affect the work of civil society actors.


Fleur Boixiere
Fleur Boixiere is a former student of Public International Law at Leiden University and this contribution is based on her Master thesis. While writing her article, she did an internship at the ICC.
Article

Access_open Armed On-board Protection of Italian Ships: From an Apparent Hybrid Model to a Regulated Rise of Private Contractors

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden maritime security services, Italian hybrid system, military and private personnel, use of force, relation with the shipmaster
Auteurs Giorgia Bevilacqua
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The sharp increase of piracy attacks in the last two decades was followed by a parallel increase of demand in the maritime security sector. A plenty of flag States around the world have started to authorize the deployment of armed security guards, either military or private, aboard commercial ships. In 2011, Italy also introduced the possibility of embarking armed security services to protect Italian flagged ships sailing in dangerous international waters. Like the other flag States’ legal systems, the newly adopted Italian legislation aims to preserve the domestic shipping industry which was particularly disrupted by modern-day pirates. On the other hand, the doubling of approaches of the Italian legal and regulatory framework, initially privileging military personnel and then opting for the private solution, took the author to investigate the main relevant features of the Italian model of regulation and to analyze the recent developments of the domestic legal practice on counterpiracy armed security services, focusing on the role that customary and treaty obligations of international law played for the realization at national level of on-board armed protection of Italian ships. The use of lethal force at sea and the relationship between the shipmaster and the security guards will receive specific attention in this article.


Giorgia Bevilacqua
Researcher at the Università degli Studi della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli.
Artikel

Access_open Niemand wil dode Chinezen in een afgesloten container

Een onderzoek naar het doorlaatverbod bij opsporingsonderzoeken naar mensensmokkel en de uitzonderingsmogelijkheid hierop

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 5 2018
Trefwoorden Doorlaatverbod, Mensensmokkel, Opsporing, Opsporingsonderzoeken
Auteurs Lotte Hoes MSc en Prof. dr. Edward Kleemans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    According to Dutch law, investigating officers have to comply with a so-called ban on passage of people, in cases of concrete ‘knowledge’ about human smuggling, making intervention obligatory (in order to protect smuggled migrants). Nevertheless, a formal exception procedure is possible if non-intervention would be in the interest of the investigation. This exception procedure, however, is not used in practice. Based on interviews with investigating officers, this paper concludes that protection of smuggled migrants is a very important aim as such, that ‘knowledge’ is a complex concept as it is not always very concrete, that making this ‘knowledge’ more concrete depends on actual investigative efforts, and that – if this information is concrete – there are various ways in which interventions can take place that do not jeopardize the aims of the investigation.


Lotte Hoes MSc
Lotte Hoes MSc is opsporings- en interventiecriminoloog.

Prof. dr. Edward Kleemans
Prof. dr. Edward Kleemans is hoogleraar Zware Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving aan de faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Migrant smuggling in the Mediterranean

An excludable act under article 1F(b) Refugee Convention?

Tijdschrift Crimmigratie & Recht, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden article 1F, Refugee Convention, exclusion clauses, migrant smuggling, serious non-political crimes
Auteurs Anne Aagten LLL.M.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2015, deadly incidents of migrant smuggling in the Mediterranean were daily covered by everyday newspapers. Empirical research has shown that migrants themselves may be involved in these smuggling operations. If they apply for refugee protection, they may be excluded from refugee status under Article 1F of the Refugee Convention. Article 1F(b) excludes asylum seekers from international protection if serious reasons exist to consider that they have committed serious non-political crimes. This contribution discusses whether migrant smuggling can be considered as such and whether various forms of participation in smuggling operations give rise to individual responsibility and trigger application of article 1F(b).


Anne Aagten LLL.M.
A.E.M. Aagten LLL.M. is onderwijs- en onderzoeksmedewerker bij het Instituut voor Immigratierecht (Universiteit Leiden).

Prof. dr. Richard Staring
Prof. dr. R.H.J.M. Staring is als bijzonder hoogleraar ‘Mobiliteit, toezicht en criminaliteit’ werkzaam bij de sectie Criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Daders van arbeidsuitbuiting

Over de vermeende rol van de georganiseerde misdaad

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden Arbeidsuitbuiting, Mensenhandel, georganiseerde criminaliteit, grensoverschrijdende criminaliteit
Auteurs Dr. Masja van Meeteren en Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Human traffickers are usually depicted in public discourse as evil villains: the crème de la crème of organized crime. Although this image has also been dominant among scholars for a long time, it has become increasingly controversial. On the one hand, this debate is fueled by discussions amongst criminologists on criminal networks, on the other hand by the expansion of the legal definition of the crime since 2005. Apart from exploitation in the prostitution sector, various other forms of human trafficking are distinguished now, including labor exploitation. This article explores the question of which organizational forms play a role in labor exploitation. Through a review of the empirical research literature on labor exploitation, the authors show that in the field of labor exploitation, there is probably less involvement in criminal syndicates or criminal networks that maintain contacts with other criminal networks. In many cases, labor exploitation is committed by individuals or family businesses, or smaller loosely organized networks that are not necessarily embedded in other criminal networks. For researchers and policy makers alike, it is therefore advisable not to approach labor exploitation exclusively from the perspective of transnational organized crime.


Dr. Masja van Meeteren
Dr. Masja van Meeteren is universitair hoofddocent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun
Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun is hoogleraar Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Dangerous liaisons

Over de relatie tussen eergerelateerd geweld en mensenhandel

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2017
Trefwoorden honour-based violence, human trafficking, family-honour
Auteurs Janine Janssen en Mart Rasenberg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Violence in the name of the honour of the family and human trafficking are considered to be different phenomena. But in the impressive body of literature on both types of crime and as seen by specialists from the Dutch National Police, some indications can be found that there is a toxic relationship between the two forms of delinquency: human traffickers can call on the family-honour of their victims in order to blackmail them into prostitution and to keep them working in that field against their will.


Janine Janssen
Janine Janssen is hoofd onderzoek van het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld (LEC EGG) van de Nationale Politie, lector Veiligheid in afhankelijkheidsrelaties aan Avans Hogeschool en voorzitter van de redactie van PROCES.

Mart Rasenberg
Mart Rasenberg is inspecteur van politie en als materiedeskundige verbonden aan het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld (LEC EGG) van de Nationale Politie.
Artikel

Access_open Criminal law sanctions and the Return Directive: the position of illegally staying third-country nationals in the European Union

Tijdschrift Crimmigratie & Recht, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden Crimmigration, Return Directive, Entry ban, Sanctions, Criminal law
Auteurs Aniel Pahladsingh LL.M. en Jim Waasdorp LL.M.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    At EU level, the use of substantive criminal law as a response to illegal migration is materialised by both the EU legislator and the Member States individually. EU involvement in criminalizing illegal migration takes place in a twofold manner: directly, through harmonization of national legislations, and indirectly, through the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU). An example of the latter is the case law of the CJEU regarding criminal law sanctions for breaching an entry ban. In this article, we will analyse judgments of the CJEU in the light of crimmigration law and make a distinction between the Member States’ power to classify a breach of an entry ban as an offence and to lay down criminal law sanctions in national legislation, and their power to impose such sanctions.


Aniel Pahladsingh LL.M.
Mr. A. Pahladsingh is jurist bij de Raad van State en rechter-plaatsvervanger bij de Rechtbank Rotterdam. Hij is tevens lid van de redactie van Crimmigratie & Recht.

Jim Waasdorp LL.M.
Mr. J.R.K.A.M. Waasdorp LL.M. works as a lawyer at the Administrative Jurisdiction Division of the Dutch Council of State (as of the 1st of June 2017, Jim is seconded to the Directorate General of Library, Research and Documentation of the Court of Justice of the European Union) and is a researcher at the University of Utrecht.
Artikel

Veiligheid en welzijn van Eritreeërs in het geding?

Onderzoek naar zorgen rondom veiligheid en welzijn van Eritrese vluchtelingen en asielzoekers in Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2-3 2017
Trefwoorden Veiligheid en welzijn Eritreeërs, Integratie, religie en rituelen, Mensenhandel
Auteurs Desiree Horbach en Conny Rijken
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The rationale behind refugee law is that people who fear persecution in their home country can seek and find a safe haven in another country. The situation in Eritrea with its national service and wide-spread human rights violations is reason why many Eritreans flee their country. A vast number of them want to apply for asylum in European countries. After a risky journey over the African continent where they face risks of kidnappings, trafficking for ransom, and situations of inhuman and degrading treatment, they reach Europe. Some of them continue their journey to the Netherlands. The central question in this article is whether or not their safety and well-being are at stake once they arrive in the Netherlands. Situations of involvement of and intimidation by the Eritrean regime in the Netherlands, diaspora tax that is forcibly collected, involvement of the Orthodox Church and indications of human trafficking have been reported in media and reports, by individuals and organisations. In this article the outcomes of a research on the concerns about the well-being of Eritrean asylum seekers in reception centres among employers of organisations responsible for their safety and well-being are presented and discussed. Data were collected and discussed during four focus group meetings with a total of 33 professionals. The concerns are divided in three groups: 1) Concerns about the capacities and possibilities to integrate in Dutch society, 2) Concerns about religion and rituals, and 3) Concerns about indications of human trafficking. These concerns are further elaborated based on which the conclusion is drawn that more tailored support and assistance is required for successful integration of Eritreans in Dutch society, their empowerment and resilience against threats and challenges in Dutch society.


Desiree Horbach
Desiree Horbach is beleidsadviseur bij de Unit Uitvoeringsprocessen van het Centraal Orgaan opvang asielzoekers. Zij schreef haar bijdrage op persoonlijke titel.

Conny Rijken
Conny Rijken is professor Mensenhandel en Globalisering bij INTERVICT, Tilburg University.
Artikel

De smokkel van Syrische migranten naar Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2-3 2017
Trefwoorden Mensensmokkel, Smokkelroutes, smokkelnetwerken, Smokkelfuncties, smokkelen van migranten
Auteurs Sacha van der Velden
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the following question is answered. What is the modus operandi of human smugglers that smuggle Syrian migrants to the Netherlands in de period 2014-2016? Content analysis of police and Royal Marechaussee files, interviews with experts and Syrian migrants and literature research has revealed that: Syrian migrants in first instance use the South-Eastern route overseas from Turkey to Greece, for which they pay 1200-4000 euro to a smuggler, depending on the quality of the boat. From Greece some travel over land on the Balkan route. Several means of transportation are used on this route, with smugglers asking prices ranging from tens to hundreds of euros. Also they travel large parts on their own. Others are smuggled by airplane, for which they need (false) documentation. Smuggling by plane tends to be successful when departing from a small airfield, when made a detour through visa-free countries and/or a good quality (false) travel document. Prices range from 2.000 to 14.000 euros. Migrants mostly pay cash through irregular ‘banks’, a third party that plays an important facilitating role within several smuggling networks. These networks consist of several cells, with in these cells leaders and ‘employees’ and are located on migration routes and ‘hubs’ like Istanbul, Athens and Milan. The South-Eastern route is mostly in hands of Turkish criminal networks, and the continuation of the journey by airplane or through Milan over land is in hands of Syrian Dutch smugglers, the Balkan route seems to be mainly operated by individual smugglers. Within these smuggling networks the most important roles are: the recruiter, who is responsible for making contact with migrants on migration hubs or social media. The organizer/leader who coordinates activities along the smuggling route and calls employees to account. And finally the driver. Responsible for transporting the migrants and instructing them. Based on these findings several recommendations were made that can be found in this article or full research rapport.


Sacha van der Velden
Sacha van der Velden is Operationeel Specialist bij de Nationale politie.
Redactioneel

Georganiseerde misdaad in de 21ste eeuw

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden organized crime
Auteurs Prof. dr. Toine Spapens, Prof. dr. Emile Kolthoff en Prof. dr. Wouter Stol
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the past decades, organised crime internationalised rapidly as a result of increasing mobility and ‘open’ borders. At the same time developments in information and communication technology have led to modernisation of existing types of crime and the introduction of novel ones. Finally, criminals have benefited from increasingly diversified migration streams. In the Netherlands and Belgium, organised crime appeared on the agenda in the 1990s. For a long time emphasis was on ‘trade crimes’ i.e. trafficking in drugs and humans, as well as human smuggling, followed by the production of synthetic drugs and cannabis. More recently the Low Countries are confronted by more visible manifestations of organised crime, for example rapid growth of outlaw motorcycle gangs. Criminals also try to utilise their capital to invest in businesses and real estate and to influence local politics.


Prof. dr. Toine Spapens
Prof. dr. A.C.M. Spapens is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.

Prof. dr. Emile Kolthoff
Prof. dr. E.W. Kolthoff is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Open Universiteit en lector Veiligheid, openbare orde en recht bij Avans Hogeschool in Den Bosch.

Prof. dr. Wouter Stol
Prof. dr. W.Ph. Stol is lector Cybersafety aan de NHL Hogeschool en Politieacademie en bijzonder hoogleraar Politiestudies aan de Open Universiteit.
Artikel

De dynamiek van een migratiereis van Afrika naar Europa

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden African migration, migration journey, European borders, migration policy, migrant aspiration
Auteurs Dr. J. Schapendonk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the context of the most recent European policy initiatives towards putting a halt on illegal immigration from Africa, this article discusses the transnational environment of West African migrants and the dynamics of their migration routes. By following one migration story more closely and by relating this route with the experiences of other migrants the article gives a clear insight into the aspirations of migrants, the often intangible way their journeys are facilitated, as well as into the various results of asylum procedures in Europe. The author argues that a European migration policy should go beyond the securitizing of migration through strategies aiming at immobilizing African migrants. This policy will prove to be ineffective since the aspirations of African migrants are constantly fed by political instability and the transnational reality of globalization.


Dr. J. Schapendonk
Dr. Joris Schapendonk is verbonden aan de Faculteit Geografie, Planologie en Milieu van de Radboud Universiteit te Nijmegen.
Redactioneel

Irreguliere migratie en illegaal verblijf: beleid, conflicten en contradicties

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden Illegal stay, The Netherlands, criminalization, immigration laws and policies
Auteurs Richard Staring en René van Swaaningen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The current phase in which Dutch government increasingly criminalizes the illegal residence of migrants is simultaneously characterized by decreasing numbers of illegal migrants in this country. In the process of crimmigration, some newly developed policies indirectly influence daily lives of specific groups of illegal migrants while other policies and laws more directly try to hinder illegal stay. These policies that aim to exclude and ban illegal migrants are continued even though they are increasingly criticized by academics and divergent (inter)national actors. These policies and laws can be contradictory, sometimes conflict with international treaties, and lead to unforeseen and undesirable outcomes in which human dignity is challenged.


Richard Staring
Prof. dr. Richard Staring is bijzonder hoogleraar mobiliteit, toezicht en criminaliteit aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. E-mail: staring@law.uu.nl

René van Swaaningen
Prof. dr. René van Swaaningen is hoogleraar internationale en comparatieve criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, directeur van de Erasmus Graduate School of Law en voorzitter van de Nederlandse Vereniging voor Criminologie (NVK). E-mail: vanswaaningen@law.eur.nl
Artikel

‘Maar Hollanders zouden zeggen dat het uitbuiting is ...’

Chinese restauranthouders en illegale Chinezen over werken bij ‘de Chinees’

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden labour exploitation, Chinese restaurants, illegal aliens, moral economy, reciprocity
Auteurs Jing Hiah MSc. en Prof. dr. Richard Staring
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Based on qualitative research within Chinese restaurants in the Netherlands, the authors describe and discuss (informal) labour relations among Chinese restaurant owners and their illegal Chinese workers. It is argued that a too one-sided emphasis on interpreting these labour relations in terms of ‘labour exploitation’ reduces employers to offenders and employees to victims. Such a judicial perspective hinders a clear view on the causes of underlying themes as illegal labour and illegal stay. The authors discuss how restaurant owners and employees operate in a ‘moral economy’ in which a demand for cheap products and flexible, motivated, cheap, and capable labour interacts with culturally shared expectations on justice and reciprocity and influences labour relations.


Jing Hiah MSc.
J.W. Hiah, MSc. heeft criminologie gestudeerd en is als promovendus verbonden aan de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Prof. dr. Richard Staring
Prof. dr. R.H.J.M. Staring is als bijzonder hoogleraar ‘Mobiliteit, toezicht en criminaliteit’ werkzaam bij de sectie Criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Uitbuiting uit zicht?

Getuigenverklaringen van gesmokkelde migranten nader bekeken aan de hand van indicatoren voor mensenhandel

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden human trafficking, migrant smuggling, irregular migration, exploitation, illegal employment
Auteurs Joanne van der van der Leun en Anet van van Schijndel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Human trafficking means exploitation; human smuggling is associated with illegal labour and a connection with exploitation is absent. Where a victim of human trafficking can appeal for legal protection, a smuggled migrant (illegally residing or with vulnerable legal status) overall has little rights because of the formal absence of the aspects of exploitation and coercion in human smuggling. In this article, the empirical analysis based on file analysis demonstrates that in several files of cases framed as human smuggling indications are found for exploitation of migrants, although this has not been recognised as such. Theoretically the authors tie this to the trend of crimmigration. Measures designed to combat human trafficking and smuggling are often concentrated on (criminal) law enforcement and criminal punishment, to the detriment of a human rights-based approach. The tension between immigration policy and the combat against human trafficking deserves more attention.


Joanne van der van der Leun
Prof. dr. J.P. (Joanne) van der Leun is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie. Postbus 9520, 2300 RA Leiden. E-mail: j.p.vanderleun@law.leidenuniv.nl

Anet van van Schijndel
A.A.A. (Anet) van Schijndel MSc is onderzoeker bij de Algemene Rekenkamer. E-mail: a.vanschijndel@rekenkamer.nl

    Illegal deforestation is generally not considered as a criminological subject but in this article it is argued that it can easily be considered as such. The central question that is addressed here is how the theme of deforestation, which clearly fits into the new realm of green criminology, relates to more traditional criminological concepts. This question is discussed through various case studies: the Brazilian Amazon (mainly Brazil), Central Africa (mainly the Democratic Republic of Congo), South East Asia (mainly Indonesia), Russian Siberia, and Pakistan's Swat forests. The case studies show that there are actually many victims of deforestation, both human and non-human, and that deforestation is linked to a variety of other crimes and harms as well. It is concluded that even without taking a green criminological perspective, several concepts of criminology apply to illegal deforestation practices: governmental and state crimes, corporate crimes, and various types of organized crime.


T. Boekhout van Solinge
Dr. Tim Boekhout van Solinge is als universitair docent verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht.
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