Zoekresultaat: 48 artikelen

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Artikel

Access_open Macht, misdaad en exces

Enkele inleidende reflecties

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2020
Auteurs Dr. Bas van Stokkom en Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
Auteursinformatie

Dr. Bas van Stokkom
Dr. Bas van Stokkom is senior onderzoeker bij de Vaksectie Strafrecht & Criminologie, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.

Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg is universitair docent Strafrecht en Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Boekbespreking

Marokkanenpaniek zoekt de nuance

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2019
Auteurs Dr. Willem Koetsenruijter
Auteursinformatie

Dr. Willem Koetsenruijter
Dr. A.W.M. Koetsenruijter is universitair docent aan de Universiteit Leiden bij de opleiding Journalistiek en Nieuwe Media.
Artikel

De emotionele beleving van kwalitatief onderzoekers bij onderzoek naar kwetsbare groepen en gevoelige thema’s

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden narrative review, qualitative research, emotions, sensitive topics, vulnerable groups
Auteurs Ciska Wittouck en Gwen Herkes
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A narrative review was conducted to develop more coherent awareness and knowledge regarding emotional experiences of qualitative researchers studying sensitive topics or vulnerable groups, as discussions about this topic are currently fragmented and scattered. Qualitative researchers experience many painful as well as enjoyable emotions, which can influence their personal, social and professional lives. These emotions are recurrently reported in relation to the unpredictability of qualitative research and the different roles of qualitative researchers. More structural and individual attention for emotional experiences of qualitative researchers is necessary, for instance, in academic (doctoral) training and general handbooks on qualitative research.


Ciska Wittouck
Ciska Wittouck is werkzaam bij de Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht, Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP), Universiteit Gent, België.

Gwen Herkes
Gwen Herkes is werkzaam bij de Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht, Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP), Universiteit Gent, België.
Artikel

Primaire teen sexting: kinderpornografie of niet?

Over het opnemen van een uitzonderingsgrond in artikel 240b Sr

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 5 2019
Trefwoorden Sexting, Kinderpornografie, Duitsland, Uitzonderingsgrond
Auteurs Mr. Ilona van Angeren
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Teen sexting is an increasingly common phenomenon. It is doubtful whether primary teen sexting – when minors take sexually pictures of themselves and share these voluntarily with peers – should fall within the scope of the Dutch offence description of child pornography. The German Penal Code contains an exception clause for primary teen sexting, whilst the Dutch Penal Code does not. In this article is argued, through comparative law research, that the Netherlands should also adopt an exception clause. This way not only the right of the child to protection against sexual abuse and exploitation, but also the right of the child to sexual development is safeguarded sufficiently.


Mr. Ilona van Angeren
Mr. I.B. (Ilona) van Angeren is juridisch medewerker bij de Rechtbank Den Haag. Zij is afgestudeerd in de masters Jeugdrecht en Straf(proces)recht aan de Universiteit van Leiden. Dit artikel is op persoonlijke titel geschreven en is gebaseerd op haar scriptie voor de master Straf(proces)recht.
Artikel

Nog steeds tussen kritiek en realisme?

Chris Eliaerts over criminologie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden history of criminology, VU Brussels, Belgium
Auteurs Prof. dr. Marc Cools
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article Marc Cools discusses work and life of the Belgian lawyer and criminologist Chris Eliaerts. The article is based on an interview the author conducted with Eliaerts as well as his published work. The article discusses in particular themes such as teaching and research in criminology at VU Brussels in particular and Belgium in general.


Prof. dr. Marc Cools
Prof. dr. Marc Cools is hoogleraar vakgroep strafrecht en criminologie Universiteit Gent en vakgroep criminologie Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
Peer reviewed

Het zal je dochter maar zijn

Op zoek naar verklaringen voor de maatschappelijke impact van drie zaken van dodelijk seksueel geweld tegen jonge vrouwen in 2017

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2018
Trefwoorden Sexual violence, societal impact, media impact, altruistic fear of crime
Auteurs Dr. Remco Spithoven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Three cases of sexual violence with two teenagers and one young woman as dead victims have put – besides the indescribable sufferings of themselves, their families, friends and acquaintances – a heavy burden on Dutch collective memories of the year 2017. Dutch society commiserated on a massive scale: volunteers helped searching, thousands united in silent marches and more than 400 thousand citizens signed an online petition that emotionally called for a firm revision of the ‘failing justice system’. In this article we explore the deeper social, personal and cultural elements that gave media messages their strong emotional impact in Dutch society.


Dr. Remco Spithoven
Dr. R. Spithoven is lector Maatschappelijke Veiligheid bij de Academie voor Bestuur, Recht en Ruimte van Hogeschool Saxion en research fellow bij de leerstoel Veiligheid en Veerkracht aan de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Peer reviewed

Access_open Mediaberichten, framing en hypes: over de relatie van media en criminaliteit en de analyse hiervan

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2018
Trefwoorden Framing analyse,, Mediahypes, Moral panic, Oudejaarsnacht in Keulen, Bus incident in Gouda
Auteurs Dr. Martina Althoff
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution discusses the supplementary value of media analyses to understanding the relationship between media and crime. Analyses of media framing and media hypes are discussed on the basis of two cases: the case of New Years Eve in Cologne in 2015 and the “bus incident” of Moroccan Dutch youngsters in Gouda in 2008. The two cases presented here illustrate the significance of media analysis in criminology and its relevance in a media society. Analyses of the media representation and the societal reactions show the influence of media on the image building about crime. Since media are a predominant force of modern society and mediatization is a characteristic of the present tense, media representation has a great impact on the perceptions of crime and punishment, and our reality.


Dr. Martina Althoff
Dr. Martina Althoff is als universitair hoofddocent Criminologie verbonden aan de vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.
Artikel

Waarom het onderzoek naar veiligheidsbeleving een nieuwe impuls nodig heeft

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2018
Trefwoorden fear of crime, critique, fear reduction, security policy, fear drop
Auteurs Marnix Eysink Smeets
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The security landscape has changed rapidly. New or revived threats have emerged, such as terrorism and cybercrime, bringing new or revived fears and anxieties as well. Actors in security policy feel a need to address these fears, but do not know how. Can the criminological subdiscipline of fear of crime studies provide the knowledge and understanding that is needed? A quick scan of the state of the art in this research domain, gives two reasons why it cannot: (1) fear of crime studies have yielded much knowledge on operationalization, measurement and determinants of fear of crime, but far less in mechanisms, trends, effects and influenceability, whereas insight in the latter issues is what is mostly needed in security policy; and (2) fear of crime studies are still mainly focused on the ‘traditional’ fear of crime, while fear of new crimes and threats remains under-researched. A shift of focus in fear of crime studies is urgently needed.


Marnix Eysink Smeets
M.W.B. Eysink Smeets is lector Publiek Vertrouwen in Veiligheid en hoofd van de Onderzoeksgroep Recht & Veiligheid aan de Hogeschool Inholland. Hij is tevens directeur van de Landelijke Expertisegroep Veiligheidspercepties (LEV), een platform voor onderzoek naar veiligheid, veiligheidsbeleid en veiligheidsbeleving. De auteur legt momenteel de laatste hand aan zijn dissertatie Public reactions to crime and insecurity, onder supervisie van prof. Martin Innes en prof. Trevor Jones, beiden verbonden aan Cardiff University.
Artikel

Een held valt niet – morele dilemma’s als een gevierde insider in de fout gaat

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden hero, moral entrepreneur, Bill Cosby, Jimmy Savile, Gerrit Achterberg
Auteurs Dr. Frank van Gemert en Danaé Stad MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Bill Cosby, Jimmy Savile and Gerrit Achterberg lived in different periods, in the US, UK, and the Netherlands. They were heroes because of what they accomplished during their professional careers but all three turned out to have committed serious crimes. Disclosure is painful, not only for the hero who comes to fall but also for the community that finds itself redefining moral standards when losing a celebrated insider. For this reason, the crimes of these three men have been concealed and kept secret for years. In comparing the three cases, this article tries to find out who decides on keeping the hero on his feet, how this is done, and if this changes over time.


Dr. Frank van Gemert
Dr. Frank van Gemert is universitair docent bij de sectie strafrecht en criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Danaé Stad MSc
Danaé Stad MSc studeerde criminologie aan de VU en is werkzaam bij het Regionaal Informatie en Expertise Centrum Amsterdam-Amstelland (RIEC-AA).
Artikel

Access_open The Enemy of All Humanity

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden hostis generis humani, piracy, crimes against humanity, universal jurisdiction, radical evil
Auteurs David Luban
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Trationally, the term “enemy of all humanity” (hostis generis humani) referred to pirates. In contemporary international criminal law, it refers to perpetrators of crimes against humanity and other core. This essay traces the evolution of the concept, and then offers an analysis that ties it more closely to ancient tyrants than to pirates. Some object that the label is dehumanizing, and justifies arbitrary killing of the “enemy of humanity.” The essay admits the danger, but defends the concept if it is restricted to fair trials. Rather than dehumanizing its target, calling the hostis generis humani to account in a court of law is a way of recognizing that radical evil can be committed by humans no different from any of us.


David Luban
David Luban is University Professor in Law and Philosophy at Georgetown University.
Artikel

Artsen en moreel ondernemerschap. De casus van de normalisering van verslavende opioïde pijnstillers in de Verenigde Staten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Opioid crisis, Addictive painkillers, Medical doctors, Moral entrepreneurs, Big Pharma
Auteurs Dr. Thaddeus Müller
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, I am using Becker’s concept of moral entrepreneur to analyse the role of pain specialists in the labelling process, which has led to the normalisation of the use of opioid painkillers in the United States and ultimately to the death over 200.000 Americans. In general, the literature on labelling centres on crusading reformers, and the criminalisation and stigmatisation of transgressive behaviour. Here I will focus on the moral entrepreneurship of medical experts. What was their role in the normalisation process of opioid painkiller use and are there any similarities with the strategies of crusading reformers? My findings, based on qualitative analysis of documents such as newspaper articles and academic publications, show that, with two exceptions, pain specialists use the strategies of moral crusaders. First, in their narratives, pain specialists represented themselves as neutral objective experts without the emotional stance of moral crusaders. The second exception, which is related to the first, is that there was less emphasis in their narrative on creating villains, as they could not blame openly standard medical practice because they needed the support of the established medical world in order to normalise and legalise opioid painkillers.


Dr. Thaddeus Müller
Thaddeus Müller Docent criminologie, Lancaster University t.muller@lancaster.ac.uk

    This article introduces the concepts of play and playfulness within the context of legal-philosophical education. I argue that integrating play and playfulness in legal education engages students and prepares them for dealing with the perpetual uncertainty of late modernity that they will face as future legal professionals. This article therefore aims to outline the first contours of a useful concept of play and playfulness in legal education. Drawing on the work of leading play-theorists Huizinga, Caillois, Lieberman and Csikszentmihalyi, play within legal education can be described as a (1) partly voluntary activity that (2) enables achievement of learning goals, (3) is consciously separate from everyday life by rules and/or make believe, (4) has its own boundaries in time and space, (5) entails possibility, tension and uncertainty and (6) promotes the formation of social grouping. Playfulness is a lighthearted state of mind associated with curiosity, creativity, spontaneity and humor. Being playful also entails being able to cope with uncertainty. The integration of these concepts of play and playfulness in courses on jurisprudence will be illustrated by the detailed description of three play and playful activities integrated in the course ‘Introduction to Legal Philosophy’ at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.


Hedwig van Rossum
Mr. H.E van Rossum, LL.M., is a lecturer-researcher in the Department of Legal Theory at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and has been teaching the freshman course ‘Introduction to Legal Philosophy’ since 2011.
Artikel

Daders van arbeidsuitbuiting

Over de vermeende rol van de georganiseerde misdaad

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden Arbeidsuitbuiting, Mensenhandel, georganiseerde criminaliteit, grensoverschrijdende criminaliteit
Auteurs Dr. Masja van Meeteren en Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Human traffickers are usually depicted in public discourse as evil villains: the crème de la crème of organized crime. Although this image has also been dominant among scholars for a long time, it has become increasingly controversial. On the one hand, this debate is fueled by discussions amongst criminologists on criminal networks, on the other hand by the expansion of the legal definition of the crime since 2005. Apart from exploitation in the prostitution sector, various other forms of human trafficking are distinguished now, including labor exploitation. This article explores the question of which organizational forms play a role in labor exploitation. Through a review of the empirical research literature on labor exploitation, the authors show that in the field of labor exploitation, there is probably less involvement in criminal syndicates or criminal networks that maintain contacts with other criminal networks. In many cases, labor exploitation is committed by individuals or family businesses, or smaller loosely organized networks that are not necessarily embedded in other criminal networks. For researchers and policy makers alike, it is therefore advisable not to approach labor exploitation exclusively from the perspective of transnational organized crime.


Dr. Masja van Meeteren
Dr. Masja van Meeteren is universitair hoofddocent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun
Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun is hoogleraar Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Access_open Theoretische vernieuwing in de criminologie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden Theoretical innovation, Scientific revolutions, Power-knowledge complex, Sensitising theory, Integrative theory
Auteurs Prof. dr. René van Swaaningen en Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article starts off with an exposé of what ‘theoretical innovation’ means in the social sciences. The development of criminology is considered to be a result of (1) historical and cultural developments, (2) political-economic developments, (3) developments in other academic disciplines and (4) reactions to or specifications of other theoretical perspectives in criminology itself. Paradigm shifts in criminology are characterised by an individualistic and positivist aetiological turn in its early days; a sociological turn towards a ‘criminology of the lawmaker’ from the late 1950s on; and a return to positivism in the neoliberal and neoconservative turn of the 1990s. The new century ushers in a new epistemological break in criminology, in which globalisation, global warming, migration, human rights and the implications of cyberspace ‘force’ criminologists to overcome their anthropocentric and colonial character biases.


Prof. dr. René van Swaaningen
Prof. dr. René van Swaaningen is hoogleraar criminologie en voorzitter van de sectie criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. E-mail: vanswaaningen@law.eur.nl.

Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg is universitair docent Strafrecht en Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. E-mail: m.b.schuilenburg@vu.nl.
Artikel

Emotions and Explanation in Cultural Criminology

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden cultural criminology, emotions, affective states, explanation, theory
Auteurs dr. Nicolás Trajtenberg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Cultural Criminology (CC) is one of the most recent and exciting developments in criminological theory. Its main argument is that mainstream criminological theories provide inadequate explanations of crime due to epistemological and theoretical flaws. CC’s alternative involves assuming a phenomenological and interpretative approach that focuses on the cultural and emotional components of crime. In this article I shall argue that although CC makes a valid demand for more realistic and complex explanations of crime, its own alternative needs to deal with two main challenges referred to its conceptualization of explanation and emotion. First, two problematic antagonisms should be avoided: understanding vs. causal explanation; and universal nomothetic explanations as opposed to ideographic descriptions. Considering recent developments in philosophy of social science, particularly the ‘social mechanisms approach’, CC should focus on explaining retrospectively through identification of specific causal mechanisms rejecting universal and predictive pretensions. Second, although cultural criminologists rightly question the emotionless character of criminological explanations, they lack an articulated alternative conceptualization of emotions to explain crime. A more refined concept needs to be elaborated in dialogue with recent advances in social sciences.


dr. Nicolás Trajtenberg
Dr. Nicolás Trajtenberg is senior lecturer and researcher at the Department of Sociology, Universidad de la República (UdelaR), Uruguay. He holds a PhD in criminology by the Institute of Criminology, University of Cambridge, UK. His main areas of research are explanation and theory in criminology, and youth violence. E-mail: nico.trajtenberg@gmail.com.
Artikel

Mannen met een hobby

Outlaw motorclubs, nieuwsmedia en imagopolitiek

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2017
Trefwoorden rhetoric, framing, OMG, ethos, news
Auteurs Dr. Willem Koetsenruijter en Dr. Peter Burger
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This study contains a qualitative framing analysis of outlaw motor clubs in Dutch newspaper articles. These clubs appear in the news as a source for positive framing to counterbalance the prevailing organized crime frame. The study shows with what rhetorical means club members are framed and how news media balance a criminal and a non-criminal image. In news articles club members refer to ethical norms and group values, and appear to employ mitigation strategies which take the hard edges off the frame and simultaneously increase their credibility.


Dr. Willem Koetsenruijter
Dr. A.W.M. Koetsenruijter is universitair docent bij de Faculteit der Geesteswetenschappen van de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Peter Burger
Dr. J.P. Burger is universitair docent bij de Faculteit der Geesteswetenschappen van de Universiteit Leiden.
Column

Een blijvende voetafdruk?

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2017
Auteurs Dr. Jaap van Vliet
Auteursinformatie

Dr. Jaap van Vliet
Dr. Jaap A. van Vliet is zelfstandig gevestigd onderzoeker en adviseur en lid van de redactie van PROCES.

    Like many other European countries the Netherlands experienced a major influx of refugees in the fall of 2015. A majority of the population supported providing shelter to the refugees, but not without worries and anxieties about the effects of that influx, which sometimes lead to limited, local forms of social unrest. A study was started to shed more light on the worries and fears that existed in the population, on the assumptions these were based upon and on whether these worries and fears could lead to social unrest on a larger scale. The study was explorative, based on an eclectic, multi methods approach. The findings show that worries and anxieties were not limited to those who were opposed to the influx of migrants, but existed among supporters as well. The worries and anxieties were of a diverse nature, on topics like security, livability, economics, perceived (in)justice and socio-cultural aspects of life. A clear, credible answer or policy from the government was missed. When compared to the findings of earlier studies on the influx of migrants, some worries and anxieties seemed closely connected to what might be expected, in other cases a distinct ‘disconnect’ was found. These could be understood however when distorting mechanisms were taken into consideration that have been described in studies of more general security perceptions. As the worries and anxieties on the influx of refugees resonated other existing worries, anxieties and fears in society, a ‘cocktail of concerns’ was created that, given the right trigger, could have led to social unrest on a larger scale.


Marnix Eysink Smeets
Marnix Eysink Smeets is Lector Publiek Vertrouwen in Veiligheid en Hoofd Onderzoeksgroep Recht & Veiligheid van Hogeschool Inholland.

Anoek Boot
Anoek Boot was tot april 2017 onderzoeker bij de Onderzoeksgroep Recht & Veiligheid van Hogeschool Inholland Rotterdam.
Artikel

Veroordeeld tot (g)een baan

Hoe delict- en persoonskenmerken arbeidsmarktkansen beïnvloeden

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1-2 2017
Trefwoorden employment experiment, employment chances, labour market, conviction, ethnicity
Auteurs Dr. Chantal van den Berg, Dr. Lieselotte Blommaert, Prof. dr. mr. Catrien Bijleveld e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Previous research showed that job applicants with a criminal record have lower chances of obtaining employment compared to job applicants with no criminal record. At the same time empirical studies showed that having a job is especially beneficial for ex-delinquents, as employment was found to lower recidivism. The current study uses an experimental design to look into the influence of a criminal record on employment chances. For this purpose, 520 resumes and motivation letters were sent in response to vacancies published on the internet. All were identical except for the stated offence type (no offence, violent offence, property offence, or sexual offence), duration between conviction and application, business sector and ethnicity of the applicant. Results show no effect for type of offence or no offence on employment chances. However, a strong effect is found for ethnicity. Ethnic minorities with no conviction were even found to have lower chances of receiving a positive reaction compared to applicants with a Dutch name and a conviction for a violent offence.


Dr. Chantal van den Berg
Dr. C.J.W. van den Berg is onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Dr. Lieselotte Blommaert
Dr. E.C.C.A. Blommaert is postdoctoraal onderzoeker aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.

Prof. dr. mr. Catrien Bijleveld
Prof. dr. mr. C.C.J.H. Bijleveld is directeur van het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) en hoogleraar Methoden en Technieken aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Prof. dr. Stijn Ruiter
Prof. dr. S. Ruiter is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) en bijzonder hoogleraar Sociale en ruimtelijke aspecten van deviant gedrag aan de Universiteit Utrecht.
Diversen

Overdrijven en ontkennen

Over de criminologische erfenis van Stanley Cohen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden Stanley Cohen, moral panic, denial, social control, intellectual scepticism
Auteurs prof. dr. René van Swaaningen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    On the occasion of the publication of a collection of articles by Stanley Cohen in 2016 (edited by Tom Deams), René van Swaaningen pays a tribute to this important, thought-provoking and pioneering thinker in criminology. He takes Cohen’s adage that we as critical criminologists always have to balance between intellectual scepticism and political commitment as a starting point for an analysis of his work. Cohen’s rejection of criminology as a liberal project may have led him to defining himself as an ‘anti-criminologist’, yet at the same time Cohen has been able to transform the discipline as such into a more power-critical direction. Two of Cohen’s key-contributions to criminological theory, those on moral panics and on denial, are discussed and related to each other. Whilst adopting Foucault’s analyses of power as a constructing practice, Cohen, in his work on social control, rejects the pessimist implications of Foucault’s work, in which human agency is defined away. In this essay, the relation of Cohen’s work with that of his mentor David Matza is also discussed, as well as is his great and ironic style of writing.


prof. dr. René van Swaaningen
Prof. dr. René van Swaaningen is hoogleraar Internationaal Comparatieve Criminologie en voorzitter van de sectie criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
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