Zoekresultaat: 10 artikelen

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Article

Access_open The Relationship between Empirical Legal Studies and Doctrinal Legal Research

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden empirical legal studies, legal research methods, doctrinal legal research, new legal realism, critical legal studies, law and policy
Auteurs Gareth Davies
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article considers how empirical legal studies (ELS) and doctrinal legal research (DLR) interact. Rather than seeing them as competitors that are methodologically independent and static, it suggests that they are interdependent activities, which may each be changed by interaction with the other, and that this change brings both opportunities and threats. For ELS, the article argues that DLR should properly be understood as part of its theoretical framework, yet in practice little attention is given to doctrine in empirical work. Paying more attention to DLR and legal frames generally would help ELS meet the common criticism that it is under-theorised and excessively policy oriented. On the other hand, an embrace of legal thinking, particularly of critical legal thinking, might lead to loss of status for ELS in policy circles and mainstream social science. For DLR, ELS offers a chance for it to escape the threat of insular sterility and irrelevance and to participate in a founded commentary on the world. The risk, however, is that in tailoring legal analysis to what can be empirically researched legal scholars become less analytically ambitious and more safe, and their traditionally important role as a source of socially relevant critique is weakened. Inevitably, in offering different ways of moving to normative conclusions about the law, ELS and DLR pose challenges to each other, and meeting those challenges will require sometimes uncomfortable self-reflection.


Gareth Davies
Gareth Davies is Professor of European Law at the Faculty of Law of the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Access_open ‘Radicalisering’ en herstelrecht: bevindingen van het Belgische CONRAD-project

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden radicalisering, CONRAD, frame, counterframe, frameanalyse
Auteurs Ivo Aertsen, Mattias De Backer en Marie Figoureux
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, some of the findings of a practice and policy oriented research project on ‘radicalisation’ are discussed. The research was carried out in a partnership between three Belgian universities and two field organisations during the years 2017-2019. The project aimed at a ‘Constructive analysis on the attitudes, policies and programmes that relate to “radicalisation”’ (CONRAD). Restorative justice offered the initial framework to design and to set up the project. This article offers some findings and reflections on the opportunities (and the limits) that were found in the project with respect to the relevance of restorative justice. This part of the research was done on the basis of a frame-analysis on the one hand, and field work on the other. The article first presents the restorative justice assumptions that formed the backbone of the project. Then, the method of ‘inductive frame-analysis’ is presented as this was applied to a sample of media and policy documents that reported about ‘radicalisation’ and ‘de-radicalisation’ related issues in Belgium. This resulted in the identification of four frames and eight counterframes. The field work in the form of ‘participatory action research’ with young persons and their organisations in the cities of Brussels and Verviers is then discussed, revealing a complex situation of social tensions. It is argued then that the use of frames and counterframes can help those involved in, or concerned about, social problems to look at these issues from another perspective, through another lens. Based on the method of photo-elicitation, cartoons related to frames and counterframes were designed in the project as a tool to facilitate talking about ‘radicalisation’ from different perspectives. The article ends with reflections on the relevance of restorative justice in dealing with ‘radicalisation’ and violent extremism. A broad relational and participatory approach to respond to these ‘phenomena’ at societal level is proposed.


Ivo Aertsen
Ivo Aertsen is emeritus hoogleraar aan de KU Leuven, Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie en hoofdredacteur van The International Journal of Restorative Justice.

Mattias De Backer
Mattias De Backer is postdoctoraal onderzoeker, KU Leuven en Université de Liège.

Marie Figoureux
Marie Figoureux is doctoraatsonderzoeker aan het Instituut voor Mediastudies, KU Leuven.
Artikel

De maatschappelijke integratie van de politie

Politieleiders over de actualiteit van een beladen concept

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden politie, maatschappelijke integratie, gebiedsgebonden politie
Auteurs Ivo van Duijneveldt
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since the 1970s social integration of the police has been considered as a key element of the Dutch police. This article focusses on the question of the relevance of social integration of the contemporary police. The article is based on interviews with present and former strategic leaders of the Dutch police. This study shows that social integration is still often considered to be a highly important value for the Dutch police, particularly with regard to the growing polarisation in society. However, some of the police chiefs also express their disapproval of the concept of social integration; in their view the concept reminds us of the past. Also, police chiefs are critical of the value of the concept because of its supposed geographical focus. The paper shows that this criticism can be understood as an interpretation of social integration in terms of ‘neighbourhood policing’ and as an operational police strategy.


Ivo van Duijneveldt
Ivo van Duijneveldt is organisatieadviseur bij Andersson Elffers Felix en buitenpromovendus aan de Radboud Universiteit.

    In 2011 we executed a quantitative and qualitative research on the extent of discrimination, polarisation and radicalisation in a region in the Netherlands. The results are representative for The Netherlands. The research shows that there is breeding ground for radicalization, in particular Muslim youths. The outcome also provides insights in relevant avenues for public policy. Over the past years, several inventories have been made of public policy that aims to counter radicalisation. Most of the interventions listed do not conjure with the interventions we propose on the basis of our research, such as awareness raising for practitioners, prevention of and education about discrimination, focus on neighbourhood grievances and nuisances caused by specific ethnic groups and the negative tone of the public debate regarding Islam and the multicultural society. If measures to counter radicalization are even evaluated, they tend to focus on the process and effectiveness of the intervention, but they do not answer the question if that is actually also the right intervention. We therefore propose not only to focus on doing things right, but also to ask the question if we are doing the right things. We suggest not only measuring effectiveness, but also measuring impact.


Amy-Jane Gielen
Drs. Amy-Jane Gielen is senior onderzoeker en adviseur bij A.G. Advies B.V. E-mail: a.gielen@agadvies.com www.agadvies.com.

Ron van Wonderen
Drs. Ron van Wonderen is senior onderzoeker bij het Verwey-Jonker Instituut in Utrecht. E-mail: rvanwonderen@verwey-jonker.nl.

    In this article a longitudinal effect study is described of resilience training Diamant. The training focuses in particular on adolescents with a dual identity who do not have work, are not enrolled in an education, feel unfairly treated (relatively deprived), have low self-esteem, and are at risk of social isolation. The training can be considered as a method to prevent development of criminal behaviour and possibly radicalisation. Certified trainers work with small groups of 10 to 15 adolescents to increase their resilience and help them finding their place in society. The present research focused on the following questions: (1) Does this training have a positive effect on self-esteem among the participants? (2) Does social isolation decrease as a consequence of the training? (3) Does the training reduce feelings of relative deprivation and help participants better deal with conflicts? Participants were interviewed before and halfway the training and directly after completing the training. A follow-up measurement three months after the end of the training examined effects on the longer term. In total 44 semi-structured interviews were held. Interviews were written out and coded using a two-step procedure: In the first step two researchers independently coded each interview. Second, when necessary, changes in the coding scheme were made. Then each interview was coded separately by the two researchers and disagreements were discussed until full agreement was reached. The results show that Diamant has a positive effect on self-esteem of participants. Also, participants overall showed an increase in connectedness to society. Third, Diamant reduced feelings of relative deprivation and participants indicated they could better deal with conflicts. Based on these results it is concluded that Diamant is effective in regard to its goals which were evaluated in this study. Limitations of the research and possibilities for future studies are discussed.


Allard R. Feddes
Dr. Allard Feddes is als postdoctoraal onderzoeker verbonden aan de Faculteit der Maatschappij- en Gedragswetenschappen, afdeling Sociale Psychologie, Universiteit van Amsterdam. E-mail: A.R.Feddes@uva.nl.

Liesbeth Mann
Drs. Liesbeth Mann is als promovenda verbonden aan de Faculteit der Maatschappij- en Gedragswetenschappen, afdeling Sociale Psychologie, Universiteit van Amsterdam. E-mail: L.Mann@uva.nl.

Nathalie de Zwart
Nathalie de Zwart, BSc, was ten tijde van het onderzoek als onderzoeksassistente verbonden aan de Faculteit der Maatschappij- en Gedragswetenschappen, afdeling Sociale Psychologie, Universiteit van Amsterdam. E-mail: dezwart.n@gmail.com.

Bertjan Doosje
Prof. dr. Bertjan Doosje is verbonden aan de Faculteit der Maatschappij- en Gedragswetenschappen, afdeling Sociale Psychologie, en het Amsterdam Institute for Social Sciences (AISS) ‘Challenges to Democratic Representation’. Hij is als bijzonder hoogleraar bekleder van de FORUM Frank Buijs-leerstoel voor Radicaliseringsstudies. E-mail: E.J.Doosje@uva.nl.
Artikel

Access_open Exciting Times for Legal Scholarship

Tijdschrift Law and Method, 2012
Trefwoorden legal methodology, law as an academic discipline, ‘law and …’-movements, legal theory, innovative and multiform legal scholarship
Auteurs Jan Vranken
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Until recently, legal-dogmatic research stood at the undisputed pinnacle of legal scientific research. The last few years saw increasing criticism, both nationally and internationally, levelled at this type of research or at its dominant role. Some see this as a crisis in legal scholarship, but a closer look reveals a great need for facts, common sense, and nuance. Critics usually base their calls for innovation on a one-dimensional and flawed image of legal-dogmatic research. In this article, the author subsequently addresses the various critical opinions themselves and provide an overview of the innovations that are proposed. He concludes that there are a lot of efforts to innovate legal scholarship, and that the field is more multiform than ever, which is a wonderful and unprecedented state of affairs. This multiformity should be cherished and given plenty of room to develop and grow, because most innovative movements are still fledgling and need time, sometimes a lot of time, to increase in quality. It would be a shame to nip them in the bud now, merely because they are still finding their way. In turn, none of these innovative movements have cause to disqualify legal-dogmatic research, as sometimes happens (implicitly), by first creating a straw-man version of the field and then dismissing it as uninteresting or worse. That only polarises the discussion and gains us nothing. Progress can only be achieved through cooperation, with an open mind towards different types of legal research and a willingness to accept a critical approach towards their development. In the end, the only criterion that matters is quality. All types of research are principally subject to the same quality standards. The author provides some clarification regarding these standards as well.


Jan Vranken
Jan Vranken is hoogleraar Methodologie van het privaatrecht aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Onveiligheidsgevoelens bij blanke middenklassers in Kaapstad

Op zoek naar een comfortzone in een ongelijk land

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden fear of crime, inequality, in-depth interviews, South Africa
Auteurs Nick Schuermans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Drawing on in-depth interviews with more than forty White South Africans in a middle class neighborhood of Cape Town, this paper looks at the motivations to secure South African houses and neighbourhoods with perimeter walls, security initiatives and neighbourhood watches. The discourses of the residents make it clear that seemingly banal actions to secure the residential environment are motivated as much by the fear of falling property prices and the fear of losing psychological comfort as they are driven by the high levels of crime and fear of crime.


Nick Schuermans
Dr. Nick Schuermans is werkzaam bij het Laboratorium voor Educatie en Samenleving van de Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. E-mail: Nick.Schuermans@ped.kuleuven.be.
Artikel

Herkenbaar, overzichtelijk en geborgen

Een verkenning van de maatschappelijke achtergronden van afgeschermde woondomeinen in Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden enclosed residential domains, privatisation, polarisation, unsafety
Auteurs David Hamers en Manon van Middelkoop
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands the discussion on the recent increase in residential domains with some sort of enclosure is fuelled by references to foreign examples (gated communities). However, large scale gated communities are absent in the Netherlands. Rather, we speak of enclosed residential domains. This article analyses the societal forces behind their popularity. Trends facilitating the further development of enclosed residential domains appear to be stronger than those impeding it. The growing need for shelter and a living environment that is predictable and familiar is especially important. Lack of safety, however, cannot directly be regarded as a prominent factor.


David Hamers
Dr. David Hamers is senior onderzoeker stedelijk gebied bij het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving te Den Haag, en lector Stad en Land, afdeling Man and Public Space bij Design Academy Eindhoven. E-mail: david.hamers@pbl.nl.

Manon van Middelkoop
Dr. ir. Manon van Middelkoop is onderzoeker wonen en demografie bij het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving te Den Haag. E-mail: manon.vanmiddelkoop@pbl.nl.

Jeff Handmaker
Jeff Handmaker is lecturer in law, development and human rights at the International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University Rotterdam and honorary research fellow in the School of Law of the University of the Witwatersrand.

Ellie Palmer
Ellie Palmer is a Senior Lecturer in the School of Law and member of the Human Rights Centre at the University of Essex.
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